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Full text of "Transactions of the Entomological Society of London"

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TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



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LONDON, 



THE 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF 



LONDON 



FOR THE YEAR 




LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY RICHARD CLAY AND SONS, LIMITED, 
LONDON AND BUNGAY. 

SOLD AT THE SOCIETY'S ROOMS, 11, CHANDOS STREET, 

CAVENDISH SQUARE, W., 

AND BY LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO., 

PATERNOSTER ROW, E.C. J AND NEW YORK. 

1901-1902. 



DATES OF PUBLICATION IN PARTS. 



Part I. (Trans., pp. 1-114, Proc, i-viii) was published 30th April, 1901. 
„ II. ( „ 115-192, „ ix-xii) „ 10th July, „ 

„ III. ( „ 193-378, ) „ 30th Sept., „ 

„ IV. ( „ 379-601, „ xiii-xxiv) ,, 30th Dec, 4, 

w V. ( „ xxv-xxxii) „ 22nd Feb., 1902. 



( v ) 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, 

Founded, 1833. 
Incorporated by Royal Charter, 1885. 



OFFICERS and COUNCIL for the SESSION 1901-1902. 

fl>resiOent. 

The Rev. Canon FOWLER, M.A., F.L.S. 

\Dtce=ipresi&ents. 

CHARLES GOLDING BARRETT. 
EDWARD SAUNDERS, F.L.S. 
GEORGE HENRY VERRALL. 

treasurer. 
ROBERT McLACHLAN, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Secretaries. 

HERBERT GOSS, F.L.S., F.G.S. 
HENRY ROWLAND-BROWN, M.A. 

Xibrariati. 
GEORGE CHARLES CHAMPION, F.Z.S. 

Council. 

ROBERT ADKIN. 
Prof. T. HUDSON BEARE, B.Sc, F.R.S.E. 

WILLIAM LUCAS DISTANT. 

HORACE St. J. K. DONISTHORPE, F.Z.S. 

CHARLES JOSEPH GAHAN, M.A. 

ROBERT WYLIE LLOYD. 

COLBRAN J. WAINWRIGHT. 



Resident Librarian. 
W. R. HALL. 



( vi ) 



THE 

TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF 

1834—1901. 



LONDON. 



The Transactions can now be obtained by Fellows 
at the following reduced prices :— 

PUBLIC. FELLOWS. 

First Series, 4 volumes (1834— 1849) Price £4 13 £3 10 

Second Series, 5 volumes (1850— 1861) 8 5 15 © 

Third Series, 5 volumes (1862— 1869) 11 4 10 

The Transactions for the year 1868 1 <v 

1869 12 

1870 18 0V 250 

1871 15 

1872 1 2 0) 

„ 1873 116 0^ 

1874 1 12 

1875 1 2 I 3 

1876 1 12 

1877 1 4 0) 

„ „ 1878 10 15 © 

1879 12 16 « 

1880 19 14 3 

1881 1 16 17 

„ „ 1882 1 10 12 6 

1883 17 10 3 

„ „ 1884 18 110 

1885 16 19 6 

1886 16 19 6 

1887 14 6 19 

1888 1 15 16 3 

1889 1 16 6 17 6 

1890 1 19 1 10 

1891 1 16 17 

1892 19 119 

1893 15 6 19 3 

1894 1 10 6 1 2 11 

„ 1895 17 6 112 

1896 1 10 12 6 

1897 14 18 

1898 18 6 114 

„ „ 1899 ..„ 1 10 12 6 

„ 1900 1 10 12 6 

1901 1 16 1 6 11 

Any single volume from 1862 to 1877 half-price to Fellows. 

First Series, vol. v., is out of print. First Series, vols. i. — iv., and 
Second Series, vol. iv., cannot be sold separately. 

The other volumes may be obtained separately, also the following : 

Pascoe's ' Longicornia Malay ana'' £2 12 £1 19 

Baly's ' Phytophaga Malay ana, Pt. I., Aposta- 

sicera' 16 12 

Saunders' 'British Heterogyna and Fossorial 

Hymenoptera 1 4 6 3 4 

Saunders' * Synopsis of British Hymenoptera,'' 

Parti 6 4 6 

Newport's l A thalia centifolise'' (Prize Essay) 10 10 

The Journal of Proceedings is bound up with the Transactions. 

Fellows who have paid their Subscription for the current year, are 
entitled, without further payment, to receive the Transactions for the year, 
which will be forwarded free, by post, to any address. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Explanation of the plates ... ... ... ... ... ... ... viii 

Errata ... ... ... ... ... ... ... \iii 

List of Fellows... ... ... ... ... ... ... ix 

Additions to the Library ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xxiii 



MEMOIRS. 



I. Observations on some species of Orina, a genus of viviparous and 
ovo- viviparous Beetles. By George Charles Champion, F.Z.S., 
and Thomas Algernon Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S. Reported by 
Dr. Thomas Algernon Chapman 1 

II. An Account of a Collection of Rhopalocera made at Zomba in 
British Central Africa. By Percy I. Lathy. Communicated 
by Charles Joseph Gahan, M.A 19 

III. A Revision of Astathes, Newm., and allied Genera of Longicorn 

Coleoptera. By Charles Joseph Gahan, M.A 37 

IV. Butterflies of the Lebanon. By Mary De la Beche Nicholl, 

F.E.S., with a Preface and Notes by Henry John Elwes, 
F.R.S., F.L.S., etc 75 

Y. Enumeration of the Heteroptera (Rhynchota) collected by Signor 
Leonardo Fea in Burma and its vicinity. By William Lucas 
Distant 99 

VI. A preliminary catalogue of the Lepidoptera Heterocera of Trinidad. 

By William James Kaye, F.E.S 115 

VII. Illustrations of the 6th 6 ventral segment in 17 Osmia-species of 
the adunca-GvovLip, with a Note on the synonymy of four species, 
and descriptions of four which seem new. By the Rev. Francis 
David Morice, M. A., F.E.S 161 

VIII. List of the Cetoniidse collected by Messrs. H. E. Andrewes and 
J. R. D. Bell in the Bombay Presidency of India, with 
descriptions of the new species. By Oliver E. Janson, F.E.S. 179 

IX. A Classification of a new Family of the Lepidoptera. By Sir 

George Francis Hampson, Bart., B. A., F.Z.S., etc 187 

X. The Carabid genus Pheropsophus : Notes and descriptions of new 

species. By Gilbert J. Arrow, F.E.S 193 

XI. A further contribution to our knowledge of African Phytophagous 

Coleoptera. By Martin Jacoby, F.E.S 209 

XII. A revision of the American Notodontidse. By William Schaus, 

F.Z.S 257 

XIII. Cases of Protective Resemblance, Mimicry, etc., in the British 

Coleoptera. By Horace St. John K. Donisthorpe, F.Z.S. ... 345 



( viii ) 



XIV. Sexual dimorphism in Bwprestis sanguinea, Fabr., a species 
occurring in Spain, and new to the European list. By Georgk 
Charles Champion, F.Z.S 379 

XV. Lepidoptera Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. By 
the late John Henry Leech, B.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., etc. Part 
V. With descriptions of new species by Kichard South. 

F.E.S 385 

XVI. Hymenoptera aculeata, collected in Algeria by the Rev. Alfred 
Edwin Eaton, M.A., F.E.S. , and the Rev. Francis David 
Morice, M.A., F.E.S. Part I. Heterogyna and Fossores to 
the end of Pompilida?. By Edward Saunders, F.L.S., 
V.P.E.S 515> 



XVII. Descriptions of New Lepidoptera from New Zealand. Bv Edward 
Meyrick, B.A., F.Z.S. , etc 

XVIII. Contributions to a Knowledge of the Rhyxchota. By "William 
Lucas Distant 

XIX. The genus Hyliota, of the Coleopterous family Cucujida?, with 
descriptions of new forms and a List of the described species. 
By Gilbert J. Arrow, F.E.S 593 



565 



581 



Proceedings for 1901 
Annual Meeting ... 
President's Address 
Index 



-xxvm 

xxviii 

xxxiii 

lxi 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 






Plates I k II. See 


pages 1 — 18 


Plate X. See pages 


209- 


-256 


Plate III. 


19—36 


Plates XI & XII. 


257- 


-344 


Plate IV. 


37-74 


Plate XIII. 


379- 


-384 


Plates V & VI. 


115—160 


Plates XIV & XV. „ 


385- 


-514 


Plates VII & VIII. 


161—178 


Plate XVI. 


581- 


-592 


Plate IX. 


193— 20S 









ERRATA. 
TRANSACTIONS. 

Page 78, line 7 from bottom, for roxclana read rtxelana. 

Page 85, line 17, for E. read M. 

Page 86, line 2 from bottom, for authe read aathe. 

Page 88, line 5, for roxclana read roxelana. 

Page 88, line 15, for septentrionale read septentrionaHs. 

Page 90, line 11 from bottom, for phleas read phloeas. 

Page 129, line 3, for palpi porrect read palpi upturned. 

Page 129, line 10, for Fore tibia? read Hind tibiae. 

Page 366, line 3 from bottom, for Caspidx read Cajmda?. 

Page 518, line 14 from bottom, for Chicorium read Cichorium. 

Page 519, line 15 from bottom, for iEnanthe read (Enanthe. 



PROCEEDINGS. 
Page xiii, line 12 from bottom, for Ceridse read 



Cteridv. 






( ix ) 



fist of Jfeltolus 

OF THE 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



Date of HONOR AEY FELLOWS. 

Election. 

1900 Aurivillius, Professor Christopher, Stockholm. 

1900 Brauer, Professor Friedrich Moritz, Mayerhofgasse 6, Vienna. 

1901 Fabre, J. H., Serignan, Vaucluse, France. 

1894 Forel, Professor Auguste, M.D., Chigny, pres Morges, Switzerland 
1898 Grassi, Professor Battista, The University, Rome. 

1884 Osten Sacken, Baron C. R,., Bunsenstrasse 8, Heidelberg. 

1884 Packard, Dr. Alpheus S., Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A. 
1872 Saussure, Henri F. de, Tertasse 2, Geneva. 

1895 Scudder, Samuel Hubbard, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

1885 Snellen, Pieter Carl T., Rotterdam. 

1893 Wattenwyl, Hofrath Dr. Carl Brunner Vori, Trautsohngasse 6, 

Vienna. 
189S Weismann, Dr. August, Freiburg. 



FELLOWS. 

Marked f have compounded for their Annual Subscriptions. 

Date of 
Election. 

1901 1 Adair, Frederick E. S., Flixton Hall, Bungay. 
1877 Adams, Frederick Charlstrom, F.Z.S., 50, Ashley-gardens, Victoria- 
street, S.W. 
1877 Adams, Herbert J., Roseneath, London-road, Enfield, N. 

1885 Adkin, Robert, Wellfield, Lingards-road, Lewisham, S.E- 
1899 Andrews, Henry W., 9, Victoria-road, Eltham. 

1901 Anning, William, Box Hill, Surrey, and 39, Lime Street, London, E.C. 
1899 f Arrow, Gilbert J., 87, Union-grove, Clapham, S.W. ; and British 
Museum (Natural History), Cromwell-road, S.W. 

1886 Atmore, E. A., 48, High-street, King's Lynn. 

1850 f Avebury, The Right Honble. Lord, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 
etc., High Elms, Farnborough, Kent. 



( X ) 

1901 Bacot, Arthur W., 154 Lower Clapton-road, N.E. 

1894 Baker, Walter F., Trent House, Gainsborough. 

1886 Bankes, Eustace R., M.A., Norden, Corfe Castle, Wareham. 

1890 Barclay, Frauds H., F.G.S., The Warren, Cromer. 

1886 Bargagli, Marchese Piero, Piazza S. Maria, Palazzo Tempi No. 1, 

Florence, Italy. 

1895 Barker, Cecil W., Rownham, Malvern, Natal, South Africa. 

1887 Barker, H. W., 147, Gordon-road, PecJcham, S.E. 

1884 Barrett, Charles Golding, Tremont, Pechham Bye, S.E. 
1897 Bates, F., 417, High-road, Chiswick, W. 

1894 1 Bateson, William, M.A., F.R.S., Fellow of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, Merton House, Grantchester, Cambridge. 

1896 f Beare, Prof. T. Hudson, B.Sc, F.R.S.E., 2 Heriot Row, Edinburgh 

1851 f Beaumont, Alfred, Pond-road, Blackheath, S.E. 

1893 Beddard, Frank E., M.A., F.R.S., Zoological Gardens, Regent's 

Park, N.W. 
1899 Bedwell, Ernest C, 25, Ossian-road, Stroud Green, N. 

1897 Bennett, W. H., 15, Wellington-place, Hastings. 

1882 Berg, Prof. Dr. Carlos, Director del Museo Nacional, Buenos 
Aires. 

1885 Bethune-Baker, George T., F.L.S., 19, Clarendon-road, Edgbaston, 

Birmingham. 
1895 Bevan, Lieutenant H. G. R., R.N., H.M.S. " Cambridge," Plymouth. 

1886 Biddle, F. W., M.A., 3, Knole Paddock, Sevenoaks. 

1880 Bignell, George Carter, The Ferns, Homepark-road, Saltash. 
1879 Billups, T. R., 20, Swiss Villas, Coplestone-road, Peckham, S.E. 
1895 Bingham, Lieut.-Col. C. T., F.Z.S., Bombay Staff Corps, 6 Gwendwr- 

road, West Kensington, S.W. 
1-897 Bird, George W., The Manor House, West Wickham, Beckenham. 

1891 Blaber, W. H., F.L.S., 85, Gloucester- street, Warwick -square, S.W. 

1894 f Blackburne-Maze, W. P., Shaw House, Newbury. 

1889 Blandford, Walter F. H., M.A., F.Z.S., 48, Wimpole- street, W. 

1885 Blathwayt, Lieut.-Col. Linley, F.L.S., Eagle House, Batheaston, 

Bath. 

1886 Bloomfield, The Rev. Edwin Newson, M.A., Guestling Rectory, 

Hastings. 
1876 Borre, Alfred Preudhomme de, Villa la Fauvette, Petit Saconnex, 

Geneva. 
1875 Borrer, Wm., F.G.S., Pakyns Manor House, Hurstpierpoint, 

Hassocks, R.S.O., Sussex. 

1891 Booth, George A., Fern Hill, Grange-over-Sands, Carnforth. 

1892 Bouskell, Frank, Market Bosworth, Nuneaton. 

1888 Bower, B.A., Langley, Willow Grove, Cliislehurst. 

1894 f Bowles, E. Augustus, M.A., Myddelton Rouse, Waltham Cross. 

1852 f Boyd, Thos., Woodvale Lodge, South Norwood Hill, S.E. 



( zi ) 

1893 Brabant, Edouard, Chateau de Morenchies, par Cambrai (Nord), 

France. 

1894 Breyer, Professor H. G., M.D., Gymnasium, Pretoria, Transvaal. 

1877 Briggs, Charles Adolphus, Rock House, Lynmouth, Barnstaple. 
1870 Briggs, Thomas Henry, M.A., Rock House, Lynmouth, Barnstaple. 
1894 Bright, Percy M., Chumat, Lansdowne-road, Bournemouth. 

1897 Brightwen, Mrs. E., The Grove, Great Stanmore. 

1890 Bristowe, B. A., The Cottage, Stoke D'Abernon, Cobham, Surrey. 

1878 Broun, Capt. Thomas, Drury, Auckland, New Zealand. 

1897 Brown, F. K, M.R.C.S., The Elms, Chobham, Woking. 
1886 Brown, John, 5, King's Parade, Cambridge. 

1892 Browne, Major Clement Alfred Righy, RE., Lahore, India. 

1898 f Buchan-Hepburn, Sir Archibald, Bart;, J. P., D.L., Smeaton- 

Hepburn, Preston-kirk. 
1883 Buckton, George Bowdler, F.K.S., F.L.S., Weycombe, Haslemere, 

S.O., Surrey. 
1896 f Burr, Malcolm, B.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Dormans Park, East Grinstead. 
1868 f Butler, Arthur G., Ph.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S., British Museum {Natural 

History), Cromwell-road, S.W. ; and The Lilies, Penge-road, 

Beckenham. 
1883 Butler, Edward Albert, B.A., B.Sc, 53, Tollington Park, N. 

1886 Calvert, Wm. Bartlett, L'xceo de Quillota, Quillota, Chili. 

1885 Campbell, Francis Maule, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c, Brynllwydwyn, 

Machynlleth, Montgomeryshire. 
1898 Candeze, Leon, 64, Rue de VOuest, Liege. 
1880 Cansdale, W. D., Sunny Bank, South Norwood, S.E. 

1889 Cant, A., c/o Fredk. DuCane Godman, Esq., F.R.S., 10, Chandos- 

street, Cavendish-square, W. 

1890 Capper, Samuel James (President of the Lancashire and Cheshire 

Entomological Society), Huyton Park, Liverpool. 

1894 Caracciolo, H., H.M. Customs, Port of Spain, Trinidad, British 

West Indies. 
1892 Carpenter, The Honble. Mrs. Beatrice, Kiplin, Northallerton. 

1895 Carpenter, G. H., B.Sc, Museum of Science and Art, Dublin. 
1898 Carpenter, J. H., Biverdale, Leatherhead. 

1868 Carrington, Charles, Hailey Hall, Hertford. 

1890 Carter, George Wm., M.A., F.L.S., Cliff End House, Scarboro\ 

1895 Carter, Sir Gilbert, K.C.M.G., 43, Charing Cross, W.C. ; and 

Government House, Nassau, Bahamas. 
1900 Carter, J. W., 25, Glenholme-road, Manningham, Bradford. 

1900 Cassal, B. T., M.R.C.S., Laxey, Isle of Man. 

1901 Casserley, James B., 9, Gloucester-road, Finsbury Park, N. 
1889 f Cave, Charles J. T., Binstead, Cambridge. 

1900 Chamberlain, Neville, Highbury, Moor Green, Birmingham. 



( zii ) 

1871 Champion, George C, F.Z.S., Librarian, Heathers'ule, Horscll, 

Woking ; and 10, Chandos-street, Cavendish-square, W. 
1891 Chapman, Thomas Algernon, M.D,, F.Z.S., Betula, Reigate. 

1890 Chatterton, Frederick J. S., 78, Clissold-road, Stole Netting ton, N. 

1897 Chawner, Miss Ethel F., Forest Bank, Lyndhurst, R.S.O., Hants. 

1898 Chawner, Lawrence C, Forest Bank, Lyndhurst, R.S.O., Hants. 

1891 f Chitty, Arthur John, M.A., 27, Hereford -square, S.W.; and Hunt- 

ingfield, Faversham, Kent. 

1890 Chorley, Mrs. H. S., Moorville Cottage, Burley -in- Wharf edale^ 

Leeds. 

1889 Christy, W. M., M.A., F.L.S., Watergate, Emsivorth. 
1886 f Clark, John Adolphus, 57, Weston Parle, Crouch End, N. 
1867 Clarke, Alex. Henry, 109, Warwick-road, Earl's Court, S.W. 
1886 Clarke, Charles Baron, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 13, Kew 

Gardens-road, Kew, S.W. 

1891 Clarke, Henry Shortridge, 2, Osborne-terrace, Douglas, Isle of Man. 
1873 Cole, William, F.L.S., 7, Knighton Villas, Buckhurst Hill, Essex. 

1899 Collin, James E., Sussex Lodge, Newmarket. 

1901 Connold, Edward, 7, Magdalen Terrace, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

1900 Cotton, Dr. John, 126, Prescot-road, St. Helens. 

1892 Cowan, Thomas William, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.M.S., Pinehurst, 

Pacific Grove, California. 

1886 Cowell, Peter (Librarian of the Liverpool Free Public Library), 

William Brown-street, Liverpool. 
1867 Cox, Herbert Ed., c/o Mrs. Eve, 125, Har ley -street, W. 
1895 Crabtree, Benjamin Hill, The Oakland s, Levenshulme, Manchester. 
1888 Cregoe, J. P., Fredinlck, Mayow-road , Sydenham, S.E. 

1890 Crewe, Sir Vauncey Harpur, Bart., Calke A bbey, Derbyshire. 
1880 f Crisp, Frank, LL.B., B.A., J. P., Treasurer L.S., 17, Throgmorton- 

avenue, E.C., and Friar Park, Henley-on-Thames. 

1901 D Add, Edward Martin, 3 Colina-villas, Green Lanes, Wood Green, N. 
1873 Dale, C. W., Glanville's Wootton, Sherborne, Dorset, 

1900 Dalglish, Andrew Adie, 21, Prince's-street, Glasgow. 

1887 Daltry, The Rev. Thomas W., M.A., F.L.S., Madeley Vicarage, 

Newcastle, Staffordshire^ 

1886 Dannatt, Walter, Dounington, 75, Vanbrugh Park, Blackheath, S.E. 
1898 Day, G. 0., Parr's Bank-house, Knutsford, 

1885 Dent, Hastings Charles, C.E., F.L.S., 20, Thurloe- square, S.W. 
1875 Distant, Wm. Lucas, Steine House, Selhurst-road, South Norivood, S.E. 

1887 Dixey, Frederick Augustus, M.A., M.D., Fellow and Bursar of 

Wadham College, Wadham College, Oxford. 
1898 Dixon, G. B., St. Peter 's-road, Leicester. 
1895 Dobson, H. T., Ivy House, Acacia Grove, New Maiden S.O. 

Surrey. 



( xiii ) 

1891 Donisthorpe, Horace St. John K., F.Z.S., 58, Kensington- mansions, 

South Kensington, S.W. 
1885 Donovan, Captain Charles, M.D., R.A.M.C., c/o Messrs. P. 

Macfadyen & Co., Winchester House, Old Broad-street, E.C. 

1873 Doria, Marchese Giacomo, Strada Nuova, Genoa. 

1845 Douglas, John Wm., 61, Craven Park, Harlesden, N.W. 

1898 Downing, John W., 152, Trevelyan-road, Tooting Graveney, S.W. 

1899 Drewitt, Frederic G. Dawtrey, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P., F.Z.S., 

14, Palace Gardens-terrace, Kensington, W. 

1884 Druce, Hamilton H. C. J., F.Z.S., 43, Circus-road, St. John's 

Wood, N.W. 
1867 Druce, Herbert, F.L.S., F.Z.S., 43, Circus-road, St. John's Wood, 
N.W. 

1900 Drury, W. D., Rocquaine, West Hill Park, Woking. 

1894 Dudgeon, G. C, Holta, Kangra Valley, P.O. Palimpur, Punjab, 
India. 

1883 Durrant, John Hartley, The Cottage, Merton Hall, Thetford. 

1890 Eastwood, John Edmund, Enton Lodge, Witley, Godalming. 

1865 Eaton, The Rev. Alfred Edwin, M.A., Woodlands, Seaton, Axminstir. 

1885 Edwards, James, Colesborne, Cheltenham. 

1884 Edwards, Stanley, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Kidbrook-lodge, Blaclcheaih, S.E. 
1900 Elliott, E. A., 41, Holland Park, W. 

1900 Ellis, H. Willonghby, Kuowle, Birmingham. 

1886 Ellis, John W., M.B., L.R.C.P., 18, Rodney-street, Liverpool 

1878 Elwes, Henry John, J. P., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Colesborne, 

Cheltenham. 
1886 Enock, Frederick, F.L.S., 13, Tufnell Park-road, Holloway, N. 

1899 Farmborough, Percy W., F.Z.S M Lower Edmonton, N. 

1890 Farn, Albert Brydges, Mount Nod, Greenhithe, Kent ; and Medical 
Department, Local Government Board, Whitehall, S.W. 

1900 Feltham, H. L. L., P. 0. Box, 46, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
1861 Fenn, Charles, Eversden House, Burnt Ash Hill, Lee, S.E. 
1886 Fenwick, Nicolas Percival, The Gables, New-road, Esher. 
1889 Fernald, Prof. C. H., Amherst, Mass., U.S.A. 

1898 Filer, F. E., 122, Stockwell Park-road, Brixton, S.W. 

1878 I]inzi, John A., 53, Hamilton-terrace, N.W. 

1900 Firth, J. Digby, Greenwell House, Deighton, Huddersjield. 

1874 Fitch, Edward A., F.L.S., Brick House, Maldon. 

1886 Fitch, Frederick, Hadleigh House, Highbury New Park, N. 
1900 Flemyng, The Rev. W. Westropp, Coolfin, Portlaw, Water jord. 
1898 Fletcher, T. B., R.N., H.M.S. " Gladiator," Mediterranean Station. 
1883 + Fletcher, William Holland B., M.A., Aldwkk Manor, Bognor. 



( xiv ) 

1892 Fleutiaux, Edmond, 6, Avenue Suzanne, Nogent-sur-Mame, France. 

1885 Fokker, A. J. F., Zierikzee, Zeeland, Netherlands. 

1900 Foulkes, P. Hed worth, B.Sc., Harper- Adams Agricultural College, 

Newport, Salop. 
1898 Fountaine, Miss Margaret, 7, Lansdowne-place, Bath. 
1880 Fowler, The Eev. Canon, M.A., F.L.S., President, Rotherfield 

Peppard Rectory, Henley-on-Thames. 

1883 Freeman, Francis Ford, Abbotsfield, Tavistock. 
1896 Freke, Percy Evans, 7, Lime-road, Folkestone. 

1888 Fremlin, H. Stuart, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., Mereworth, Maidstone. 

1891 Frohawk, F. W., 42, Wad don-road, Croydon. 

1855 Fry, Alexander, F.L.S., Thomhill House, Didwich Wood Park, 
Norivood, S.E. 

1900 Fryer, H. Fortescue, The Priory, Chatteris, Cambs. 

1884 Fuller, The Rev. Alfred, M.A., The Lodge, 7, Sydenham-hil\ 

Sydenham, S.E. 

1898 Fuller, Claude, Government Entomologist, Pietermaritzburffc 

Natal. 

1887 Gahan, Charles Joseph, M.A., Whyola, Lonsdale-road, Bedford 
Park, W. ; and British Museum {Natural History), Cromwell- 
road, S.W. 

1887 Galton, Francis, M.A., D.C.L., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.G.S., 42, Rutland 
Gate, S.W. 

1892 Garde, Philip de la, R.N., H.M.S. " Pegasus," Mediterranean. 
1890 Gardner, John, 6, Friars-gate, Hartlepool. 

1901 f Gardner, Willoughby, F.L.S., Reform Club, Liverpool. 

1899 Gayner, Francis, 20, Queen-square, W.C. 

1899 Geld art, William Martin, M.A., 15, Park-road, Norbiton. 

1865 f Godman, Frederick Du Cane, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Vice^ 
President, South Lodge, Lower Beeding, Horsham ;7~, Carlos-place*, 
Grosvenor-square ; and 10, Chandos-street, Cavendish-square, W. 

1890 Goldthwait, Oliver C, 5, Queen 1 's-road, South Norwood, S.E. 
1886 f Goodrich, Captain Arthur Mainwaring, Lennox. Lodge, Malvern 

Link, Malvern. 
1898 Gordon, J. G. McH., Corsemalzie, Whauphill, R.S.d, Wigtownshire. 
1898 Gordon, R. S. G. McH., Corsemalzie, Whauphill, R.S.O., Wigtown-. 

shire, 
1855 Gorham, The Rev. Henry Stephen, F.Z.S., The Chestnuts, Shirley 

Warren, Southampton. 
1874 Goss, Herbert, F.L.S., F.G.S., Secretary, The Avenue, Surbiton-hill, 

Surrey. 
1886 Green, A. P., Colombo, Ceylon. 

1891 f Green, E. Ernest, Government Entomologist, Royal Botanic 

Gardens, Peradeuiya, Ceylon. 



( xv ) 

1894 Green, Joseph F., F.Z.S., West Lodge, Blackheath, S.E. 

1865 Greene, The Rev. Joseph, M.A., Rostrevor, Clifton, Bristol. 

1898 Greenshields, Alexander, 38, Blenheim-gardens, Willesden, N.W. 

1899 Greenwood, Edgar, Bellevue, Riff el-road, Willesden Green, N.W. 

1893 f Greenwood, Henry Powys, F.L.S., Sandhill Lodge, Fordingbridge, 

Salisbury. 

1888 Griffiths, G. C, F.Z.S., 43, Caledonian-place, Clifton, Bristol. 

1894 Grimshaw, Percy H., Natural History Department, Museum of 

Science and Art, Edinburgh. 

1900 Groom, Prof. Percy, M.A., F.L.S., Royal Indian Engineering 

College, Cooper's Hill, Staines. 
1869 Grose-Smith, Henley, J.P., B.A., F.Z.S., 5, Bryanston-square, Hyde 

Park, W. 
1899 Gunning, Montague, Narborough, Leicester. 

1897 Hague, Henry, 2, First-place, Brooklyn, U.S.A. 

1890 f Hall, A. E., Norbury, Pitsmoor, Sheffield. 

1885 Hall, Thomas William, Stanhope, The Crescent, Croydon. 

1898 Hamlyn-Harris, K., F.Z.S., F.R.M.S., 45, Garten-strasse, Tubingen^ 

Germany. 

1891 Hampson, Sir George Francis, Bart., B.A., F.Z.S., 62, Stanhope-. 

gardens, S.W. 

1891 Hanbury, Frederick J., F.L.S., Stainforth House, Upper Clapton^ 

N.E. 
1877 Harding, George, 9, Bellevue, Clifton, Bristol. 

1897 f Harrison, Albert, F.L.S., F.C.S., 72, Windsor-road, Forest Gate, E, 

1889 Harrison, John, 7, Gawber-road, Barnsley . 

1892 Headly, Charles Burnard, Two Elms, Alexandra-road, Stoneygate y 

Leicester. 
1881 Henry, George, 38, Wellington-square, Hastings. 

1898 Heron, Francis A., B.A., British Museum {Natural History),. 

Cromwell-road, S.W. 
1888 Higgs, Martin Stanger, F.C.S., F.G.S., Sheba G. M. Co., Eureka 

City, Transvaal. 
1891 Hill, Henry Ainslie, 9, Addison Mansions, Kensington, W. 
1876 f Hillman, Thomas Stanton, Eastgate-street, Lewes. 

1896 Hocking,- The Rev. John, M.A., Copdoch Rectory, Ipswich. 

1888 Hodson, The Rev. J. H., B.A., B.D., Harefeld, Ansdell-road,. 

Lyiham. 
1887 Holland, The Rev. W. J., D.D., Ph.D., 5th Avenue, Pittsburg, 

Penn., U.S.A. 
1898 Holman-Hunt, C. B., Meddecombra, Watagoda, Ceylon. 

1897 Horne, Arthur, Ugie Bank, Aberdeen. 

1901 Hopson, M. F., 16, Rosslyn Hill, N.W. 

1876 f Horniman, Fredk. John, M.P., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c, Surrey Mount,, 
Forest Hill, S.E. 



( *vi ) 

1900 Howes, George H., Spey-street, Invercargill, New Zealand. 
1865 j- Hudd, A. E., Clinton, Pembroke-road, Clifton, Bristol. 

1888 Hudson, George Vernon, The Post Office, Wellington, New Zealand. 

1897 Image, Selwyn, M.A., 20, Fi'-roij-street, Fikroy-square, W. 

1893 Irby, Lieutenant-Colonel Leonard Howard Loyd, F.L.S., F.Z.S., 

14, Cornwall-terrace, Regents Pari; N.W. 
1891 Isabell, The Kev. John, Sunnycroft, St. Sennen, R.S.O., Cornwall. 

1886 Jacoby, Martin, 7, Hemstall-road, West Hampstead, N.W. 
1869 Janson, Oliver E. , Cestria, Claremont-road, Highgate, N.; and 44, 
Great Russell-street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

1898 Janson, Oliver J., Cestria, Claremont-road, Highgate, N. 
1886 Jenner, James Herbert Augustus, 209, School Hill, Lewes. 

1899 Jknnings, F. B., 152, Silver-street, Upper Edmonton, N. 

1886 John, Evan, Llantrisant, Pontyclun, RS.O.. Glamorganshire. 

1889 Johnson, The Rev. W. F., M.A., Acton Rectory, Poyntz Pass, 

Co. Armagh. 

1888 Jones, Albert H., Shrublands, Ellham. 

1894 Jones, Frederic Whitworth, Cleef, Vryburg, British Bechuanaland, 

Africa. 
1894 1 Jordan, Dr. K., The Museum, Tring. 

1884 Kane, W. F. de Vismes, M.A., M.R.I.A., Brumleaske House, 

Monaghan. 
1884 Kappel, A. W., F.L.S., Hilden, 18, Sutton Court-road, Chiswick, Wi 
1876 f Kay, John Dunning, Leeds. 

1896 f Kaye, William James, Caracas, Ditton Hill, Surbiton. 
1884 Keays, Lovell, 26, Charles-street, St. James's, S.W. 

1890 Kenrick, G. H., Whetstone, Somerset-road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 
1898 Kershaw, J. A., Morton Banks, Lewi sham-road, Windsor, Melbourne, 

Victoria. 
1901 Kershaw, John C. W., Macao, China. 

1900 Keys, James H., 6, Seymour-terrace, Lipson, Plymouth. 

1889 King, J. J. F. X., Lecturer on Economic Entomology at the West of 

Scotland Agricultural College, 1, Athole Gardens-terrace, Kelvin- 
side, Glasgow. 

1861 Kirby, William F., F.L.S., Hilden, 18, Sutton Court-road, Chiswick,W. 

1893 Kirkaldy, George Willis, St. Abbs, Worple-road, Wimbledon, S.W. 

1889 Klapalek, Professor Franz, Karlin 263, Prague, Bohemia. 

1887 f Klein, Sydney T., F.L.S., F.R.A.S., Hatherlow, Raglan-road, 

Reigate. 
1876 Kraatz, Dr. G., 28, Link-strasse, Berlin. 

1895 Krantz, Paul, 'Box 413, Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa, 

1901 Lane, E. W., 9, Teesdale-street, Hachiey-road, N.E. 
1868 Lang, Colonel A. M., R.E., Box Grove Lodge, Guildford. 



( xvii ) 

1900 Lang, The Rev. H. C, M.D., All Saints' Vicarage, Soutkend-on-Sea. 

1901 Lathy, P. I., Lynton Villa, Sydney-road, Enfield. 
1895 Latter, Oswald H., M.A., Charterhouse, Godalming. 

1899 Lea, Arthur M., Government Entomologist, Hobart, Tasmania. 
1901 Ledoux, Dr. C. A., F.L.S., Grahamstoum, South Africa. 

1900 Lefroy, H. Maxwell, B.A., Barbados, W. I. 

1901 Leigh, George F., corner of Sydenham and Essenwood-roads, Durban, 

Natal. 
1883 Lemann, Fredk. Charles, Blachfriars House, Plymouth. 
1892 Leslie, J. H., Bryn Glas, 33, Streathbourne-road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 
1898 Lethbridge, Ambrose G., Knouie, Dunster, Taunton. 

1898 Lewis, E. J., Dudwell House, Eden Bridge, Kent. 

1876 Lewis, George, F.L.S., 87, Frant-road, Tunbridge Wells. 

1892 Lightfoot, R. M., Bree-st, Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope. 

1865 f Llewelyn, Sir John Talbot Dillwyn, Bart., M.A., F.L.S., 

Penllergare, Swansea. 
1881 1 Lloyd, Alfred, F.C.S., The Dome, Bognor. 
1885 J Lloyd, Robert Wylie, St, Cuthberts, Thurleigh-road, Balham, S.W. 

1899 Lounsbury, Charles P., B.Sc, Government Entomologist, Cape 

Town, S. Africa. 
1894 Lowe, The Rev. Frank E., M.A., St. Stephen's Vicarage, Guernsey. 

1893 Lower, OsAvald B., St. Osioald's, Bar tley-cre scent, WayviUe, South 

Australia. 
1901 Lower, Rupert S., Oswaldton, Bartley-crescent, WayviUe, South 

Australia. 
1898 Lucas, William John, B.A., 28, Knight's Park, Kingston-on-Thames. 
1880 Lupton, Henry, Lyndhnrst, North Grange-road, Headingley, Leeds. 
1901 Lyman, Henry H., M.A., F.R.G.S., 74, McTavish- street, Montreal, 

Canada. 

1887 M'Dougall, James Thomas, Dunolly, Morden-road, Blachheath, S.E. 
1901 McGregor, T. M., 48, Glasgow-road, Perth. 

1851 f M'Intosh, J. 

1888 Mackinnon, P. W., Lynndale, MussooHe, N.W.P., India. 

1900 Mackwood, The Hon. F. M., M.L.C., Colombo, Ceylon. 

1858 McLachlan, Robert, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Treasurer, Westkew, 
23, Clarendon-road, Lewisham, S.E. 

1898 Maddison, T., South Bailey, Durham. 

1899 f Main, Hugh, B.Sc, 131, Windsor-road, Forest Gate, E. 
1887 Manders, Captain Neville, R.A.M.C, Colombo, Ceylon. 
1892 Mansbridge, William, Colgate, Horsham. 

1894 f Marshall, Alick, Auchinraith, Bexley, S.O., Kent, 

1895 Marshall, G. A. K., P.O. Box 56, Salisbury, Mashonaland, South 

Africa. 
1890 Marshall, P., M.A., B.Sc, F.G.S., University School of Mines, 
Duuedin, New Zealand. 

b 



( xviii ) 

1865 Marshall, The Rev. Thos. Ansell, M.A., Villa (J ell a Croce, Ajarcio, 

Corsica. 
1856 f Marshall, William, Auchinraith, Bexley, S.O., Kent. 

1897 Martineau, Alfred H., Solihull, Birmingham. 

1874 f Mason, Philip Brookes, M.R.C.S., F.L.S., Trent House, Burton-on- 
Trent. 

1895 Massey, Herbert, Ivy-Lea, Burnage, Withington, Manchester. 

1865 Mathew, Gervase F., R.N., F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.R.G.S., Lee House, 

Dovercourt, Harwich. 
1887 Matthews, Coryndon, Stentaway, Plymstock, Plymouth. 
1899 May, Harry Haden, Becllands, Hillbury-road, Upper Tooting t S.W. 
1860 May, John William, K.N.L., 49, Warwick-road, EarVs Court, S.W. 
1872 f Meldola, Professor Raphael, F.R.S., F.C.S., 6, Brunswick-square 

W.C. 

1885 Melvill, James Cosmo, M.A., F.L.S., 36, George-street, Manchester. 

1887 Merrifield, Frederic, 24, Vernon-terrace, Brighton. 

1888 Meyer-Darcls, G., c/o Sogin and Meyer, Wohlen, Switzerland. 
1880 Meyrick, Edward, B.A., F.Z.S., Elmswood, Marlborough. 

1894 Miall, Professor Louis Compton, F.R.S., 8, Spring-road, Headingley, 

Leeds. 
1883 Miles, W. H., The New Club, Calcutta. 

1896 Moberly, J. C, M.A., 9, Roclcstone-place, Southampton. 

1879 Monteiro, Dr. Antonio Augusto de Carvalho, 70, Rua do Alecrinar, 

Lisbon. 
1853 Moore, Frederic, D.Sc, A.L.S., F.Z.S., 17, Maple-road, Penge, S.E. 

1899 Moore, Harry, 12, Lower-road, Rotherhithe. 

1886 Morgan, A. C. F., F.L.S., 24, Leinster- square, W. 

1889 f Morice, The Rev. F. D., M.A., Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, 

Brunswick, Mount Hermon, Woking. 

1895 f Morley, Claude, Ipswich. 

1893 Morton, Kenneth J., 13, Blachford-road, Edinburgh. 

1900 Moser, Julius, 90, Bidow-strasse, Berlin. 
1882 Mosley, S. L., Beaumont Park, Huddersfield. 

1898 Mousley, H., 10, Selborne-terrace, Manningham, Bradford. 

1901 Muir, Frederick, 86, Christchurch-street, Ipswich. 
1869fMuLLER, Albert, F.R.G.S., c/o Herr A. Muller-Mechel, Grew 

zacherstrasse, 60, Basle, Switzerland. 
1872 f Murray, Lieut.-Col. H., 43, Cromwell Houses, Cromwell-road, S.W. 

1896 Nesham, Robert, Utrecht House, Queen's-road, Clapham Park, S.W. 

1889 Nevinson, Basil George, M.A., F.Z.S., 3, Tedworth-square, 

Chelsea, S.W. 
1901 Nevinson, E.G.B., 7, Staple Inn, Holbom ; and 3, Tedworth-square, 
Chelsea. 

1890 Newstead, R., The Museum, Chester. 

1900 Nicholl, Mrs. M. De la B.,Merthyr Mawr, Bridgend, Glamorganshire. 



( xix ) 

1895 Nicholson, Charles, 202, Evering-road, Clapton, N.E. 

1886 Nicholson, William E., School Hill, Lewes. 

1893 Nonfried, A. F., Rakonitz, Bohemia. 

1897 Norris, Albert, Church-lave, Napier, New Zealand. 
1886 Norris, Herbert E., 15, Market-place, Cirencester. 

1878 Nottidge, Thomas, Ashford, Kent. 

1895 Nurse, Captain C. G., F.R.G.S., Indian Staff Corps, Deem, India. 

1869 Oberthur, Charles, Iiennes (File et Vilaine), France. 

1877 Oberthur, Rene, Rennes (Ille et Vilaine), France. 
1893 f Ogle, Bertram S., Steeple Aston, Oxfordshire. 

1893 Oliver, John Baxter, Elmleigh, Elm-row, Hampstead, N.W. 

1873 Olivier, Ernest, Ramillons, pres Moulins (Allier), France, 

1895 Page, Herbert E., Bertrose, Gellatly-road, St. Catherine's Pari; S.E. 

1898 Palliser, H. G., Chief Engineer, P.W.D., Karachi, India, 
1901 Peal, Henry Woolner, Indian Museum, Calcutta, 

1883 PisRINGUEY, Louis, South African Museum ; Cape Town, South Africa. 

1879 Perkins, Vincent Robt., Wotton-under-Edge. 

1900 Philips, The Rev. W. J. Leigh, The Cottage, Parle wood-road, 

Tavistock. 

1897 Phillips, Hubert C, M.R.C.S., M. and L.S.A., 262, Gloucester-terrace, 

Hyde-park, W. 

1901 Pickett, C. P., 99, Dawlish-road, Leyton, Essex. 

1891 Pierce, Frank Nelson, 1, The Elms, Dingle, Liverpool. 

1901 Piffard, Albert, Felden, Boxmoor, Kernel Hempstead. 

1885 Poll, J. R. H. Neerwort van de, Heerengracht 476, Amsterdam. 

1870 f Porritt, Geo. T., F.L.S., Crosland Hall, Huddersfield. 

1884 f Poulton, Professor Edward B., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 

F.Z.S., Hope Professor of Zoology in the University of Oxford, 
Vice-President, Wykeham House, Banbury-road, Oxford, 
1851 Preston, The Rev. Thomas Arthur, M.A., F.L.S., Thurcaston 
Rectory, Leicester. 

1878 Price, David, 48, West-street, Horsham. 

1893 Prout, Louis Beethoven, 246, Richmond-road, Dalston, N.E. 

1898 Quail, Ambrose, Palmerston North, New Zealand, 

1900 Rainbow, William J., The Australian Museum, Sydney, N.S. W. 

1874 Reed, Edwyn C, C.M.Z.S., Rancagua, Chili. 

1900 Reid, Percy Charles, Feering Bury, Kelvedon, Essex. 

1893 Reid, Captain Savile G., late R.E., The Elms, Yalding y Maidstone. 

1891 Reid, William, St. Andrews-road, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South 
Africa, 

1898 Relton, R. H., c/o Perkins and Co., Ltd., Brisbane, Queensland. 

1890 Rendlesham, The Right Honble. Lord, Rendlesham Hall, Wood- 
bridge. 



( xx ) 

1898 Reuter, Professor Enzio, Helsingfors, Finland. 

1886 Rhodes, John, 360, Blackburn-road, Accrington. 

1891 Richardson, Nelson M., B.A., Monte Video, Weymouth. 
1894 Riding, William Steer, B.A., M.D., Buckerell Lodge, Honiton. 
1853 Ripon, The Most Noble the Marquis of, K.G., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.L.S., 

etc., 9, Chelsea Embankment, S.W. 

1892 Robinson, Sydney C, Goldsmiths' Hall, E.G. 

1869 f Robinson-Douglas, William Douglas, M.A., F.L.S., F.R.G.S., 

Orchard Ion, Castle Douglas. 
1890 Robson, John Emmerson, 15, Northgate, Hartlepool. 

1886 Rose, Arthur J., 37, Church Crescent, Muswdl Hill, N. 

1868 Rothney, George Alexander James, Pembun/, Tudor-road, Upper 
Norwood, S.E. 

1894 f Rothschild, The Honble. Nathaniel Charles, F.Z.S., 148, Piccadilly, 
W. ; and Tring Park, Tring. 

1888 f Rothschild, The Honble. Walter, D.Sc, M.P., F.Z.S., 148, Picca- 
dilly, W. ; and Tring Park, Tring. 

1890 Routledge, G. B., Tarn Lodge, Heads Nook, Carlisle. 

1887 Rowland-Brown, Henrv, M.A., Secretary, Oxhey-grove, Harrow 

Weald. 

1898 Russell, A., The Limes, Southend, Catford, S.E. 
1892 Russell, S. G. C, 19, Lombard street, E.G. 

1899 Ryles, William E., B.A., 11, Waverley Moftfct, Nottingham. 



1886 Salwey, Reginald E., Sungate, Hook-road, Kingston-on-Thames. 
1865 f Saunders, Edward, F.L.S., St. Ann's, Mount Hermon, Woking. 

1861 f Saunders, G. S., 20, Dents-road, Wandsworth Common, S.W. 

1886 Saunders, Prof. Win., Central Experimental Farm, Ottoira, Canada. 
1901 Schaus, W., F.Z.S., Trentham House, Twickenham. 

1881 Scollick, A. J., Penshurt, Merton-road, Wimbledon, S.W. 
1864 Semper, George, Klopstock-strasse 23, Altona, Elbe, Germany. 

1862 Sharp, David, M.A., M.B., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Vice-President, 

Hawthorn dene, Hills-road, Cambridge ; and University Museum of 

Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, Cambridge. 
1883 Shaw, A. Eland, M.R.C.S., Althorpe, Doncaster. 
1901 Shelford, R., The Museum, Sarawak, Borneo. 
1883 f Shelley, Capt. George Ernest, F.G.S., F.Z.S., 39, Eqerton-gardens, 

S.W. 

1900 f Shepheard-Walwyn, H. W., M.A., Glensyde, Ridborovgh, Tun- 

bridge Wells. 

1887 Sich, Alfred, Brentwood, 65, Barrowgate-road, Chiswick, W. 

1901 Skertchly, Ethelbert Forbes, Hongkong. 
1901 Smith, Arthur, 5, Cavendish-street, Grimsby. 
1-901 Smith, W. G., 164, Wells-road, Knoide, Bristol. 
1895 Smith, W. W., Ashburton, Canterbury, New Zealand. 



^ ( xxi ) 

1898 Sopp, Erasmus John Burgess, F.R.Met.S., Saxholme, Hoylake, S.O., 

Cheshire. 
1885 South, Richard, 96, Drakejield-road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

1897 Sparke, E. G. J., B.A., 1, Christchurch-Villas, Tooting Bee-road, 
. S.W. 

1889 Standen, Richard S., F.L.S., Townlands, Lindjield, Sussex. 

1898 Stares, C. L. B., M.K.C.S., L.R.C.P., The infirmary, Wandsworth, 

S.W. 

1890 Stearns, A. E., New Mills Cottage, Henley-on-Thames. 

1897 Stebbing, E. P., Indian Forest Service, c/o King, Hamilton and 

Co., Calcutta. 

1898 Stebbing, Henry, The Shawe, Jarvis Brook, Tunbridge Wells. 
1862 Stevens, John S., 4, Pope's Grove, Twickenham. 

1889 Straton, C. R., F.R.C.S., West Lodge, Wilton, Salisbury. 

1896 Strickland, T. A. Gerald, 39, Rosary-gardens, S.W. 

1900 Studd, E. A. C, Downton, near Salisbury. 
1895 Studd, E. F., M.A., B.C.L., Oxton, Exeter. 

1882 Swanzy, Francis, Stanley House, Granville-road, Seceuoaks. 
1884 Swinhoe, Colonel Charles, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Acenwe House, 
Oxford. 

1894 Swinhoe, Ernest, Avenue House, Oxford. 

1876 Swinton, A. H., c/o General Callender, Vineyard, Totnes. 

1893 Taylor, Charles B., Roe-street, Rae Town, Kingston, Jamaica. 
1892 Taylor, The Rev. George W., F.R.S. (Canada), St. Albans Rectory, 

Nanaimo, British Columbia. 
1886 Theobald, F. V., M.A., Lecturer in Economic Entomology and 

Zoology to the South Eastern Agricultural College, Wye Court, 

near Ashford, Kent, 

1901 Thompson, Matthew Lawson, 35, Leven- street, Scdtburn-bg-the-Sea. 

1892 Thornley, The Rev. A., M.A., F.L.S., South Lecerton Vicarage, 

Lincoln. 

1897 Tomlin, B., 69, Liverpool-road, Chester. 

1893 Townsend, Professor C. H. Tyler, Las Cruces, New Mexico, U.S.A. 
1859 f Trimen, Roland, M.A., F.R S , F.L.S., 19, Emperor's Gate, S.W. 

1895 Tunaley, Henry, 30, Fairmont-road, Brixton Hill, S.W. 

1897 Tunstall, Wilmot, Brook House, Meltham, Huddersjield, 

1898 Turner, A. J., M.D., Wiekham Terrace, Brisbane, Australia. 

1893 Turner, Henry Jerome, 13, Drakef ell-road, St. Catharine's Park, 

Hatcham, S.E. 

1894 Turner, Thomas, Cullomptou. 

1886 Tutt, James W., Rayleigh Villa, Westcombe Hill, S.E. 

1893 Urich, Frederick William, Port of Spain, Trinidad, British West 

Indies. * 

1900 Urwick, W. F., 34, Great Tower-street, E.C. 



( xxii ) * 

1866 Verrall, George Henry, Sussex Lodge, Newmarket. 
1897 Vice, William A., M.B., 19, Behoir-street, Leicester. 

1895 Wacher, Sidney, F.R.C.S., Dane John, Canterbury. 

1901 Waddington, John, 38, Leicester Grove, Blackman Lane, Leeds. 

1899 Wade, Albert, 20, Frenchwood-street, Preston, Lancashire. 

1897 Wainwright, Colbran J., 2, Handsworth Wood-road, Haudsworth, 

Birmingham. 
1876 Wakefield, Charles Marcus, F.L.S., Belmont, Uxbridge. 
1870 Walker, The Rev. Francis Augustus, D.D., F.L.S., Dun Mallard, 

Oricldewood, N.W. 
1878 Walker, James J., R.N., F.L.S., H.M.S. " Ringarooma," Sydney, 

Australia. 
1863 f Wallace, Alfred Russel, D.C.L., Oxon., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 

Corfe View, Parkstone, Dorset. 
1866 f Walsingham, The Right Honble. Lord, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., 

F.Z.S., High Steward of the University of Cambridge, Merton 

Hall, Thetford ; and 66c/, Eaton-square, S.W. 
1886 Warren, Win., M.A., 57, Wilton-avenue, Chiswick Lane, W. 
1869 Waterhouse, Charles 0., Lnglesidc, Avenue-gardens, Acton, W. ; 

and British Museum {Natural History), Cromwell-road, S.W. 
1901 Waterhouse, Gustavus A., B.Sc, F.C.S., Wacerh[i, Sydney, New 

South Wales, Australia. 

1900 W ATKINS, C. J., King's Mill House, Painswick, Stroud, Gloucester- 

shire. 

1893 Webb, John Cooper, 218, Upland-road, Dulwich, S.E. 
1876 f Western, E. Young, 36, Lancaster Gate, Hyde Park, W. 

1886 Wheeler, Francis D., M. A., LL.D., Paragon House School, Norwich. 
1884 White, William, Farnley, New Clice Road, Dulwich, S.E. 

1896 Wileman, A. E., c/o H.B.M.'s Consul, Kobe, Japan. 

1894 Wilson, Edwin, Mill-lane, Cambridge. 

1894 Wolley-Dod, F. H., Box 225, Calgary, Alberta, N.W.T., Canada. 

1881 Wood, The Rev. Theodore, 157, Trinity-road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

1900 Wood, H., The Old Grammar School, Ashford, Kent. 

1901 Woodforde, F. C, Market Drayton. 

1899 Woolley, H. S., 7, Park-roiv, Greenwich, S.E. ; and P. O. Box 
1047, Waterbury, Conn., U.S.A. 

1891 Wroughton, R. C, Conservator of Forests, Indian Forest Service, 

Poona, Bombay Presidency, India ; and c/o Army and Navy 
Co-operative Society, Ltd., 105, Victoria-street, S.W. 

1888 Ykrbury, Colonel John W., late R.A., F.Z.S., Army and Navy 
Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 

1892 Youdale, William Henry, F R.M.S., 29, Market Place, Cockermouth. 



( xxiii ) 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY 

During the Yeah 1901. 



Aldricu (J. M.). [See Godman (F. D.). Biologia Oentrali- Americana.] 

Andrews (C. W.). A Monograph of Christmas Island. 

(The Arachnida, etc., hy R. I. Pocock ; the Insecta by G. J. Arrow, 
A. G. Butler, C. J. Gahan, W. F. Kirby, C. O. Waterhouse, 
and Lord Walsingham.) 8vo, London, 1900. 

The Trustees Brit. Mus. N. H. 

Arrow (G. J.). [See Andrews (C. W.). A Monograph of Christmas 
Island.] 

Aurivillius (Chr.). Verzeichniss der von Dr. F. Meinert im Jahre 1891 
in Venezuela gesammelten Cerambyciden. 
[Ofvers. K. Vet.-Akad. Fdrh., 1900.] 

Verzeichniss einer von den Hersen E. Lainan und W. 8361101111 bei 
Mukinbungu am uuteren Congo zusammengebrachten Schmet- 
terlingssammlung. 

[Ofvers. K. Vet.-Akad. F6rh., 1900.] 

Lypidoptera och Coleoptera (Arktiska expeditioner, 1898 — 1900.) 
[Ofvers. K. Vet.-Akad. F6rh., 1900.] 

Diagnoser neuer Lepidopteren aus Africa. 
[Ent. Tidskr., 1901.] 

On the Ethiopian Genera of the family Striphuopterygidae. 
[Bihang K. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handl xxvii.] 

Insekternas sjalslif. 12mo, Stockholm, 1901. 

The A uthor. 

Banks (N.). Bibliography of the more important contributions to American 
economic entomology. Part VII. 
[U.S. Dept. Agric. Div. Ent.] 

Some Spiders and other Arachnida from Porto Rico. 
, [Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXV.] 

The Smithsonian Institution. 

Barbey (A.). Les Scolytides de l'Europe Centrale. 4to, Geneve et Paris, 
1901. Purchased. 

Barrett (C. G.). British Lepidoptera. Vol. VII. 

The Publishers (L. Reeve and Co.). 

Beacii (S. A.), Lowe (V. H.) and Stewart (F. C). 

Common diseases and Insects injurious to Fruits. 

[Bull. No. 170, N. Y. Agric. Expt. Stu., 1899.] The Station. 



( xxiv ) 

Berg (C). Rectificaciones y anotaciones a lo Sinopsis de lo6 Hemipteros 
de Chile de E. C. Reed. 
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Substitution d'un nom generique d'Hemipteres. 
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Des nonnullis speciebus argentine coguitis aut novis generis Epipe- 

donotse, Sol. 
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Bignell (G. C). The Ichneumonidse of South Devon. Pt. II., Braconidse. 
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The Author. 

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Americana.] 

Bormans (A. de) und Krauss (H.). Forficulidse und Hemimeridaj. 

[Dps Tierrich, Lief, ii., 1900.] Mr. Malcolm Burr. 

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Buckler ("W".). Larvae of British Butterflies and Moths (Vols. VII — IX.) 
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Annual Address to the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological 
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Some additional beetles from East Dorset. 
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Some British Diving Beetles. 
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Butler (A. G.). [See Andrews (C.W.). A Monograph of Christmas Island.] 

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Chamberlin (R. V.). List of the Myriapod family Lithobiidte of Salt Lake 
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The Author. 



( XXV ) 

Felt (A. P.)- Memorial of life aud Entomological work of J. A. Lintner. . 

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16th Report of the State Entomologist on Injurious and other 

Insects of the State of New York. 
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Injurious and Beneficial Insects of New York State. 
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The Museum. 

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Critique des experiences farites des 1887, avec quelques nouvelles 

experiences, III — V. 
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Insecta, by J. M. Aldrich, W. F. H. Blandford, L. Bruner, P. P. 
Calvert, G. C. Champion, F. D. Godman, A. L. Melander, A. P. 
Morse, O. Salvin, W. M. Wheeler, aud S. W. Willistou. Parts 
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Grandpre (A. D. de) et Charmoy (D. de). 

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( xxvi ) 

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The British and Finnish Species of the Orthopterous Genus, 

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Six new Reduviidae from Sumatra. 

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1898, Hft. 1. Purchased. 

Lofthouse (T. A.). A Few notes on Lcpidoptera that have been recorded 
for the Cleveland district during past years. 
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Purchased. 
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Island.] 

Quail (A.). [See Illidge (R.).] 

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Zkhnter (L.). Myriopodeu aus Madagaskar und 

The Authors. 



Saussure (H. de) uud 
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Seidlitz (G.) 
Semper (G.) 



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. Die Schmetterliuge der Philippiuschen Iuseln. Baud II. 
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The Author. 



Slingerland (M. V 
Division 



). Cornell University Agric. Expt. Station. Ent. 



Bulletin No. 33. Wire worms (Nov. 1891). 

„ 44. The Pear-tree Psylla (Oct. 1892). 

„ 78. The Cabbage Root Maggot (Nov. 1894). 

„ 83. A Plum Scale in W. New York (Dec. 1894). 

„ 93. The Cigar-Case Bearer in W. New York (May 
1895). 

„ „ 107. Wireworms and the Bed Moth (Jan. 1896). 

,, „ 108. The Pear Psylla and the New York Plum Scale 

(Jan. 1896). 

„ „ 123. Green Fruit Worms (Dec. 1896.) 

„ 124. The Pistol-Case Bearer in W. New York (Jan. 
1897). 
„ „ 126. The Currant Stem Girdler and the Raspberry- 

Caue Maggot (Feb. 1897). 

„ „ 133. The Army-Worm iu New York (April 1897). 

„ „ 142. The Codling Moth (Jan. 1898). 

., 148. The Quince Curculio (May 1898). 

„ 157. The Grape-vine Flea-beetle (Dec. 1898). 

„ 172. The Cherry Fruit-fly (Sept. 1899). 

„ „ 176. The Peach-Tree Borer (Dec. 1899). 

„ „ 185. The Common European Burying Mantis (Nov. 

1900), 

„ „ 187. The Palmer- worm (Jan. 1901). 

„ „ 190. Three unusual Strawberry pests (May 1901). 

„ „ 192. Experiments upon Peach-Tree Borer (May 1901). 

The Plum-twig Gall-Mite. 
[Canad. Ent., Dec. 1895.] 

The Aqrotis subgothica of Haworth, again. 
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The Crinkled Flannel Moth. 
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Insect pests of 1898. 

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( xxviii ) 

Spuler (A.). Die Schmetterlinge Europas. Dritte anflage von E. Hofmann 
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United States Department of Agriculture (Division of Entomology), 
(New Series). 

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A. D. Hopkins. 

No. 29. The Fall Army-worm aud variegated Cutworm, by 
F. H. Chittenden. 

Xo. 30. Some Miscellaneous results of the work of the 
division of Entomology, by L. O. Howard. 

Farmers' Bulletins. 

Bull. No. 130. The Mexican Cotton-Boll Weevil, by F. W. Mally. 

No. 132. The principal insect enemies of growing wheat, by 
C. L. Marlatt. The Dept. Agric. 

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New Thyrididae, Epiplemidas and Geometridae from the Aethiopian 

region. 
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[See Saussure (H. de).] 



( xxix ) 



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Cape Town. South African Philosophical Society. Transactions, Vol. XI. 

The Society. 

South African Museum. Annals. Vol. II., Pts. 1-5. 

Trustees S. Afr. Mus. 

AMERICA (NORTH). 

CANADA. 

Halifax. Nova Scotian Institute of Science. Proceedings and Ti'ansactions. 
Vol. X., Pt. 2. The Institute. 

London, Ontario. The Canadian Entomologist. Vol. XXXIII, 1901. 

By Exchange. 

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Ser. 2, Vol. VI., 1900. The Society. 

Ontario. Ent. Soc. of Ontario. 31st Report, 1900. The Society. 

UNITED STATES.- 

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Annual Rept. Smithsonian Institution, 1898. The Museum. 

Philadelphia. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Proceedings, 
1901. By Exchange. 

Entomological News, Vol. XII., 1901. By Exchange. 

American Entomological Society. Transactions, 1901. 

By Exchange. 

Washington. Entomological Society. Proceedings, Vol. IV., 1901. . 

Purchased. 
U.S. National Museum. Proceedings, Vol. XXI. The Museum. 
U.S. Nat. Mus. Report, 1898. 

WEST INDIES. 

Barbadoes. West Indian Bulletin. Vol. II. Mr, F. Du C, Godman, 

AMERICA (SOUTH). 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

Cordoba. Bol. XVI. The Museum. 

Buenos Aires. Boletin de da Acad, Nac de Ciencias en Cordoba. Tomo 
XVI. Ent. 1—4. The Acad. Nat. 



ASIA. 

INDIA. 

Bombay. Natural History Society. Journal. Vol. XIII,, No. 3 5. 

By Exchange, 



( XXX ) 



AUSTRALASIA. 

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Vol. XXV., Pt, 1. By Exchange. 

Perth. Journal Agricultural Department of West Australia. Vol. III. 

The Society. 

Sydney. The Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales, 1901. 

Agric. Dept. 
Linnean Society of New South Wales. Proceedings, 1901. 

By Exchange. 



NEW ZEALAND. 

Wellington. New Zealand Institute, Transactions and Proceedings, Vol. 
XXXIII, 1901. Tht Institute. 



EUROPE. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

Brunn. Verhand. der naturf. Vereines in Brunn. Bd. XXXVIII. 1899. 

By Exchangt . 

Budapest. Termed zetrajzi Fiizetek, kiadja a Magyar nemzeti Muzeum. 
Vol. XXIV, 1901. By Exchange. 

Vienna. K.-k. zoologische-hotanische Verein (Gesellschaft) in Wien. 
Verhandlungen. Band LI., 1901. By Exchange. 

Wiener entomologische Zeitung Bd. XX.. 1901. By Purchase. 

BELGIUM. 

Brussels. Societe Entomologique de Belgique. Annates. 1901. 

Memoires, Vol. VIII. By Exchange. 

L'Acad. Roy. Sci., etc, de Belgique. Bulletins 1899 and 1900, 
Annuaires 1900 and 1901. Mem. eour. (4to), Tomes 57 and 58, 
(8vo), Tom. 58—60. The Society. 



FRANCE. 

Caen. Societe Franchise d'Entomologie. Revue. Tome XX., 1901. 

By Fvrchase. 

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Lyon. Soc. Linneenne de Lyon. Annales. 1899. By Exchange. 

Paris. L'Abeille, Tome X., 1901. By Purchase. 

Soc. Entom. de France. Ann. et Bulletin. 1899. 

By Exchange. 

Toulouse, Bulletin de la Soc. d'Hist, Nat. de Toulouse, 1900. 

By Exchange. 



( xxxi ) 



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Berlin. Entomologischer Yerein in Berlin. Berliner entomologische 
Zeitschrift. 1901. By Exchange. 

Deutsche entomologische G-esellschaft, Deutsche entomologische 
Zeitschrift. 1901. Heft 1. By Exchange. 

Dresden. " Iris." Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift. 1901. 

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1900. Abhandl' 25 u. 26. By Exchange. 

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LIV. By Exchange. 



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Dublin. Roy. Dublin Society. Transactions and Proceedings. 1900. 

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London. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 1901. 

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Entomologist (The). 1901. R. South. 

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Journal and Proceedings. 1901. By Exchange. 

Nature. 1901. The Publishers. 

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Quekett Microscopical Club. Journal. 1901. The Club. 

, Royal Agricultural Society. Journal. 3rd Ser., Vol. XII. 

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Royal Society. Proceedings. Nos. 439 — 452. By Exchange. 

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Zoological Society. Proceedings, 1901. Transactions, Yol. XV., 

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Zoologist (The). 1901, The Publisher. 



( xxxii ) 



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ITALY. 

Firenze. Nuove relazioni della r. stazione di Entomologia agraria di Firenze. 
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* * * 



TEANSACTIONS 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF 

LONDON 

For the Year 1901. 



I. Observations on some species of Orina, a genus of 
viviparous and ovo-viviparous Beetles. By George 
Charles Champion, F.Z.S., and Thomas Algernon 
Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S. Reported by Dr. Thomas 
Algernon Chapman. 

[Read December 5th, 1900.] 

Plates I. and II. 

Though not our first meeting with examples of this 
genus, we were, last year at Fusio (Tessin, Switzerland), 
attracted by a species that we believed to be 0. gloriosa, 
which led to our taking an increased interest in the 
OrintB. These were rather large Ckrysomela-like beetles, 
some specimens being about half-an-inch long. Their 
coloration varied immensely, through blue, blue-green, 
green with a blue stripe, bright metallic grass-green, and 
the same with blue or coppery stripes, the latter being 
very handsome, and fully justifying its various synonyms 
of gloriosa, superba, speciosa. Some of the blue-green 
specimens were so dark as to be almost black. The most 
dissimilar forms were secured in copula, and these with 
series of the several forms were exhibited at the meeting 
of the Entomological Society on February 7th, 1900. This 
striking variation suggests these beetles as very suitable for 
experiments on heredity and variation, especially as our 
experience this year shows that they are very easy to rear. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART I. (APRIL) 1 



2 Mr. G. C. Champion and Dr. T. A. Chapman's 

The larvae feed up rapidly in confinement, and submit to 
various conditions without apparently suffering in health. 

The little attention we gave to these beetles in 1899 
led us to believe that there were several closely allied 
forms which varied in much the same manner, so that 
an arrangement of the specimens by colour alone, would 
look much more natural, than each species by itself if 
represented by all its varieties. 

This year we came across a colony of a very similar 
insect at Pontresina, a species that seemed to have almost 
precisely the same range of variation as 0. gloriosa. This 
species turned out to be Orina vittigera, and presented 
not a few of the " superb " copper-striped form that does 
not appear to have been recognised as occurring in vitti- 
gera, and which is certainly not so common as we found it 
in the Fusio insect. We felt constrained to take a con- 
tinued interest in these from the variety point of view. 
One of the first things, however, that I noticed when 
looking at them on their food-plant, was a female beetle, 
laying, not eggs, but larvae. The fact that the species 
was viviparous was new to us at the time, and led us to 
make further observations. We find, however, that this 
habit had been recorded, so far back as 1855, by M. Perroud 
(Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 1855), and has since been noticed 
by other entomologists, especially by Herr J. Weise. 
With the single exception of a note in the Ent. Monthly 
Mag. Vol. XL, we can find no allusion to this habit in 
any English (or American) Journals or Text-books; the 
latter indeed refer to Schiodte's 1 observations on certain 
termitophilous Staphylinidse as being all that is known of 
viviparity in Coleoptera. 

We afterwards secured three other species of Orina 
from which we were able to obtain eggs or larvae and to 
rear the latter to full growth, so that we are able to add 
a little to what has hitherto been recorded, as well as 
having had the pleasure of observing some interesting 
facts, practically unknown to English Entomologists. 

The papers we have been able to find bearing on the life- 
history of these beetles are not numerous ; it may be use- 
ful to give the following short account of them : — 

M. Perroud's original note records how he brought 
home specimens of 0. gloriosa (from near the Grande 
Chartreuse), and found small larvae in his boxes that he 
1 Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. 1857. 



Observations on some species of Orina. 3 

was sure were not put there in the field, at which he was 
naturally greatly astonished. He followed the matter up 
so as to prove that the beetle actually laid living larvae. 
He did not rear these, but he describes the young larva, 
with some doubtful items in the accounts of its mouth parts. 

Herr Letzner gives an account of the larva of Orina 
cacalize in the Bericht. Schlesien. Gesells. for 1856, p. 
106. He gives the food-plants as Cacalia ( = Adenostyles) 
albifrons and Senecio nemorensis. I have not been able to 
refer to this paper. 

In the " Petites Nouvelles Entomologiques " for October 
1st, 1874, M. L. Bleuse relates his experience of Chrysomela 
venusta. This article was translated and appears in 
German in the Ent. Nachr. for 1875, p. 24, and in English in 
the Ent. Monthly Mag. for Nov. 1874. It is the only notice 
of the whole subject that I can find in any English form. 

This species fed on Helosciadmm nudifiorum, on which 
he had found the beetle. He notes that the larvae 
moulted twice, and went to earth on the 16th to 18th 
day. He notes the young larvae as being laid with the end 
of the abdomen against the leaf, and being of a pale green- 
yellow colour, but quickly became brown, and at the end 
of ten minutes were feeding on the leaf. 

J. Weise, Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr., 1883, p. 243, gives a 
list with critical and descriptive notes of some Swiss Orins&, 
mentioning nine species presenting material for remark, 
followed by a table for discriminating the species of the 
genus, including 22 species. 

There are no remarks on habit or life-history. 

J. Weise, Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr., 1885, p. 403, gives an 
account of the development and rearing of Orina. 

The certainty of naming the species of the genus by 
the form of the penis, in comparison with previous doubt- 
ful determinations, is mentioned with satisfaction, and the 
further desirability of rearing the several species is dwelt 
on. It is pointed out that if you cannot collect the beetles 
yourself, you can get some one to send you gravid females 
with the supply of the food-plant. That larvae are laid 
freely and are very easy to rear and can be fed on some 
allied obtainable food-plant, if their true one does not 
grow where you are. 

In this way he obtained the beetles and larvae of Orina 
alpestris,v&r. polymorpha, from the Herr Pfarrer Gutheil of 
Dornfeld near the Konigsee. He carefully describes the 



4 Mr. G. C. Champion and Dr. T. A. Chapman's 

process of laying the larvae, and describes the young and full- 
grown larvae, which he fed on Anthriscus sylvestris, failing 
Chxrophyllum nitidum or aromaticum, their proper food. 

He notes the larva of 0. alpestris to be near that described 
of 0. superba by Perroud — both differing considerably from 
that of 0. cacalise. 

In the Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschrift for 1886, p. 29, Herr 
Oberstlieutenant A. Schultze gives a description of the 
larva of 0. plagiata, which he found freely along with the 
beetles in mid July on the Babia Gora in the Bistrathal. 
They fed on Doronicum austriacum, Jacq. There are some 
useful notes by Herr Schultze, and also by Herr J. Weise 
on the precise food-plant and the range and habitat of 
0. plagiata. 

In the Bulletin of the Italian Entomological Society for 
1889 (Vol. XXI. p. 46), Dr. Silvio Calloni, of Pavia, relates 
his observations on Orina speciosissima, an insect which he 
associates with G-entiana purpurea and a species of Galeopsis. 
The beetle occurred on the leaves of a robust Galeopsis to 
which no desire for feeding attracted them, but because 
the leaves afforded satisfactory pairing stations. He 
remarks on the tenacity with which pairs of the beetles 
failed to separate on various disturbances. They remained 
paired during the jolting of descending the mountain, and 
afterwards for three days and a balf during which they did 
not eat; the male then ate a little, but the female not till 
the fifth day. The female laid half a score little larvae, 
which he says must have been incubated in the vagina. 
After the considerable detail he gives of the pairing, one is 
disappointed to have no indication of how long after it was 
when the young larvae were laid. He refers to Bleuse's 
notes in the " Feuilles des Jeunes Naturalistes," and says 
his is the first observation on 0. speciosissima. 

In the Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschrift for 1894, p. 250, J. 
Weise has furtber remarks on the genus Orina. 

He describes a larva on Centaurea as being that of 
0. rugulosa, var. nigritula. As he did not see it laid, or rear 
it, he mentions its identification with a shade of doubt. 
The description is very close (only the young larva is 
described) to that of our Centaurea feeder (0. tristis). The 
rest of the paper is critical of the imagines. 

In the Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschrift for 1897, p. 394, 
Herr Weise gives an account of Orina alpestris and 0. in- 
tricata, saying how he found he was rather early for them 



Observations on some species of Orina. 5 

on July 10, but after nine days obtained both sexes. He 
describes the pairing, which he says lasts all day. Refer- 
ring to having previously dealt with 0. alpestris (D. E. Z. 
1885), he describes in some detail the egg-laying of 0. 
intricata, describes the larva, how it assumes its activity 
just after being laid, and how voracious it is. The food of 
these was Senecio nemorensis, and a large Petasites, prac- 
tically the same as of 0. cacalize. The difference between 
the larvae of 0. alpestris and 0. intricata is noticed. 

M. Schiodte's observations on Staphylinidae (Aleocharids) 
in termites' nests appeared in 1856. His specimens were too 
much altered in spirit to enable him to make anything of 
the interior anatomy of the beetle, but in the mass filling 
the distended $ abdomen he found eggs and larvae in all 
stages of development, many of the latter being fully 
matured for external existence. 

In recording our notes, the primary difficulty is to know 
what names our insects are entitled to, and as there 
seemed to be no equally satisfactory way of solving this 
problem, we submitted the specimens to Herr J. Weise for 
his opinion. We are able, therefore, to give the deter- 
mination of the four species noticed on his authority. 

The first species we dealt with, that taken at Pontresina 
(in the wood on the way up to Muottas Pontresina and 
elsewhere), is thus determined to be Orina vittigera, Suffr. 
It is probably not the same as that observed by M. 
Perroud, and called by him 0. speciosa, Panz. (superoa, 
Olivier), 0. vittigera not apparently reaching so far north as 
his locality. His beetle was attached to Laszrpitium 
latifolium, whilst ours was confined to Peacedanum ostrutli- 
ium. We saw the Laserpitium frequently, but always 
without any beetles. The 0. superoa we met with at 
Guarda was possibly the same as his ; the larvae of this ate 
the Peucrdanum, and also took readily to Angelica sylves- 
tris, which the 0. vittigera would merely nibble. It is 
possible, however, that there is a greater range of food- 
plant than we observed, since we know that many insects 
are at first indifferent, which of a number of plants they 
eat, but are averse, even to the extent of starvation, to eat- 
ing afterwards any but the species they began with. Mr. 
Burrows' recent observations on the Geometrid moth 
Euchloris smaragdaria well illustrate this circumstance. 

What we saw on several occasions was a beetle placing 
on a leaf, generally on the underside, as she would place 



6 Mr. G. C. Champion and Dr. T. A. Chapman's 

an egg, a fully developed young larva. On one occasion 
the young larva seemed accompanied by a shred of mem- 
brane that attached it to the leaf. Another larva apparently 
had to free its legs from some membranous matter. But 
on all other occasions, we could be sure of nothing in the 
way of membrane or egg-shell accompanying the young 
larva. 

The young larvae were close on 2 mm. in length, were 
placed with their anal extremities to the leaf and 
remained in that position, with head depressed, and legs 
appressed to the body, for perhaps a minute. Very 
quickly, however, the young larva was moving about, and 
within the hour had eaten a small circular hole in the leaf 
on which it was laid. The larva at first was quite white 
and colourless, and to a great degree transparent. The 
coloured parts being the jaw- tips, the six eye-spots, and 
the nine pairs of spiracles. It assumed the normal black 
colour in a few hours, in a closed box. I did not ascertain, 
but believe it does so more rapidly exposed to light and air. 

The parturient female is expanded to considerable 
dimensions, tne elytra failing by a considerable distance 
to cover the abdomen. She Jays from three to six or even 
more young at a time, or at least at intervals of a few 
minutes, and does this once or twice a day, but not every 
day, for a number of days. One specimen, for instance, 
laid larvse from July 4 (or before) till July 26th : on the 
8th it laid six; by the 13th it had laid eleven more; by 
the 15th, seven or eight more ; 18th, six more ; 20th, one ; 
22nd, seven ; by the 26th, eight more. Altogether I 
separated twenty individual females with similar results. 

These observations of separate beetles were begun on 
July 7th with beetles that had already deposited some 
larvae. One beetle from this date to the 26th (19 days) 
deposited 57 larvae, another 56, and another 43 in the 
same period ; these beetles were noted as large. Of two 
slender ones, one laid 11 larvae up to the 22nd and 
then ceased ; the other laid 43 by the 22nd and then 
died ; a greatly expanded beetle laid 37 by the 26th and 
then ceased. That was the last date on which any 
observed beetle laid any eggs. Though the beetles were 
previously ill-used in the matter of being kept in the dark 
or nearly so in very small boxes (some in pill-boxes with 
glass lids, others in tins), they were supplied with plenty 
of food. 



Observations on some species of Orina. 7 

One or two larvae were deposited by beetles taken later, 
up to August 6th, but none after. Whether they 
naturally finish the process at this date I don't know, but 
it is very probable. Still it must be noted that no laying 
beetles were taken at later dates, and that specimens 
brought home to England were fed on an unacceptable 
diet of which they partook most sparingly. 

The beetles during August and September died con- 
tinually by ones and twos, but there were still a dozen 
or so alive on October 1st, and one that died at that date 
was very shrunken, had no food in the alimentary canal, 
but had some small eggs in nearly all of the ovarian tubes. 
About half-a-dozen were still alive on November 4th. 

The beetles in captivity were frequently found to be 
pairing, but without result. These facts suggest that 
there may be something more to learn, if observations 
could be made when a good supply of the natural food 
was obtainable. 

I have but slight acquaintance with the literature of 
viviparity in insects, and consequently do not know whether 
anything very definite has been recorded as to where the 
ova are fertilised and where development within the ovum 
takes place. In the " sheep- tick " only one egg appears 
to be matured at a time, and this seems to rest for a con- 
siderable time in the dilated oviduct which acts appar- 
ently as a uterus. In Melophagus it may therefore be 
that fertilisation of the ovum takes place much in the way 
that it does in the majority of insects, viz. in the oviduct 
and from a spermatheca. In Scatophaga and other dip- 
terous genera, ova are said to be retained in a dilated ovi- 
duct till they hatch, larvae being laid. 

In Orina vittigera this is certainly not the case ; the 
development of the ova takes place in the ovarian tubes, 
of which there are two bundles of about 20 in each, 
from each of which bundles a tube meets its fellow to 
form the common oviduct, the parts being arranged in the 
same way as in the majority of insects. In the tubes 
larvae ready for hatching are found at their lower ends, 
whilst higher up are smaller larvae. The appearances 
show that the larva grows considerably in the oviduct 
after it has developed sufficiently to show eye-spots, and 
still smaller bodies further up are probably not eggs for 
fertilisation, but partially developed larvae. Some of these 
are very similar to the larvae just showing eye-spots, and 



8 Mr. G. C. Champion and Dr. T. A. Chapman's 

a few of the latter are only about half the length of the 
fully developed larva. This line of investigation is one 
that I have little acquaintance with, and the specimens 
examined were brought home in glycerine, and did not 
seem to be so satisfactory to handle as fresh ones, so that 
I cannot give such full details as are desirable. 

The remarkable structure of the penis and its great 
length may or may not have some relation to the fact of 
fecundation of the ova taking place in the ovarian tubules. 
I do not attach much importance to the frequent pairings 
observed in captive specimens, especially as these led to 
no progeny being developed, i. e. I doubt whether the 
successively deposited larvae are the result of successive 
fertilisations, as this would imply an extraordinary form 
of superfcetation. I incline to think that the succes- 
sively deposited larvae come forward in the order they do, 
in consequence of the amount of nutriment supplied them 
leading to their maturing at recurrent periods. I express 
the opinion, not, as holding it with any tenacity, for which 
I have little grounds, but merely to point out one of the 
many physiological problems that this case presents. 

Another Orina, which we met with in quantity at 
several places, especially in the Val Roseg at Pontresina, 
is one of which we had little doirbt as to the correct 
determination, and this has been confirmed by Hen* 
Weise. Its characters are more definite and distinctive. 
This is Orina cacaliw, Schr., of which we found both larvae 
and imagines on a species of Adenostyles, and in a tall 
JSolidago-like Senecio, probably S. ncmorensis. 

The larvae were not very numerous, and were in the 
2nd, 3rd and 4th instars, but we could find no young 
ones, nor any gravid beetles. 

The beetles of this species brought home would eat 
coltsfoot (Tussilago farfard), but obviously did not like it, 
and I found they did better, but not well, on groundsel, 
Senecio vulgaris. 

Of all the beetles I brought home and fed here, none of 
0. vittigera and only one of 0. cacalim produced young. 
This, however, enabled me to see the young larva, and to 
determine that this species produces larvae and not eggs. 

These larvae were not laid tilL September, and some of 
them died. Some laid on September 11th moulted for 
the third time on the 28th, and these, the last deposited, 
seemed to thrive on groundsel. Only ten or twelve were 



Observations on some species of Orina. 9 

laid, and a full month elapsed between the capture of the 
beetles and the deposit of the larvae. 

I had both sexes of the beetles, and there were frequent 
pairings, but as happened also with 0. vittigera, nothing 
came of them in any case in which I separated the beetles 
for observation — so that I do not know the period of gesta- 
tion of either beetle. 

At Guarda we met sparingly with two other species of 
Orina. These were determined by Herr Weise to be 0. 
gloriosa, Fabr., and 0. tristis, Fabr., var. smaragdina. I 
brought home one living female of each of these, and was 
fortunate enough to obtain larvae. 

Both these beetles very much resemble 0. vittigera in 
appearance, and it was not till I had the larva that I was 
satisfied of the specific distinctness of 0. gloriosa. 

This species was found near the mill at Cloza. The 
young larvae were with the parent beetle when I got home; 
they were clearly laid as larvae, as they were well advanced, 
had no egg-shells present, and were very like those of 0. 
vittigera at the same age. Taking them to be, possibly, 0. 
vittigera, I gave them Peucedanum ostmthium as long as I 
had any, and then offered them Angelica sylvestris, which 
they readily took to, in a way that neither beetles nor 
larvae of 0. vittigera would do. There were only three of 
them, and two of them fed up and went down. Like the 
other species they fed up in about a month, during which 
they moulted three times. 

The other species taken at Guarda, and which Herr 
Weise has determined to be 0. tristis, Fabr. (luctnosa, Oliv.), 
var. smaragdina, Weise, has a very smooth disc to the pro- 
thorax. I thought the beetle seemed attached to Cen- 
taurea, and fed the larvae on Centaur ea scabiosa success- 
fully. The remarkable difference between this species 
and the others is that it is oviparous and not viviparous ; 
yet the beetles and larvae are very close indeed to those of 
0. gloriosa and 0. vittigera, and belong to the group of 
which it is so difficult to distinguish the species, and differ 
from 0. cacaJite, which is tolerably distinct in both stages, 
and yet is viviparous like 0. gloriosa and 0. vittigera. 

The egg of 0. tristis is of a very definite firm 
structure, with a solid shell, from which the beetle does 
not hatch for several days after it is deposited. The 
beetle emerges by a longitudinal slit, starting at one apex, 
and extending down one side of the egg two-thirds of its 



10 Mr. G. C. Champion and Dr. T. A. Chapman's 

length. The egg-shell retains the form of the egg and 
its surface presents a fine hexagonal network. 

The difference is thus great between 0. tristis and the 
other species, but physiologically it is less than at first 
sight appears. The egg that 0. tristis lays is not strictly 
speaking an egg, i. e. a mass of germinal and food material 
that will develop into a larva, it is really a larva enclosed 
in an egg-shell. When the egg is laid, the larva within is 
very plain, and though otherwise colourless, jaws, spiracles, 
and eye-spots are conspicuous. 

It is obvious, therefore, that the egg is fertilised, some 
considerable period before it is laid, and that development 
goes on in the interval, precisely as in 0. vittigera and 0. 
cacalize, and there is no reason to doubt, in precisely the 
same way, that is, whilst the eggs are still in the ovarian 
tubes. My beetle only laid a few eggs and then died ; I 
should imagine, these were the last of a long series similar 
to those of 0. vittigera. 

It may be well to mention what we observed of the 
habits of the larvae before entering on the characters of 
those of each species. 

When first laid or hatched the larvse inflate themselves 
with a certain amount of air, and increase considerably in 
size. This seems to be a common occurrence in insects, 
and seems to be necessary to secure tension of the dermis 
to give a fulcrum for muscular action, when such tension is 
not obtained by fat, or food in the alimentary canal or 
other solid material. 

The only larvae we saw much of at large were those of 
0. vittigera, and in a less degree 0. cacalise. 

Where the young larvae of 0. vittigera are laid, there 
they nibble a circular hole in the leaf, and amongst a mass 
of the food-plant, leaves with numerous small circular 
holes show where larvae have been laid. The parent 
beetles eat a great deal, but they nearly always eat from 
the edge of the leaf. 

At the end of the first week of July, there were already 
a good many young larvae, judging by the holes in the 
leaves, and there were none of any size, so that egg (?) lay- 
ing does not begin till July. But we were at first puzzled 
about the larvae, because we could not see any at all, 
except a few newly laid ones. We found, however, that 
after their first meal, they went off to hide in the growing 
heads of the Peucedanum. When the flowering stem is, 



Observations on some species of Orina. 11 

as it is at this date, about as high as the leaves, it terminates 
in a large knob, consisting of the large petioles inclosing 
the young leaves and inflorescence, and it was in the 
somewhat globular cavity so constituted and along with 
the } T oung flowers, that the little larvae were hidden away 
sometimes in very large numbers. The habits of the full- 
grown larvae are not known to us, as we had left the 
habitat at the proper date for observing them. We were 
rather struck by this hiding-habit of the larvae of 0. vitti- 
gera, as we were familiar with the larvae of 0. cacalise, 
which live fully exposed at all ages. 

The larvae hatched about July 7th were full grown and 
entered some earth provided for them on August 7th ; 
some were ready to go down a few days earlier, but were 
not afforded the opportunity. They moulted three times 
whilst feeding up. 

In the earth they make a cavity rather large for their 
size, smoothly rounded within, without any silk or other 
obvious addition. 

There is a certain close family likeness amongst all 
these Orina larvae. All of them have the abdominal seg- 
ments so swollen that one would perhaps describe their 
form best, at least when they are at rest, by terming 
them spherical, with some modifications. These would 
be chiefly that the 2nd and 3rd thoracic segments, which 
are like the abdominal segments dorsally, form a some- 
what narrowed neck to which the first thoracic and 
head form a short, thick termination, also the venter 
is flattened, and the anal segments are slightly produced. 
When the larva is active, and especially in the earlier 
periods of each stage, it is capable of more cylindrical 
extension, and of producing the apical segments to a point 
terminated by a sucker, or pseud opod, and the head and 
thorax instead of being appendages to a sphere are half 
the length of the insect. 

The larva of 0. gloriosa is very like that of 0. vittigera 
in nearly all respects except colour : instead of being black 
it is orange-yellow, or terra-cotta coloured. The skin is, 
however, thick and strong, and does not allow the tracheae 
to be seen dorsally as is the case with the transparent 
skin just after a moult. The length is 16 or 17 mm., width 
5 to 6 mm. The prothoracic plate is large and covers the 
second and third thoracic segments when the larva 



12 Mr. G. C. Champion and Dr. T. A. Chapman's 

assumes its globular resting attitude. The prothorax is 
3.5 mm. wide, narrowed in front, smooth and shining; 
except on the head and at the margin of the plate, the 
larva is glabrous, these parts carrying some short hairs. 

The tips of the jaws, some of the mouth -parts, and 
portions of the leg-plates are dark brown. The six eye- 
spots are black, the spiracles are dark. The prothoracic 
dorsum looks smooth and shining. The abdomen is much 
less so, as each segment is not only divided into two 
subsegments with subsidiary depressions, but each sub- 
segment is minutely wrinkled. 

The subsegmentation dorsally presents a transverse de- 
pression across the middle of the segment, which hardly 
passes the spiracle and has a ridge from the anterior sub- 
segment passing down into it about half-way from dorsum 
to spiracle, or the groove dividing the subsegments may 
be described as sending a branch into the anterior sub- 
segment, whilst the main groove takes a rather more 
posterior position for a space. 

It is no doubt a further development of this that makes 
the peculiar subdorsal angle in the larva of 0. cacaliee. 

Below the spiracles is a double ridge or flange, the 
incision between the two ridges (or portions of the ridge) 
being rather deep. Ventrally the cuticle is thin and 
transparent, allowing the tracheae, etc., to be seen. 

In the young larva the eye-spots are in two rows of 
three each, the three pairs being symmetrically placed. In 
the adult the four upper eye-spots are placed as a square. 
The antenna is as it were wedged in partially between 
these and the two lower ones, so that the posterior one is 
pushed downwards and backwards to a slight degree, the 
first one considerably so, and is in fact below the antenna. 
The antenna is placed in a large circular hollow, into 
which it is capable of being completely telescoped, each 
segment inside the preceding. It looks as if formed of 
four joints, the last being very small, the whole length of 
the antenna being little longer than its width at base. 
It has, however, only three joints : first, a soft membrane 
that allows of the greater part of the collapse of the 
antenna, when expanded it is half the length of the 
antenna, conical and ends in a dark chitinous ring (the true 
first joint?); then a more cylindrical piece, as long as broad, 
dark and with a narrower colourless membrane to allow 
of its partial retraction into the first segment; then a 



Observations on some species of Orina. 13 

narrower (half the width of the second) thimble-shaped piece, 
also retractible, and ending in a few very minute bristles. 

The labrum consists of a basal part very wide from side 
to side, very narrow antero-posteriorly, of somewhat uni- 
form size from side to side, and a second joint narrower than 
the first, nearly square in general outline, of darker chitin, 
with a strong rounded projecting flap on each side with 
notch between them. These two pieces are retractile so 
as to much vary their joint length. 

The jaws are large and strong, with five sharp teeth, the 
anterior shortest and with a minor point near its apex ; 
each tooth has a finely serrated edge. 

The maxilla has a basal piece and a narrow terminal 
piece; this latter carries an inner process of one joint and 
an outer palpus of three joints, each furnished with several 
bristles. The labium, on a large transverse chitinous 
segment, carries the two palpi, each of two joints. 

The legs present no structural differences to those of 
the other species. They consist of three segments of about 
equal length, together with a base which is rather part of 
the body of the thorax, than truly belonging to the leg, 
and a terminal claw. 

The first or basal joint is very thick and tapering to its 
extremity, its form and size make it the coxa, but I am 
not learned enough in the comparative anatomy of these 
parts to say it is not the trochanter. The second joint is 
clearly the femur and the third the tibia, this follows 
from the aspects of their articulations. The coxo-femoral 
articulation is simple in being distinctly only one joint, but 
has somewhat complicated arrangements, so that possibly 
the trochanter is represented here. The claw represents 
the tarsus and has a large thickened base, showing it to 
be more than a claw, the base carries several hairs. Some 
specimens even suggest that there is an articulation 
between the claw and this base, but I incline to think 
this is not so, though it suffices to show that the base 
is really the tarsus. 

Orina cacalise, young larvae found feeding September 
7th, and one had changed its skin ; none were there on 
3rd; no trace of egg-shells. Young larva absolutely 
black, the claws brownish, with a row of short bristles 
across each subsegment. Newly moulted larva, yellowish, 
quite transparent. The general resemblance to 0. vitti- 



14 Mr. G. C. Champion and Dr. T. A. Chapman's 

gera is very close, the differences are — hairs rather more 
pronounced, angulation of the rounded abdominal outline 
above spiracle already quite evident, the subsegmental 
groove terminating a little way above spiracles just above 
a ridge, whence the sides of the abdomen are a little 
flattened. In second skin, the prothorax is yellow. Eat- 
ing groundsel (Senecio vulgaris). 

In second skin head black; prothorax yellow, without 
raised margin ; hairs marginal, not dorsal ; black of abdo- 
men underlaid by the transparent shining yellow of the 
inner structures. 

In third skin, deep black, except the prothorax, which is 
bright yellow, with posterior margins slightly and lateral 
margins more raised ; supra-spiracular angle very marked. 
This is due to the inter-segmental incision being wanting 
at this point. The dorsum consists of a series of folds or 
ridges. At the actual dorsum these are seen to be the 
subsegments, two to a segment, the segmental fold being 
deep, the inter-segmental one shallow ; but below this the 
two ridges are exactly the same, high and rounded, and the 
folds also the same, deep and sharp. Downwards both 
stop sharply, but the true segmental incisions earlier than 
the other, so that the subsegmental fold is longest and 
seems the most important. The ridge against which they 
terminate thus runs a zigzag course, and the position of 
the segmental incision is unmarked by any line or groove. 
Below this zigzag ridge the segmental incision arises again 
suddenly and is well marked and deep. The segment 
is here uniformly convex, with no subsegmental groove. 
This portion of each segment is flat from above down- 
wards, so that all taken together form a flat, lateral surface, 
separated from the curved dorsum by the zigzag ridge. 

The larvae have a gregarious tendency, being found all 
close together, though put into a pot anyhow. They have 
a clear yellow thorax from early in first skin, contrasting 
strongly with the metallic bronzy-black of the rest of the 
surface: the underside also is paler and yellowish. The 
larva has a shorter and broader abdomen than that of 
0. vittigera. The divisions or rugse are deeper and more 
pronounced, and the whole larva is and feels hard rather 
than soft as that of 0. vittigera does. The two dorsal 
rugae to each segment uniting in a definite fold above 
the spiracle proceed downwards as a single raised rib 
giving a definite subdorsal flange at the point of juncture, 



Observations on some species of Orina. 15 

and form a longitudinal waved ridge ; the spiracle is on 
the middle of the lateral vertical rib, which terminates 
below in the lateral flange. Two segments at the anal 
end appear to be retractile for wielding the terminal 
sucker. The mouth and leg structures are apparently the 
same as in 0. vittigera. 

Orina vittigera. — The young larva as soon as it has 
taken its dark colour is 3 mm. long, and fully 1 mm. wide, 
head and thorax of equal width, colour black, head 
and thorax shining, abdomen duller but also shining; there 
are ribs on the abdominal segments that continue down to 
the latero-ventral flange (no latero-dorsal or subdorsal 
flange), and some scattered hairs on the head and sides of 
the thorax, but dorsally the larva is nearly smooth, hairs 
being few and very short, and for the most part and as 
compared with 0. tristis it is smooth and hairless. 

The larva changes its skin three times. When full grown 
it acquires for the first time a yellow prothorax (in the 
penultimate skin the thorax is often paler) ; the general 
colour is a dull indian-ink. Except some very fine 
striations, the segments are smooth generally, and the whole 
larva looks and is softish; the body is rounded, with no sub- 
dorsal flange ; the spiracles are just below the continuous 
smooth dorso-lateral surface, or plate ; below is a lateral 
region capable of puckering up into a projection in each 
segment forming a lateral flange, below which the ventral 
area terminates in what might be called a flange. The 
dorsal plates, though smooth and without ribs, etc., do, 
except in fat larvae, form two ridges by the sinking of a 
central transverse line. The under surface is pale yellowish- 
green, or olive-colour. There are a few short hairs on the 
head and prothorax that require looking for ; length, 9-10 
mm. ; width, head 1*5, proth. 2*4, body, 4*5 mm. 

Orina tristis, var. smaragdina, laid eggs between July 31st 
and August 3rd ; six eggs found August 4th. One hatched 
5th ; two hatched 7th ; others preserved. Egg 2*3 mm. long, 
*8 mm. wide ; oval, sausage-shaped curvature hardly to be 
detected, i. e. egg nearly straight. Yellow. Young larva 
visible in youngest egg ; jaws brown, six dark eye-spots 
on either side, spiracles dark, and three dark marks on 
either side (wanting in young larva of 0. vittigera) are 
visible through the egg-shell, one above and behind spiracle 



16 Mr. G. C. Champion and Dr. T. A. Chapman's 

of first abdominal segment, and one on third and one on 
second thoracic segments at the same level. A certain 
amount of transverse shading on dorsal plate of first 
thoracic segment, some coloration of antenna and labial (?) 
palpi and of leg-joints. Numerous hairs are also evident, 
irregularly scattered over the head and first thoracic, but 
on the following segments forming two transverse rows. 

The egg-shell is strongly marked by an irregular but 
largely hexagonal netting, with the general surface finely 
dotted. The larva escapes by a longitudinal slit passing 
down more than half one side of the egg-shell. The egg- 
shell adheres to the surface on which laid by one end. 

The young larva coloured as within egg-shell at hatch- 
ing, becomes after a few hours black ; at this stage it is 
about 1*6 mm. long, black and shining, but surrounded 
by a halo of short brown hairs, whether viewed dorsally or 
laterally. 

The full-grown larva has an inky-black abdomen, shin- 
ing and apparently glabrous, but showing numerous very 
small hairs under a lens. The thorax is neither yellow 
nor black, but looks as though yellow obscured by a dense 
black wash. The incision of the abdominal subsegments 
passes down below the spiracles, and though a little waved 
has no definite branch as in 0. vittigera. The prothoracic 
plate presents numerous hairs over its whole surface, and 
has various small foveas or pits. The head is distinctly 
hairy. The underside is rather paler, as of yellow over- 
laid by blackish. 

These four larvae are really so much alike that it may 
be well to specially note their differences. 

0. tristis is laid as an egg, the others as larvae. It is 
smaller than they when first hatched. It is also in the 
first stage more hairy than they are, though they have hairs 
all over in their first stage, but only on the head and the 
sides of the prothorax when full grown, at least the others 
become microscopic. 

0. cacalise is most distinct from the other three. The 
prothorax is of a bright yellow, contrasting with the very 
dark colour of the rest of the insect, which is shining and 
polished. The prothorax is fully larger than in the others, 
and hard as it is and solid-looking, is transparent, and 
allows the tracheae beneath the cuticle to be seen. 0. 
cacalise is also remarkable for the subdorsal flange which 



Observations on some species of Orina. 17 

breaks through the incisions of the segments with a raised 
ridge, and leaves the sides below it somewhat flat down to 
the marginal flange ; whilst in the other species the back 
is regularly arched across from the marginal flange, and 
there is no continuity of the subdorsal flange across the 
incisions. 

This species feeds openly in contrast to the hiding 
habits of 0. vittigera, so that one suspects the brilliant 
contrast of yellow and black in its coloration to be 
probably of a warning character. 

0. gloriosa is of a pale nankeen colour, very different to 
the dark sepia colour of 0. vittigera and 0. tristis, and 
has a definite fold in the subsegmental incisions, that is 
less pronounced than in 0. vittigera, and of a somewhat 
different character. 

0. tristis when full-grown approaches very closely to 0. 
vittigera, but is more densely dark, and has a different 
fold in the subsegmental incision to both 0. vittigera and 
0. gloriosa. It agrees with 0. cacalis& in feeding on Com- 
posite and not on Umbelliferze as 0. vittigera and 0. gloriosa 
do, but structurally its alliance is much more with the 
latter. 

The points which seem to be most noteworthy in our 
observations are in confirming the viviparity of the genus 
and in finding one species that is not strictly viviparous. 
The observation that the eggs develop into larvae in the 
ovarian tubules is a very unexpected one, and suggests 
further researches, which should disclose various points of 
difference from the usual method of fecundation of the ova 
in insects. The larvae of 0. tristis and 0. vittigera do not 
appear to have been previously described, nor of course 
brought together alive for comparison with the other 
species. 



Explanation of Plates I. and II. 

[See next page.] 



TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART I. ( APRIL) 2 



Explanation of Plate I. 

Illustrating Mr. G. C. Champion and Dr. T. A. Chapman's 
" Observations on some species of Orina." 



Larvae, etc., of Orina, all enlarged. 

Fig. 1. Orina gloriosa, full-grown. 

2. Orina cacalise, ,, ,, (at junction of thorax and abdomen 

the incisions are not quite correctly 
shown.) 

2a. ,, ,, larva in stage 1. 

3. Orina vittigera, full-grown. 

'da, b, c. ,, anterior, intermediate "and posterior legs, as trans- 

parent objects from cast larva-skin; a piece 
that looks like a trochanter is evident, but it 
is not separately articulated. 

,, antenna partially retracted. 

,, ,, fully extended. 

,, labium. 

,, labrum. 



3d. 

Be. 
3/- 
3a. 
3h. 



,, mandible, with portion of margins more enlarged 
to show the serrations on the teeth. 

,, maxilla. 

4. Orina tristis, var. smaragdina, full-grown. 

4a. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, terminal segments, as 

exserted Avhen using anal sucker 
or foot. 

4I>. ,, ,, ,, ,, Egg showing line of dehiscence 

and scale of hexagonal sculpture. 



Explanation of Plate II. 

Illustrating Mr. G. C. Champion and Dr. T. A. Chapman's 
" Observations on some species of Orina." 



Ovaries, etc., of Orina vittigera, photographed from specimens. 

Fig. 1. Shows ovarian tubules, oviduct, etc., from a specimen that had 
completed the deposit of larvae. 

2. Same parts, with extremity of abdomen and portion of alimentary 

canal, showing embryos in the ovarian tubules. 

3. A similar specimen. Some of these embryos are fully developed 

larvae, as may be seen in separated specimen in next fig. 

4. Separated embryos, a little more enlarged. (None of these show 

distinctly in the photographs, how fully developed larvae these 
embryos are, but they do show that they are still in the ovarian 

tubules.) 



( 19 ) 



II. An Account of a Collection of Rhopalocera made at 
Zomba in British Central Africa. By Percy I. 
Lathy. Communicated by Charles J. Gahan, M.A. 

[Read November 2 1st 1900.] 

Plate III. 

During the past two years Mr. H. J. Adams, F.E.S., 
has been receiving consignments of Lepidoptera from 
Zomba; as the collection contains a few novelties, and 
some species which have not been hitherto recorded from 
the locality, an account of it may perhaps be of interest. 

In all, one hundred and seventy-six species of Rhopalo- 
cera were obtained, and considering this was the work of 
an untrained collector, it was I think a satisfactory result. 

The principal feature of the collection, as in others 
made in the same locality, is the number of Charaxes, it 
containing no less than twenty species, many of them 
rare, and one, C. etesipe, Godt., that has been hitherto 
regarded as a West African species. 

The females of Mylothris rubricosta, Mab., and Papilio 
pelodtirus, Butl., are also in the collection. 

My thanks are due to Dr. Butler and Mr. Heron of the 
Natural History Museum for their kind assistance in 
enabling me to determine many of the species, and to 
Dr. Jordan for his help with the Charaxes. 

The arrangement followed in this list is that of Dr. 
Holland for the Hesperiidae, and Prof. Aurivillius for the 
other families. 

1. Danccis chrysippus. 

Papilio chrysippus, Linn., Mus. Lud. Ulr., p. 263 
(1764). 

2. Danais dorippus. 

Euploea dorippus, Klug., Symb. Phys., t. 48, f. 1-5 

(1845). 

3. Amauris dominicanus. 

Amauris dominicanus, Trim., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1879, p. 323. 

4. Amauris ochlea. 

Danais ochlea, Boisd., Voy. Deleg., ii, p. 580 (1847). 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART I. (APRIL) 



20 Mr. P. I. Lathy s 

5. Amauris whytei. 

Amauris whytei, ButL, P.Z. S. 1893, p. 644. 

6. Melanitis leda. 

Papilio leda, Linn., Syst. Nat., i, 2, p. 773, n. 151 
(1767). 

7. Melanitis libya. 

Melanitis libya, Dist., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 5, 
vol. x, p. 405 (1882). 

8. Gnophodes diversa. 

Gnophodes diversa, ButL, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 
5, vol. v, p. 333 (1880). 

9. Monotvichtis ena. 

Mycalesis ena,B.ew., Ent. Mo. Mag., 14, p. 107 (1877). 

10. Monotriehtis rhacotis. 

Mycalesis rhacotis, Hew., Ex. Butt., iii, Myc, t. 6, 
p. 34 (1866). 

11. Monotriehtis selousi. 

Mycalesis selousi, Trim., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1895, 
p. 183, t. 5, f. 2, 2a. 

12. Monotriehtis safitza. 

Mycalesis safitza, Hew., Gen. D. L. p. 394, n. 10, note. 

13. Monotriehtis evenus. 

Mycalesis evenus, Hopff., Ber. Verb. Ak. Berl., 1855, 
p. 641, n. 14. 

14. Monotriehtis funebris. 

Satyrus funebris, GueV., Icon. Regne. Anim. Ins. 
texte, p. 488 (1844). 

15. Henotesia perspicua. 

Mycalesis perspicna, Trim., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1873, p. 104, t. i, f. 3. 

16. Henotesia simonsii. 

Mycalesis simonsii, ButL, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, 
xix, p. 458 (1877). 

17. Physctenura pione. 

Physczennra pione, Godm., P. Z. S. 1880, p. 183, t. 
19, f. 2, 3. 



Account of a Collection of Rhopalocera. 21 

18. Neoccenyra gregorii. 

Neoccenyra gregorii, ButL, P. Z. S. 1894, p. 560, t. 
36, f. 2. 

19. Pardopsis punctatissima. 

Acrma punctatissima, Boisd., Faune. Mad., p. 31, 
n. 5, t. 6, f. 2 (1833). 

20. Acrma insignis. 

Acrma insignis, Dist., P. Z. S. 1880, t. 19, f. 6. 

21. Acrma acara. 

Acrma acara, Hew., Ex. Butt., iii, Acr., t. 3, f. 19, 

20 (1865). 

22. Acr sea anemosa. 

Acrma anemosa, Hew., Ex. Butt., iii, Acr., t. 3, f. 14, 
15. 

23. Acrma areca. 

Acr ma areca, Mab., Bull., Soc. Ent., France, 1888, 
p. 169. 

24. Acrma asema. 

Acr ma asema, Hew., Ent. Mo. Mag., xiv, p. 52 

(1877). 

25. Acr sea acr it a. 

Acr ma acrita, Hew., Ex. Butt., iii, Acr., t. 3, f. 18, 

(1865). 

26. Acrma guillemei. 

Acr ma guillemei, Oberth., Etudes d'Ent., xvii, p. 19, 
t. 1, f. 1 (1893). 

27. Acr ma caldarena. 

Acrma caldarena, Hew., Ent. Mo. Mag., xiv, p. 52 
(1877). 

28. Acrma nero. 

Telchinia nero, ButL, Arm. Mag. Nat. Hist., t. 5, 
xii, p. 102 (1883). 

29. Acrma douhledayi. 

Acrma douhledayi, Guer., Lef. Voy. Abyss., vi, p. 378 

(1849). 

30. Acrma natalica. 

Acrma natalica, Boisd., Voy. Deleg., p. 590 (1847). 



22 Mr. P. I. Lathy's 

31. Act sea terpsichore. 

Papilio terpsichore, Linn., Mus. Ulr., p. 222 (1764). 

32. Acrxa excelsior. 

Acrxa excelsior, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1891, p. 192, t. 17, 
f. 3. 

33. Acrxa vinidia. 

Acrxa vinidia, Hew., Ent. Mo. Mag., xi, p. 130 

(1874). 

34. Acrxa cabira. 

Acrxa cabira, Hopff., Ber. Verh. Akad. Berl., 1855, 
p. 640, n. 7. 

A good series including yellow and fulvous forms as 
well as examples which connect the two varieties; con- 
sequently the name apecida, Oberth., which applies to 
the extreme fulvous form must sink as a synonym. 

35. Acrxa encedon. 

Papilio encedon, Linn., Mus. Lud. Ulr., p. 244 (1764). 

36. Acrxa esebria. 

Acrxa esebria, Hew., Ex. Butt., ii, Acr., t. 2, f. 11, 
12 (1861). 

37. Atella phalantha. 

Papilio phalantha, Dru., 111. Ex. Ent., i, t. 21, f. 1, 2 

(1773). 

38. Hypanartia schozneia. 

Eurema schoeneia, Trim., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1879, p. 329. 

39. Pyrameis cardui. 

Papilio cardui, Linn., Faun. Suec, p. 276, n. 1054 
(1761). 

40. Precis madagascariensis. 

Precis madagascariensis, Guen., Vinson, Vov. Mad., 
Lep, p. 37 (1864). 

41. Precis clclia. 

Papilio clclia, Cram., Pap. Ex., i, p. 33, t. 21, f. 
E. F. (1775). 

42. Precis cebrene. 

Junonia cebrene, Trim., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1870 
p.»353. 



Account of a Collection of Bhopalocera. 23 

43. Precis natalensis. 

Precis natalensis, Stgr., Exot. Schm., p. 101 (1885). 

A long series including var. Mb. sesamus, Trim, and 
the intermediate form figured by Trimen in S. Afr., Butt., 
t. 4, f. 4. 

44. Precis simia. 

Precis simia, Wallengr., Lep. Rhop. Caffr., p. 26 

(1857). 

45. Precis trimeni. 

Junonia trimeni, Butl., P. Z. S. 1893, p. 651, t. 60, 
f. 4. 

46. Precis cuama. 

Junonia cuama, Hew., Ex. Butt., iii, Jun., t. 1, f. 1 

(1864). 

47. Precis iukuoa. 

Salamis tukuoa, Wallengr., Lep. Rhop. Caffr., p. 25 

(1857). 

48. Precis ceryne. 

Salamis ceryne, Boisd., Voy. Deleg., ii, p. 592 (1847). 

49. Precis laoalora. 

Vanessa laoalora, Godt., Eric. Mefch., ix, p. 314, n. 38 
(1819). 

50. Precis actia. 

Precis actia, Dist., P. Z. S. 1880, p. 185, t. 19, f. 7. 

51. Precis aurorina. 

Junonia aurorina, Butl., P. Z. S. 1893, p. 651, t. 60, 
f. 3. 

52. Precis tugela. 

Precis tugela, Trim., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1879, 
p. 334. 

53. Precis archesia. 

Papilo archesia, Cram., Pap. Ex., iii, p. 44, t. 219, 
f. D. E. (1779). 

Several examples in all of which the common rufous 
band is much narrower than in specimens from Natal ; 
var.. aestiv. pelasgis^ Godt., ab. chapimga, Hew., was also 
obtained. 



24 Mr. P. I Lathy's 

54. Precis elgiva. 

Junonia elgiva, Hew., Ex. Butt., iii, Jun., t. 1, f. 1 

(1864). 

55. Precis natalica. 

Precis natalica, Feld., Wien. Ent. Mod., iv, p. 106, 
d. 65 (1860). 

56. Precis nachtigalii. 

Precis nachtigalii, Dewitz, Nova Acta Akad. Natur. 
Halle, 1879, p. 194, t. 1, f. 16. 

57. Precis artaxia. 

Junonia artaxia, Hew., Ex. Butt., iii, Jun., t. 1, 
f. 6 (1864). 

58. Catacroptera cloanthe. 

Papilo cloanthe, Cram., Pap. Ex., iv, p. 93, t. 338, 
f. A. B. (1781). 

59. Salamis anacardii. 

Papilio anacardii, Linn., Mus. Lud. Ulr., p. 236 
. (1764). 

60. Hypolimnas misippus. 

Papilio misippus, Linn., Mus. Lud. Ulr., p. 264 

(1764). 

61. Hypolimnas mima. 

Diadcma mima, Trim., Trans. Linn. Soc, xxvi, p. 506, 
note, t. 43, f. 7 (1869). 

62. Hypolimnas ivahlbcrgi. 

Diadcma icahlbergi, WalleDgr., Lep. Rhop. Caffr., 

p. 27 (1857). 

63. Eurytela angustata. 

Eurytela angustata, Auriv., Ent. Ticlskr., 15, p. 278 

(1894). 

64. Eurytela angulata. 

Eurytela angulata, Auriv., Rhop. iEthiopica, p. 154 
(1898). 

65. Byblia acheloia. 

Hypanis acheloia, Wallengr., Lep. Rhop. Caffr., p. 29 
(1857). 



Account of cc Collection of Rhopcdocera. 25 

66. Orenis morantii. 

Orenis morantii, Trim., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1881, 
p. 439. 

67. Crenis boisduvali. 

Crcnis boisduvali, Wallengr., Lep. Rhop. Caffr., p. 30 

(1857). 

68. Crenis mafiaz. 

Crenis mafi<v, Stgr., Iris, 10, p. 358 (1898). 

69. Cyrestis sublineata, sp. no v. (Plate III, fig. 1.) 

Nearly allied to C. elegans, Boisd., from which it differs 
in the more produced apex of the fore wing, the more 
pronounced black and orange markings of both wings 
above, and in the linear black markings of hindwing being 
similar on both surfaces. 

Exp. $ 52-58 mm., $ 64 mm. 

This species appears to be rather rare, only six specimens 
having been obtained. 

70. Neptis saclava. 

Limenitis saclava, Boisd., Faune Mad., p. 49, n. 1 
(1833). 

71. Neptis agatha. 

Papilio agatha, Cram., Pap. Ex., iv, p. 76, t. 327, 
f. A. B. (1782). 

72. Ncptis incongrua. 

Neptis incongrua, Butl., P. Z. S. 1896, p. 112, t. 6, 
f. 2. 

A single male of this fine species was received. 

73. Pseudacrsea expansa. 

Pseudacrsea expansa, But!., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) 
2, p. 177 (1878). 

74. Pseudacrma tarquinia. 

Panopca tarquinia, Trim., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1868, p. 79, t. 5, f. 3. 

75. Hamanumida dtedalus. 

Papilio dmdalus, Fabr., Syst. Ent., p. 482, n. 174 
(1775). 

76. Euphtedra neophron. 

Bomaleosoma neophron, -Hopff., Ber. Verb. Ak. Berl., 
1855, p. 640, n. 9. 



26 Mr. P. I. Lathy 's 

77. Euptera hinugnana. 

Thaler opis hinugnana, Gr. Sm., Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., ser. 6, vol. iii, p. 133 (1889). 

78. Charaxes natalensis. 

Char axes natalensis, Stgr., Ex. Schm., i, p. 169, 
(1886). 

79. Charaxes flavifasciatus. 

Charaxes flamfasciatus, Butl., P. Z. S. 1895, p. 251. 

80. Charaxes saturnus. 

Charaxes saturnus, Butl., P. Z. S. 1865, p. 624, t. 36, 
f. 1. 

The series included typical saturnus, and the form 
named laticinctus by Dr. Butler. 

81. Charaxes geminus. 

Charaxes geminus, Rothsch., Nov. Zool., vii, p. 427 
(1900). 

This is the eastern form of C. pollux, Cram. 

82. Charaxes druceanus. 

Charaxes druceanus, Butl., Cist. Ent., i, p. 4, n. 1 
(1869). 

Two $ $ and three ? ? of this beautiful species. 

83. Charaxes etesipe. 

Nymphalis etesipe, Godt., Enc. Meth., ix, p. 355 

(1823). 

A single specimen of this common West African species, 
C. tavetensis, Rothsch., the form one would have expected 
from this locality, was not received. 

84. Charaxes penricei. (Plate III, fig. 2.) 

Charaxes penricei, Rothsch., Nov. Zool., vii, p. 460 
(1900). 

One $ only, this being I believe the second specimen 
known to science, the other being in Coll. Rothschild. 

85. Charaxes achtemencs. 

Charaxes achmmenes, Feld., Reise Nov. Lep., iii, 
p. 446, t. 59, f. 6, 7 (1867). 

A good series of both sexes. 



Account of a Collection of Bhopalocera. 27 

86. Charaxcs lasti. 

Charaxes lasti, Gr. Sm., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. vi, 
3, p. 131 (1889). 

Eleven $ $ and seven ? $ of this rather scarce species, 
including the form macclounii, Butl., and intermediate 
examples. 

87. Charaxes azota. 

Philognoma azota, Hew., Ent. Mo. Mag., xiv, p. 82 

(1877). 

This series includes typical azota, and the forms 
described by Butler as ccdliclea. 

88. Charaxes haumanni. 

Charaxes haumanni, Rogenh., Verh. 7, hot. Ger. Wien., 
xli, p. 564 (1891). 

A good series of both sexes. 

89. Charaxes etheocles. 

Papilio etheocles, Cram., Pap. Exot, ii, p. 34, t. 119, 
f. D. E. (1777). 

90. Charaxes ethalion. 

Charaxes ethalion, Boisd., Voy. Deleg., ii, p. 593 

(1847). 

91. Charaxes guderiana. 

Nymphalis guderiana, Dewitz, Nova Acta Akad. 
Naturf. Halle, 1879, p. 200, t. 2, f. 18. 

This species appears to be common at Zomba, as a 
large number of males were sent, and five of the opposite 
sex. 

92. Charaxes hohemanni. 

Charaxes hohemanni, Feld., Wien. Ent. Mon.,* iii, 
321, t. 6, f. 3 (1859). 

93. Charaxes cithteron. 

Charaxes cithmron, Feld., Wien. Ent. Mon., iii, 
p. 398, t. 8, f. 2, 3 (1859). 

94. Charaxes candiope. 

Nymphalis candiope, Godt., Enc. Meth., ix, p. 353 
(1819). 



28 Mr. P. I. Lathy's 

95. Char axes varanes. 

Papilio varanes, Cram., Pap. Exot., ii, p. 100, t. 
160, f. D. E. (1777). 

96. Charaxes leoninus. (Plate III, fig. 3.) 

Gharaxes leoninus, ButL, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 253, t. 15, 
f. 2. 

Five $ $ and one $ of this rare species. 

97. Gharaxes eupale. 

Papilio eupale, Dru., 111. Ex. Ent., iii, t. 6, f. 3 

(1782). 

A pair which belong to form dilutus, Rothsch. 

98. Ahisara delicata, sp. nov. (Plate III, fig. 4.) 

6 Upperside. Fore wing white with slight greyish suffusion 
near base; apical half blackish-brown, containing a narrow white 
subapical band ; inner edge of apical patch strongly curved ; costa 
brown. Hind wing white with wide bluish -grey suffusion at base 
and along inner margin ; three ochreous patches extending from 
anal angle to base of tail ; two blue centred, yellow-ringed black 
spots above upper median nervule, these surrounded with bluish- 
grey suffusion ; outer margin narrowly edged with black. 

Underside. As above but bluish-grey suffusion replaced by pale 
brown, that at the base outwardly edged with darker ; apical half 
of forewing paler. 

$ Similar to male, but slightly paler and apex of forewing more 
rounded. 

Exp. ^ 40 mm., ? 40-44 mm. 

Nearly allied to A. rogerii, Druce, but the white area of both 
wings much more extended. 

99. Altzna nyassm. 

Almna nyasssc, Hew., Ent. Mo. Mag.,xiv, p. 6 (1877). 

The typical form and ab. ochracea y ButL, were both 
obtained. 

100. Pentila amenaida. 

Pentila amenaida, Hew., Ex. Butt., v, Pent, and Lipt., 

t. 2, f. 4-7 (1873). 

101. Pentila peucetia. 

Pentila peucetia, Hew., Ex. Butt., iii, Pent, and Lipt., 
t. 1, f, 3 (1866). 






Account of a Collection of Bhopaloeera. 29 

102. Mimacrma marshalli. 

Mimacrzea marshalli, Trim., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1898, f. 13, t. 1, f. 9. 

103. Teriomima freya. 

Durbania freya, Gr. Sin. and Kirby, Rhop. Ex., ii, 
Afr. Lye, t. 25, f. 1, 2 (1894). 

104. Teriomima aslanga. 

? Liptena aslanga, Trim., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1873, 
p. 117. 

105. Lachnocnema bibulus. 

Hesperia bibidus, Fabr., Ent. Syst.,iii, 1, p. 307, n. 163 
(1793). 

106. Deudorix diodes. 

Deudorix diodes, Hew., 111. D. L. Suppl., p. 12, n. 31, 
t. 5, f. do, 56 (1869). 

107. Deudorix antalus. 

Dipsas antalus, Hopff., Ber. Vert. Ak. Berl., 1855, 
p. 641, n. 15. 

108. Hypolyczena philippus. 

Hesperia philippics, Fabr., Ent. Syst., iii, 1, p. 283, n. 
87 (1793). 

109. Hypolycsena casculus. 

Jolaus caiculus, Hopff., Ber. Verh. Ak. Berl., 1855, 
p. 642, n. 17. 

110. Jolaus lalos. (Plate III, fig. 5.) 

Argiolaus lalos, Druce, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vi, 17, 
■ p. 286 (1896). 

111. Spindasis nyassse. 

Aphnmus nyassm, Butl., Ent. Mo. Mag., xx, p. 250 

(1884). 

112. Axiocerses punicea. 

Axiocerses punicea, Gr. Sm., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
ser. vi, 3, p. 134 (1889): 

113. Leptomyrina hirundo. 

Theda hirundo, Wallengr., Lep. Rhop. Caffr., p. 35, 
n. 4 (1857). 



30 Mr. P. I. Lathy's 

114. Lyctenesthes adherbal. 

Lyctena adherbal, Mab., Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1877, 
p. 217. 

115. Cupido poggei. 

Plebeius poggei, Dewitz, N. Acta Ac. N. Cur. 41 : 2, 
p. 205, t. 26, f. 7 (1879). 

116. Cupido falkensteini. 

Plebeius fallzensteinii, Dewitz, Nova Acta Leo-p.: Carol. 
Akad. Naturf., xli, ii, n. 2, p. 204, t. 25, f. 5 
(1879). 

117. Cupido lingcus. 

Papilio lingeus, Cram., Pap. Ex., iv, p. 176, t. 379, 
f. RG. (1781). 

118. C%ipido plinius. 

Hesperia plinius, Fabr., Ent. Syst., iii, 1, p. 284, n. 92 
(1793). 

119. Cupido moriqua. 

Lycmna moriqua, Wallengr., Lep. Rhop. Caffr., p. 39, 
n. 9 (1857). 

120. Cupido sichela. 

Lycsena sichela, Wallengr., Lep. Rhop. Caffr., p. 37 
(1857). 

121. Cupido bxticus. 

Papilio bseticus, Linn., Syst. Nat., i, 2, p. 789, n. 226 
(1767). 

122. Cupido malathana. 

Lyctena malathana, Boisd., Faune Mad., p. 25 (1833). 

123. Cupido cissus. 

Polyommatus cissus, Godt., Enc. Meth., ix, p. 683, n. 
210 (1823). 

124. Cupido peculiaris. 

Lycmna peculiaris, Rogenh., in Baumann Usambara, 
p. 331 (1891). 

125. Leptosia alcesta. 

Papilio alcesta, Cram., Pap. Ex., iv, p. 175, t. 379, 
f. A. (1781). 






Account of a Collection of Ehopalocera. 31 

126. Herp tenia eriphia. 

Pieris eriphia, Godt., Enc. Moth., ix, p. 157, n. 134 
(1819). 

127. Mylothris agathina. 

Papilio agathina, Cram., Pap. Ex., iii, p. 76, t. 237, 
f. D. E. (1782). 

128. Mylothris riippellii. 

Pieris riippellii, Koch, Indo. Aust. Lep. Fauna, p. 88 
(1865). 

129. Mylothris rubricosta. 

Pieris rubricosta, Mab., Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1890, 
p. 28. 

Two $ $ and six $ $ of this rare species. The female 
differs from the male in its larger size, greater extent of 
black suffusion at apex of forewing, and much larger 
marginal spots in both wings. 

130. Appias epaphia. 

Papilio epaphia, Cram., Pap. Ex., iii, p. 26, t. 207, 
f. D. F. (1779). 

131. Pieris sever ina. 

Papilio seoerina, Cram., Pap. Ex., iv, p. 95, t. 338, 
f. G. H. (1781). 

132. Pieris mesentina. 

Papilio mesentina, Cram., Pap. Ex., iii, p. 140, t. 270, 
f. A. B. (1780). 

133. Pieris pigea. 

Pieris pig ea, Boisd., Spec. Gen. Lep., 1, p. 523 (1836). 

Three $ <J all belonging to var. hibern. alba, Wallengr. 

134. Teracolus mutans. 

Teracolus mutans, Butl., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, 
xix, p. 459 (1877). 

135. Teracolus eris. 

Pontia eris, Klug., Symb. Phys., t. 6, f. 15, 16 (1829). 

136. Teracolus regina. 

Anthocharis regina, Trim., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., ser. 
3, i, p. 520 (1863). 



32 Mr. P. I. Lathy's 

137. Teracohcs antevippe. 

Anthocharis antevippe, Boisd., Sp. Gen., i, p. 572, n. 
18, t. 18, f. 3 (1836). 

138. Teracolus emini. 

Teracolus emini, Butl., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, 
vii, p. 47 (1891). 

139. Eronia argia. 

Papilio argia, Fabr., Syst. Ent., p. 470, n. 118 (1175). 

140. Eronia thalassina. 

Pieris thalassina, Boisd., Spec. Gen., i, p. 443, n. 8 
(1836). 

141. Catopsilia florella. 

Papilio florella, Fabr., Syst. Ent., p. 479, n. 159 (1775). 

142. Terias senegalcnsis. 

Terias senegalensis, Boisd., Spec. Gen., 1, p. 672 (1836). 

143. Terias hapale. 

Terias hapale, Mab., Le Natural., 2, p. 99 (1882). 

144. Terias desjardinsii. 

Xanthidia desjardinsii, Boisd., Faun. Mad., p. 22, n. 3, 
t. 2, f. 6 (1833). 

145. Terias hrigitta. 

Papilio hrigitta, Cram., Pap. Ex., iv, p. 82, t. 331, 
f. B.C. (1780). 

146. Colias electra. 

Papilio electra, Linn., Syst. Nat., xii, p. 764 (1767). 

147. Papilio cenea. 

Papilio cenea, Stoll., Suppl. Cram., p. 134, t. 29, f. 1, 
la (1791). 

Only a single female was received. This agrees best 
with ab. $ nidbe, Auriv., as the cellular bar, subapical band, 
and submarginal spots are orange-brown, and the sabapical 
spot is wanting. Aurivillius places niobe as an ab. $ of 
dardanus, Brown, the western form of this Papilio. 

148. Papilio echerioides. 

Papilio echerioides, Trim., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1868, p. 72, t. 6, f. 1, 2. 



Account of a Collection of Rhopaloccra. 33 

149. Papilio pelodurus. 

Papilio pelodurus, Butl., P. Z. S. 1895, p. 270, fig. 
(1896). 

A good series, including two females. The differences 
between the sexes are chiefly on the underside of the 
hind wing, and are of the same character as in the sexes of 
P. hespertis, Westw. 

150. Papilio lyteus. 

Papilio lymus, Doubld., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., xvi, 
p. 178 (1845). 

151. Papilio brontes. 

Papilio brontes, Godm., P. Z. S. 1885, p. 450. 

152. Papilio demodocus. 

Papilio demodocus, Esp., Aus. Schmett, p. 205, t. 51, 
f. 1 (1798). 

153. Papilio angolanns. 

Papilio angolanns, Goeze., Ent. Beytr., iii, 1, p. 87, n. 
70 (1779). 

154. Papilio leonidas. 

Papilio leonidas, Fabr., Ent. Syst., iii, 1, p. 35, n. 103 
(1793). 

155. Papilio porthaon. 

Papilio porthaon, Hew., Ex. Butt., iii, Pap. t. 7, f. 21, 
22 (1865). 

156. Sarangesa astrigera. 

Sarangesa astrigera, Butl, P. Z. S. 1893, p. 669. 

157. Sarangesa motozi. 

Pterygospidea motozi, Wallengr., K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. 
Handl. (1857). 

158. Sarangesa maculata. 

Sape maculata, Mab., C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg., 1891, 
p. 68. 

159. Tagiades flesus. 

Papilio flesus, Fabr., Spec. Ins., ii, p. 135, n. 621 

(1871). 

160. Eagris jamesoni. 

Antigonus jamesoni, Sharpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
ser. 6, vi, p. 348 (1890). 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART I. (APRIL) 3 



34 Mr. P. I. Lathy's 

161. Eagris ochreana, sp. nov. (Plate III, fig. 6.) 

Allied to E. denuba, Plotz, but differs in the following particulars ; 
the two lower subapical hyaline spots are wanting ; forewing with 
bronze reflections ; hindwing without white area, and submarginal 
spots as in E. phyllophila, Trim. ; hindwings below more ochreous in 
tint than E. denuba ; black markings smaller, and apical patch but 
little darker than ground-colour. 

Exp. 38 mm. 

162. Abantis paradisea. 

Leucochitonea paradisea, Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1870, p. 499. 

163. Abantis zambesiaca. 

Hesperia zambesiaca, Westw., Thes. Ent. Oxon., p. 183, 
t. 34, f. 9 (1874). 

164. Abantis arctomarginata, sp. nov. (Plate III, fig. 7.) 

6- Upperside. Forewing black with large basal red patch, 
between costal, and submedian nervures, and following hyaline 
patches ; four elongated subapical, one occupying outer third of cell, 
and three between upper median nervule and submedian nervure, of 
which the middle one is the largest and much elongated. Hindwing 
white, base slightly reddish, edged with black ; costa dull reddish ; 
outer and inner margin narrowly bordered with black j a row of 
white spots within black border commencing at anal angle and 
becoming obsolete towards apex. 

Underside. Forewing as above, but with whitish suffusion below 
lower median nervule ; hindwing as above, but costa black. 

Abdomen white with black dorsal band, and two ventral rows of 
black patches, terminal segment black, with reddish tuft ; legs and 
underside of palpi reddish. 

Exp. 40 mm. 

Nearly allied to A. bismarcki, Karsch., from which it 
differs in the greatly elongated hyaline spot between 
middle and lower median nervule, and the much narrower 
black borders of hindwing. 

165. Hesperia dromns. 

Pyrgus dromus, Plotz, Mitth. nat. Ver. Neu. Vor- 
pomm u Rug, 1884, p. 6. 

166. Oxy palpus ruso. 

Pamphila ruso, Mab., C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxv, p. 
183 (1891). 



Account of a Collection of Rhopalocera. 35 

167. Parosmodes icteria. 

Pomphilo icteria, Mab., C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxv, p. 
180 (1891). 

168. Cyclopides formosus. 

Heteropterus formosus, But]., P. Z. S. 1893, p. 670, t. 
60, f. 8. 

169. Cyclopides quadrisignatus. 

Cyclopides quadrisignatus, But!., P. Z. S. 1893, p. 670, 
t. 60, f. 9. 

170. Kedestes collides. 

Cyclopides collides, Hew., Descr. Hundred New Hesp., 
p. 42 (1868). 

171. Chopra mathios. 

Hesperia mathios, Fabr., Ent. Syst. Suppl., p. 433 

(1798). 

172. Booris cana, sp. no v. (Plate III, fig. 8.) 

(£• Upperside. Both wings olivaceous-brown ; forewing with 
two minute subapical hyaline spots, and two hyaline spots between 
upper and lower median nervules, of which the lower is the larger ; 
fringes paler than ground-colour. 

Underside. Forewing as above, but costa, apex, and outer margin 
widely bordered with grey ; slightly tinted with violet ; hindwings 
greyish with a violaceous tint ; inner margin brown ; three minute 
discal white points. 

Exp. 38 mm. . 

Closely allied to B. fatuellus, Hopff., but may be separated by the 
more olivaceous tint of ground-colour of both wings above, and the 
hoary appearance of the underside. 

173. Andronymus neander. 

Apaustus neander, Ploetz, S. E. Z. xlv, p. 154 (1884). 

174. Perichares albicornis. 

Perichares albicornis, Butl., P. Z. S. 1896, p. 132, t. 6, 
f. 8. 

175. Artitropa erinnys. 

Pamphila erinnys, Trim., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3), 
i, p. 290 (1861). 

176. Rhopalocampta forestall. 

Papilio forestan, Cram., Pap. Ex., iv, p. 210, t. 391, 
f. E. F. (1782). 



Explanation of Plate III 



Fig. 1. Gyrestis sublineata, sp. nov. 

2. Chr waxes penricci, Roth sell. 

3. Gha raxes leoninus, Butl., ^ • 

4. Abisara delicata, sp. nov. 

5. Jolaus lalos, Druce, 9 • 

6. Eagris ochreana, sp. n. 

'?'. Abantis arctomarginata, sp. d 
8. Baoris cana, sp. nov. 



( 37 ) 



III. A Revision of Astathes, Neivm., and allied Genera of 
Longicom Goleoptera. By Charles Joseph Gahan, 
M.A. 

[Read February 8th, 1901.] 

Plate IV. 

The revision here offered of a small but interesting group 
of Longicorn beetles is based upon an examination of the 
types of nearly all the species hitherto described. M. 
Rene Obei thiir was good enough to send me, for examina- 
tion and comparison, the types of all the species of this 
group described by the late James Thomson, as well as 
some additional types and numerous specimens from his 
collection. Most of the remaining species were described 
by Newman and Pascoe, and the types of these are now 
in the British Museum collection. I am indebted to 
Dr. Meinert of Copenhagen for his kindness in enabling 
me to identify the Fabrician species with much greater 
certainty than could otherwise have been possible. I 
have taken advantage of the opportunities thus afforded 
me to redescribe many of the species, finding that the 
descriptions already existing were in the majority of such 
cases quite inadequate for their identification. Those 
given by Thomson in his ' Systema Cerambycidarum ' 
were short preliminary diagnoses, published, as the author 
himself stated, " afin de prendre date " ; the full descrip- 
tions which were said to be ready in MS., and were pro- 
mised for publication in the following year, have not yet 
appeared, nor are they likely ever to appear, in print. 
Pascoe's species were described at somewhat greater length, 
but in many cases, with insufficient attention to structural 
details, a great drawback in dealing with a group where 
so many of the species have a great resemblance in colour 
and markings. Five species, referable to the genus 
Astathes, and all quite distinct from one another, were 
described by Fabricius. Four of these are placed together 
I in the Munich Catalogue as synonyms or varieties of one 
species ; and the fifth has been omitted from that work. 
These facts alone are sufficient to show that a revision 
of the group was greatly needed. The genera here dealt 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART I. (APRIL) 



38 Mr. Charles J. Gahan's Revision of 

with include all the Oriental Astatheinte, with the excep- 
tion of Tropimetopa, Thorns., Eustathes, Newm., Ochrocesis, 
Pasc, and Cyanastus Pasc, each of which contains not 
more than one or two species. 

Genus Astathes. 

Astathes, Newm., The Entomologist, i, p. 299 (1842); 

Lacord., Genera des Coleopt., ix, p. 873. 
Tetraqphthalme, Blanch., Hist, des Insectes, ii, p. 161 

(1845). 
Tetraophthalmus, Thorns., Archiv. Ent., i, p. 48 (1857). 
Type of the genus : Astathes perplexa, Newm. 

The characters of this genus have been given at full 
length by Lacordaire, and need not be repeated here. It 
will be sufficient to point out that the genus is chiefly 
distinguishable from its allies by having the metasternal 
process continued almost the whole way between the 
middle coxas, with its anterior end resting upon the end 
of the vertical mesosternum. The antennas always extend 
up to or a little beyond the apex of the elytra in the 
male ; the first joint is always shorter than the third, and 
never asperate near the apex ; the second is scarcely 
longer than broad, and the last joint is sharply pointed, 
and usually glabrous, at the apex. The form and structure 
of the prothorax, especially of its centronotal tubercle, 
vary considerably and, taken in conjunction with certain 
other characters, afford a good means of dividing the genus 
into sections. 

The genus ranges over almost the whole of the Oriental 
region, and is practically limited to that region, especially 
if the island of Celebes be regarded as part of it. No 
species, however, has been recorded from Ceylon, and 
only one species is known to occur in Peninsular India. 
The species of our first section are found only in the 
Philippine Islands and Celebes; those of the second 
section belong for the most part to the Indo-Chinese sub- 
region ; while all the remaining species of the genus are 
almost entirely confined to the Malayan sub-region. 

SECTION I. 

Prothorax with a rather strong conical tubercle on each side ; the 
centro-dorsal gibbosity abruptly, but not highly, raised, flattened 
above, narrower in front than behind, and impressed on each side 



Astathes and allied Genera of Longicom Coleoptera. 39 

anteriorly with a deep horizontally directed pit. Costae of elytra 
usually more or less obsolete and never very acute. 

1. Astathes perplexa. 

Astathes perplexa, Newm., The Entomologist, i, p. 299 

(1842). 
Astathes illigeri, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., App., p. 558. 

Entirely testaceous with the exception of the last six or seven 
joints of the antennas which are infuscate. Head somewhat strongly, 
but not very thickly, punctured in front, feebly and sparsely 
punctured on the crown. Pronotum rather feebly and sparingly 
punctured on the sides of the central elevation. Elytra sparingly 
punctured, the punctures being rather large, and arranged, some in 
rows the others more irregularly, on the basal half ; with numerous 
very minute setigerous pits in addition, the setae arising from these 
being of a tawny colour. In the female type the elytra are pale 
yellowish-testaceous, contrasting with the more rufous tint of the 
head and prothorax, and the costse are almost obsolete. In three 
other specimens, the elytra are nearly concolorous with the head 
and pronotum, and in two of these the costse are distinctly, though 
not strongly, raised. In the type of illigeri, Thorns., the elytra are 
rufous in tint, exhibiting slight purplish reflexions in certain lights, 
and the costae are distinctly raised. 

Hab. Philippine Islands (Cuming). Type (?) in 
Brit. Mus. Type {$) of illigeri, Thorns., in coll. Oberthtir. 

2. Astathes mniszechi. 

Astathes perplexa, var. y, Newm., The Entomol., i, p. 299 

(1842). 
Tetraophthalmus mniszechi, Thorns., Archiv. Ent., i, p. 50 
(1857). 
Very closely allied to A. perplexa, Newm., the only character 
serving to distinguish it being the somewhat feebler puncturation 
of the front of the head, and the presence of a very distinct, but 
rather small, violet spot behind the middle of each elytron. The 
elytra are usually of a rufo-testaceous colour, exhibiting slight 
purplish reflexions in certain lights ; but in one specimen in M. 
Oberthiir's collection, the general colour is pale yellow or stra- 
mineous, with the antennae infuscate towards the apex, and the 
violet spot on each elytron rather larger and more conspicuous than 
in the type . 

Ha\ Philippine Islands. Type ($) in coll. Oberthur. 



40 Mr. Charles J. Gahan's Revision of 

3. Astathcs higemmata. 
Astathes higemmata, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 558. 

Distinguishable from A. mniszechi, Thorns., by its paler yellowish- 
testaceous colour, and the presence of a very much larger violaceous- 
blue spot on each elytron, this spot extending longitudinally almost 
from the middle to the posterior fifth, and transversely across almost 
the entire width of the elytron. 

Hal. Philippine Islands. Type ( $ ) in coll. 
Oberthtir. 

4. Astathes posticata, sp. n. (Plate IV, fig. 1.) 

Astathes perplexa, var. (3, Newm., The Entomologist, i, 
p. 299 (1842). 

' c Elytrorum apex Isete violaceus." 

Testaceous : with the last six or seven joints of the antennae 
infuscate, and the apical third part of the elytra deep metallic-blue 
or green, slightly tinged with violet anteriorly. Structural characters 
as in A. perplexa, Newm., but with the costae of the elytra somewhat 
more prominent than in that species. 

Long. 13-19, lat. 6-8 mm. 

Hal. Philippine Islands (Cuming, Semper). Type 
(?) in Brit. Mus. $ in coll. Oberthur. 

5. Astathes bella, sp. n. (Plate IV", fig. 2.) 

Reddish-testaceous, with the elytra dark metallic-blue, the last 
six joints of the antennae blackish-brown, and the outer faces of the 
tibiae more or less infuscate. Head closely and strongly punctured 
in front, less closely on the vertex ; the front with only a faint 
indication of a median carina near the base. Prothorax with the 
lateral tubercles rather short and obtuse ; the centro-dorsal gibbosity 
slightly convex in the longitudinal direction, distinctly and rather 
closely punctured, its sides converging from behind forwards and 
perforated each with a deep horizontal pit near the anterior end. 
Elytra strongly, but not thickly, punctured near the base ; with 
some rows of smaller punctures extending thence to the middle ; the 
apical half almost entirely impunctate ; each with two feebly raised 
dorsal costae in addition to the costa running alongside the sutural 
margin, and with a dusky patch in front of the middle formed of 
closely aggregated short decumbent setae, longer erect setae being 
sparsely scattered over the whole surface. Underside and legs with 
sparsely spread tawny setae. Antennae of the male extending a little 



Astathes and allied Genera of Longicorn Coleoptera. 41 

beyond the apex of the elytra ; the first two or three joints testaceous 
the intermediate joints yellowish-white. 
Long. 10, lat. 4 mm. 

Hob. North Celebes (Fruhstorfer). Two $ $ in 
Tring Museum ; one $ in coll. Oberthiir. 

Although this species shows a tendency in some of its 
characters to approach those of the next section, it is 
strongly marked off from them by the form of the contro- 
dorsal elevation of the prothorax, and agrees fairly well 
on the whole with the other species placed in the present 
section. 

SECTION II. 

Prothorax with a very short blunt tubercle on each side ; the 
centro-dorsal gibbosity strongly raised, convex, somewhat rounded 
in outline, prolonged sufficiently in front to interrupt the anterior 
transverse groove, and impressed on each side anteriorly with a deep 
horizontally directed pit. Costse of elytra never prominent, and 
usually almost obsolete. 

5. Astathes gibbicollis. 

Astathes gibbicollis, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 559. 

Head and prothorax rufo-testaceous ; head punctured strongly 
and closely in front, less closely on the vertex ; prothorax sparingly 
punctured, the punctures being most numerous on the dorsal and 
lateral tubercles. Elytra entirely yellowish-testaceous, somewhat 
sparsely punctured, with the punctures diminishing in size on the 
posterior half. Underside and legs testaceous ; with the tibiae 
dorsally near the apex, the tarsi, and a spot on each side of the 
metasternum, dark brown. Antennse of the male reaching not quite 
to the apex of the elytra ; first three joints rufo-testaceous, slightly 
infuscate, fourth and fifth pale fulvous, last six dark brown. 

Hab. Malacca ; Burma ; and N. India. Type ( $ ) 
in coll. Oberthur. 

This species has only a superficial resemblance to 
A. rufescens, Thorns., near which Thomson placed it, and 
seems to be most nearly allied to the following species. 

7. Astathes dimidiata. 

Tetraopes dimidiata, Gory, in Guerin's Icon, regne anim., 

Ins., p. 244, pi. 45, fig. 3. 
Tetraophthalmus bipartitus, Buq. (in Dej. Cat.) nee Thorns. 



42 Mr. Charles J. Gahan's Revision of 

Head and prothorax yellowish-testaceous ; head closely punctured, 
especially in front ; prothorax somewhat closely punctured on the 
dorsal and lateral tubercles, sparsely elsewhere. Elytra violaceous 
from the base almost to the middle, and thence to the apex pale 
fulvous or yellowish ; the costae obsolete or represented only by 
very feebly raised lines. Body underneath and legs pale testaceous, 
but with a large spot on each side of the metasternum, black, and 
the anterior abdominal segments sometimes infuscate at the sides. 
AntennsB of the male reaching to or a little beyond the apex of the 
elytra ; first four or five joints fulvous or testaceous, last six or seven 
fuscous. 

Hah. Java (Hors field), Penang (Lamb), Borneo, 
Perak, Burma, and Si am. 

In Pascoe's collection, I found two examples of this 
species from Penang, and one from Sarawak, mixed up 
with those of another species under the name of splendida, 
Fab. The coloration of dimidiata greatly resembles that 
of splendida, Fab., but the two species are easily dis- 
tinguished by the structural characters given for the 
respective sections in which they are here placed. 

8. Astathes limaculata. 

Cerambyx Mmaculatus, Fab., Ent, Syst.,i, 2, p. 263 (1792). 
Astathes externa, Pasc, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (2) v, p. 46 
(1859). 
Yellowish-testaceous or fulvous ; elytra each with a rather large 
and somewhat rounded violaceous spot placed just in front of the 
middle, extending thence about half-way to the base, and, in the 
transverse direction, reaching from the outer margin to within a 
short distance of the suture ; metasternum with a fuscous spot on 
each side ; antennas slightly infuscate towards the apex, the first 
three joints nitid and sparsely setose, the remaining joints pubescent 
and dull. In structural characters agrees very closely with A. 
dimidiata, Gory, but in general form is relatively a little longer and 
narrower than that species. 

Rah. South India, Tranquebar, Madras, Trevandrum, 
Bangalore. Type in Copenhagen Museum. Type ($) of 
externa, Pasc. in Brit. Mus. 

The Fabrician description of this species appears to 
have been overlooked by the authors of the Munich 
catalogue, as I can find no reference to it in that work. 
From Fabricius's description I had strongly suspected that 
his species was identical with the A. externa of Pasc. ; and 



Astathes and allied Genera of Longicom Goleoptera. 43 

what little doubt remained in my mind was set at rest 
on receiving for examination, a specimen which Dr. 
Meinert had carefully compared, and found to agree, with 
the Fabrician type. 

9. Astathes violaceipennis. 

Tetraophthalmus violaceipennis, Thorns., Archiv. Ent., i, 

p. 53 (1857). 
Tetraophthalmus fulgidus, Thorns, (nee Fabr.), 1. c, p. 54. 
Astathes ignita, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 557 (1865). 

Head, prothorax, body underneath, and legs, testaceous ; tarsi and 
apices of tibiae more or less infuscate ; elytra entirely violaceous, and 
glossy, but with a slight fuscous patch on each near the middle, due 
to the greater density of the black setae over that part ; antennae 
testaceous ; with the last six or seven joints fuscous. Head closely 
and rather coarsely punctured. Prothorax more or less closely 
punctured on the dorsal and lateral tubercles. Elytra sparsely and 
finely punctured ; each with three slightly raised costae, one of 
which lies close alongside the suture. 

Hah. North India, Assam, Nepal, Sikhim, and Burma. 
Types in coll. Oberthiir. 

This species is distinguishable from episcopalis, Chev. 
and others placed in this section, not only by differences 
in coloration but also in having the costse of the elytra 
distinct, though not so strongly raised and acute as in the 
species of the next section. 

10. Astathes janthinipennis. 

Astathes janthinipennis, Fair m., Ana. Soc. Ent. Belg., 1895, 
p. 187. 

Head, prothorax, body underneath, and femora testaceous ; 
antennae with the third joint brownish-testaceous, the fourth and 
fifth pale fulvous, the first two and the last six more or less fuscous ; 
elytra entirely violaceous and nitid, but with a somewhat cloudy 
patch on each near the middle due to the aggregation there of short, 
decumbent black setae, longer erect black setae being more sparsely 
spread over the whole surface ; tibiae and tarsi brownish-black. 
Head thickly and strongly punctured in front, sparsely punctured 
above. Centro-dorsal tubercle of prothorax sparsely punctured. Elytra 
distinctly but somewhat sparsely punctured ; each with two slightly 
elevated costae in addition to one running close alongside the suture. 

Hob. Upper Tonkin. 



44 Mr. Charles J. Gahan's Revision of 

This species is very closely allied to A. violaceipennis, 
Thorns., and differs from it by characters of only minor 
importance, such as the fuscous colour of the first two 
antennal joints, and the sparser puncturation of the 
prothorax. 

11. Astathes episcopalis. 

Astathes episcopalis, Chevr., Rev. eb Mag. de Zoo)., 1852, 
p. 418. 

Head, thorax, body underneath, and femora, testaceous ; elytra 
violaceous ; antennae black, with the bases of the 4th, 5th, Gth, and 
of some of the succeeding joints, fulvous ; tibiae and tarsi black. 
Puncturation variable ; the head being usually very closely, and the 
prothorax less closely punctured ; but in some specimens the dorsal 
tubercle of the prothorax is as closely punctured as the head ; elytra 
somewhat closely punctured, but in some specimens much less so 
than in others. 

Hah. China, Hong Kong, and Formosa. Type (6) 
in Brit. Mus. 

An example of this species in M. Oberthiir's collection 
is ticketed " vioktceipennis, Thorns. Type," but is evidently 
not the one described by Thomson under that name. 
The true violaceipennis of Thomson appears to me, from 
his description, to be identical with the species subsequently 
described by him as nitida, and I think it not improbable 
that the same specimen served as the type in each case, 
the original label having, perhaps, been accidentally 
removed from that specimen to one of episcopalis, Chevr. 



12. Astathes cyanoptera. 

Astathes cyanoptera, Gahan, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7) v, 
p. 353 (1900). 

Closely allied to A. episcopalis, Chevr., but differing from it as 
follows : — Less densely setose ; dorsal tubercle of prothorax very 
sparsely punctured ; elytra cyaneous, somewhat more strongly 
punctured ; proximal part of the tibiae testaceous ; tliird, fourth, 
and fifth points of the antennae almost entirely fulvous, and the 
underside of the first joint testaceous. 

Hib. Hainan Island (Whitehead). Types {$ $ ) in 
Brit. Mus. 



Astathes and allied Genera of Longicorn Coleoptera. 45 

13. Astathes perversa, sp. n. (PI. IV, fig. 3.) 

Reddish-testaceous ; antennce with the last eight joints more or 
less deeply infuscate ; elytra metallic-blue from the base to a little 
beyond the middle ; metasternum with a large black spot on each 
side. Head rather closely punctured in front, less closely above. 
Prothorax sparsely punctured, except on the centro-notal tubercle ; 
the latter having the form characteristic of this section, but somewhat 
less strongly raised than in the preceding species. Elytra rather 
thickly punctured ; each with two short dorsal costse, in addition to 
one alongside the suture. 

Long. 9 mm. lat. 4 mm. 

ffab. West Borneo, Pontianak. Type in coll. 
Obertlmr. 

This species seems to link the present section with the 
next. The centro-notal tubercle is less raised, and the 
transverse ridges between it and the sides of the prothorax 
less broad and obtuse, than they are in the other species of 
this section. By these characters, and by the more ex- 
tended metallic-blue area of the elytra, as well as by the 
presence of two tolerably distinct dorsal costse on each 
elytron, the species may be distinguished from A. dimidiata, 
Gory, to which it has a considerable resemblance in colour. 

SECTION III. 

Prothorax much narrower at the apex than at the base ; the lateral 
tubercles short, gradually sloped in front, abruptly raised and some- 
what sharply edged behind ; the centro-dorsal tubercle moderately 
raised, somewhat pyramidal in form, sloped gradually in front and 
prolonged to interrupt the anterior transverse groove, impressed on 
each side in front with a deep horizontal pit. Elytra each with 
three distinctly raised costae, in addition to an acute sutural costa. 

14. Astathes sjplendida. 

Cerambyx splendidus, Fab., Ent. Syst., i, 2, p. 263 (1792); 

Syst. El., ii. p. 279 (1801). 
Cerambyx splendidus, Weber, Observations Ent., p. 86 

(1801). 
Lamia daldorfii, var. 1. Illig., in Wied. Archiv. ftir 

Zool., i, 2, p. 136, pi. 1, fig. 5 (1800). 
Cerambyx daldorjii, var. 1. Illig., Mag. ftir Insekt., iv, 

p. 109 (1805). 



46 Mr. Charles J. Gahan's Revision of 

Astathes decipiens, Pasc, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (2) v, 

p. 46 (1859). 
Var. Astathes splendida, Pasc, op. cit., (3) iii, p. 353 
(1867). 

Reddish- or yellowish-testaceous ; elytra violaceous from the base 
up to, or a little beyond, the middle ; antennae infuscate towards the 
apex ; metasternum with a larger or smaller black patch on each 
side ; the hind legs, and sometimes also the middle legs, more or less 
infuscate. Head strongly and rather closely punctured in front, 
sparsely punctured above. Prothorax thickly punctured on the 
central tubercle, more sparsely elsewhere. Elytra rather sparsely 
punctate and setose, the setae on the anterior violaceous half being 
black, on the posterior half, tawny. Antennae of the male reaching 
to the apex of the elytra. 

Var. The violaceous area of the elytra extending a little farther 
back than in the type. Body underneath and legs entirely testaceous. 

Hal). Sumatra, Java, and (of the var.) Borneo. 
Types in Copenhagen Museum. Type of decipiens, Pasc, 
in Brit. Mus. 

Fabricius, in his description, gave Tranquebar as the 
locality of this species, but must have done so in error. 
Dr. Meinerfc has very kindly sent me for examination one 
of the original types of Fabricius, and this type specimen 
undoubtedly belongs to the form occurring in Sumatra, 
and described by Pascoe as A. decipiens. All the examples 
from Borneo which I have seen belong to the variety, 
which Pascoe erroneously regarded as the true splendida 
of Fab. 

15. Astathes lemoides. 

Astathes lemoides, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 558 (1865). 

Head, prothorax, and apical half of elytra rufo-testaceous ; basal 
half of elytra violaceous, the hind border of this violaceous area 
being rather strongly arcuate ; body underneath black, but with the 
prothorax and mesosternum testaceous ; legs black, with the tarsi 
testaceous ; antennae testaceous, with the last five or six joints infus- 
cate, and the first two sometimes fuscous on the dorsal face. 

Hah. Sumatra. Type (?) in coll. Oberthur. 

This species agrees closely in structure and puncturation 
with A. splendida, Fab., but is easily to be distinguished 
from it by the stronger and more regular arcuate emar- 
gination of the basal violaceous area of the elytra, as well 
as by the black colour of the underside. 



Astathcs and allied Genera of Longicorn Coleoptera. 47 

16. Astathes unicolor. 

Astathes unicolor, Pasc, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (3) iii, 

p. 349 (1867). 
Astathes coccinea, Pasc, 1. c, p. 350. 

Entirely testaceous with the exception of the last four or five 
joints of the antennae which are more or less infuscate. In structural 
characters closely agreeing with the preceding two species. 

Hob. Borneo, Sarawak, Labuan and Sandakan. Types 
( $ $ ) in Brit. Mus. 

This species is almost identical in coloration with A. 
rufescens, Thorns., and its elytra are similarly costate and 
punctate ; but in the latter species the centro-dorsal 
tubercle of the prothorax is less raised and is without a 
pit on each side anteriorly. 

The type of coccinea is slightly narrower than that of 
unicolor, and the head more closely punctured ; but the 
difference in coloration which appears to have existed at 
the time when they were described has since almost com- 
pletely vanished, probably as the result of fading in one 
of the specimens. 

17. Astathes fidgida. (Plate IV, fig. 4.) 

Ceramhyx fulgidus, Fab., Syst. El., ii, p. 280. 
Astathes fidgida, Pasc, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (3) iii, 
p. 353 (1867). 

Yellowish-testaceous, with the elytra entirely metallic-blue, -green 
or violaceous, and the antennae infuscate towards the apex. Head 
with a rather prominent transverse ridge between the oblique flat- 
tened upper part of the front, and the lower median vertical part, 
and a similar oblique ridge on each side between the upper part and 
the lower lateral part of the front ; upper part of the front canalicu- 
late along the middle, the lower part with a sharp median carina. 
Elytra each with four acute costse in addition to one running along- 
side the suture. 

Hah. Sumatra. Type in Copenhagen Museum. 

Though I have not seen the type, I have no doubt as to 
my correct identification of this species. The prominent 
ridges on the front of the head serve to distinguish it from 
all other species of the genus. 



48 Mr. Charles J. Gahan's Revision of 

18. Astathes terminata. 

Astathes terminata, Pasc, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (2) iv, 
p. 109(1857); id. (3) iii, p. 351. 

Head, prothorax, and body underneath, black; elytra for about 
three-fifths of their length from the base, violaceous, the remaining 
part reddish- or yellowish-testaceous ; legs fuscous or piceous, with 
the tarsi and distal portion of the tibiae, testaceous ; antennae 
yellowish- while, with the first joint brownish-testaceous or piceous, 
and the last three or four infuscate. Head thickly punctured in 
front, sparsely on the vertex. Central tubercle of pronotum not 
strongly raised, slightly convex above with a more abrupt conical 
point in the middle, rather thickly punctured. 

Hob. Malacca. Type (?) in Brit. Mus. 

The type of this species is relatively somewhat narrower 
and more elongate than the other species of this section ; 
but in some of the following forms (which I provisionally 
treat as varieties), the shape is more in accordance with 
that characteristic of the section. 

Var. 1. sumptuosa (Dup. MS.). 

= Tetraophthalmus daldorjii, Thorns, (nee Illig. nee Fab.), Archiv. 
Ent., i, p. 52. 

Elytra violaceous from the base to the middle only, or to a little 
beyond it ; body underneath black as in the type of terminata. 

Eab. Java and Malacca. 

Var. 2. Elytra coloured as in the type ; abdomen and the greater 
part of the metasternum testaceous. 

Hal. Java. 

Var. 3. westermanni (Mannerh. MS.). 

Elytra violaceous from the base to the middle only, or to a little 
beyond it ; abdomen wholly, and the metasternum to a greater or 
less extent, testaceous. 

Hah. Penang, Ding Ding Islands, Perak, and 
Borneo. 

SECTION IV. 

Centro-dorsal tubercle of prothorax less strongly raised, especially 
in front, where it is scarcely above the level of the transverse groove, 
and not impressed on each side with a horizontal pit. Elytra each 
with two distinctly raised, acute costae in addition to one alongside 
the suture. The fossa in front of the apex of the last ventral segment 



Astathes and allied Genera of Longicorn Coleoptera. 49 

of the female larger and deeper than in the species of the other 
sections. 



19. Astathes levis. 

Astathes levis, Newm., The Entomologist, i, p. 290 

(1842). 
Astathes divisa, Pasc., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (2) v, p. 47 

(1859). 
Var. l. = A. gallemcoides, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 557 

(1865). 
Var. 2. = A. basalis, Thorns., 1. c, p. 557. 
A. casta, Thorns., 1. c, p. 538. 

Reddish-testaceous ; elytra from the base to the middle or to a 
little beyond it, violaceous-blue, the hinder part of this blue area with 
a patch of closely aggregated black seta? ; the antennas infuscate at 
the apex, the tarsi, and the apices of the tibiae, brownish-black. 
Head and prothorax distinctly but rather sparsely punctured ; central 
tubercle of pronotum sub-pyramidal in form, and more strongly- 
raised than in the majority of the species belonging to this section. 
Elytra sparsely punctured. 

Sab. Philippine Islands (Cuming). Type (?) of levis, 
Newm., and type ( $ ) of divisa, Pasc., in Brit. Mus. 

Pascoe gave India as the locality of divisa and his type 
specimen is so labelled ; but this specimen agrees so well 
in every respect (save the sexual differences) with New- 
man's type, that I feel almost certain the locality India is 
wrong, and that the specimen really came from the 
Philippines. 

Var. 1. gallerucoides, Thorns. Differs from the type of levis, 
Newm., in having a narrow testaceous border at the base of each 
elytron from the suture to the humeral depression. Type ( $ ) in 
coll. Oberthur. 

Var. 2. basalis, Thorns, — casta, Thorns. In this variety the blue 
area of the elytra does not extend as far as to the middle, and the 
sutural margins the whole way up to, and alongside of, the scutellum 
are testaceous. Type (?) in coll. Oberthur. 

I could find no difference between the type of basalis and 
that of casta, except a slight difference in tint, the reddish- 
testaceous colour of the former being replaced by yellowish- 
white in the latter. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART I. (APRIL) 4 



50 Mr. Charles J. Gahan's Revision of 

20. Astathes gemmula. 

Astathes gemmula, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 557 (1865). 

Keddish-testaceous, with the elytra from the base to a little beyond 
the middle, purplish-violaceous ; first two joints of the antennae, 
black, last six or seven infuscate ; tarsi and apices of tibiae infuscate. 
Head and prothorax distinctly but rather sparsely punctured ; upper 
part of front of head depressed in the middle, and separated by an 
obtuse and oblique ridge on each side from the lateral and lower 
parts of the front ; dorsal tubercle of prothorax sub-pyramidical in 
form, and as strongly raised in the middle as in A. levis, Newin. 

Hob. Celebes. Type ($) in coll. Oberthiir. 

This species agrees very well in structure with A. levis, 
Ncwm., and has a considerable resemblance to it in colour, 
the chief differences being that the first two joints of the 
antennae are black, and the elytra do not exhibit a fuscous 
patch on the posterior part of the violaceous area. 

21. Astathes plagiata, sp. n. 

Astathes levis, var. y. Newman, The Entomologist, i, 
p. 299. 

Astathes plagiata (Hope MS.). 

Keddish-testaceous. Antennae with the basal joint brownish or 
piceous, the last six or seven infuscate, and the intermediate joints 
pallid. Elytra each with a rather large violaceous-blue spot placed 
a short distance before the middle, about midway between the suture 
and outer margin. Tarsi and, to a greater or less extent, the tibiae, 
infuscate. Front of head distinctly but not very closely punctured ; 
furnished with a rather feeble median carina in its lower half in both 
sexes ; vertex feebly and sparsely punctured. Prothorax rather 
sparsely punctured ; the transverse ridge is not prominent at the 
sides, and the centro- dorsal tubercle scarcely exists as such, being 
hardly raised above the level of the surrounding parts. Elytra each 
with two dorsal costae in addition to the j uxta-sutural costa. 

Hal. Philippine Islands, N.E. Luzon (Whitehead). 
Type in Brit. Mus. 

The very feebly raised centro-dorsal tubercle of the 
prothorax, together with the different markings of the 
elytra, serve to distinguish this species from C. levis, of 
which Newman regarded it as a variety. 



Astathes and allied Genera of Longicom Coleoptera. 51 

22. Astathes instdbilis, sp. n. 

Head, prothorax, body underneath, legs, and antennae testaceous ; 
fourth and fifth joints of the antennae pallid, and the last three or 
four infuscate ; tibiae sometimes more or less blackish ; elytra 
violaceous-blue, except in the apical fifth or sixth part, which is 
testaceous. Head sparsely punctured above, more closely in front, 
with the interstices minutely punctulate. Pronotum strongly but 
sparsely punctured ; the central tubercle almost as strongly raised as 
in A, levis, Newm. Elytra sparsely punctured ; each with two 
distinct dorsal costae in addition to an acute costa lying close along- 
side the suture ; the setae on the violaceous area black, those on the 
apical testaceous area, tawny in colour. Antennas of the male a 
little longer than the body, those of the female reaching to the apical 
fifth of the elytra. 

Var. 1. Elytra entirely testaceous, and the setae on them all tawny 
in colour. 

Var. 2. Elytra testaceous ; with the setae mostly black in colour, 
those only near the apex being tawny. 

Long. 11-15 mm. 

Hah. South and South East Borneo. Types in coll. 
Oberthltr. 

23. Astathes japonica. 

Tetraophthalmus japonicus, Thorns., Archiv. Ent., i, p. 51 
(1857). 

Head, prothorax, body underneath, legs, and base of the antennae, 
testaceous ; intermediate joints of the antennae pallid, the last four 
or five infuscate ; elytra violaceous, except in their apical sixth part 
and for a short distance forwards along the sutural and lateral 
margins, rather closely beset with tawny setae, especially at and in 
front of the middle so that a faint tawny band becomes visible there 
in certain lights. Head sparsely punctured above, more closely in 
front, with the interstices minutely punctulate. Pronotum sparsely 
punctured. Elytra distinctly, but not closely, punctured from the 
base almost to the apex ; each with two acute dorsal costae in addition 
to one running alongside the suture. Antennae of the male a little 
longer than the body. 

Hal. (?) Type {$) in coll. Oberthiir. 

Var. Apex of elytra more narrowly testaceous than in the type ; 
middle and front tibiae, and sometimes also the hind tibiae, blackish. 

Hah. South East Borneo (Doherty). In Brit, litis. 
and in coll. Oberthiir. 



52 Mr. Charles J. Gahan's Revision of 

This variety differs so slightly from the type as to make 
it extremely probable that the type itself came from 
Borneo or Java, and not from Japan as stated by Thomson. 
No other specimens of this or of any species of Astathes 
have been recorded from Japan. The species is very 
closely allied to A. instabilis, the only definite character 
by which it is distinguishable being the presence of 
numerous tawny setae on the anterior violaceous area of 
the elytra, causing the latter to exhibit a somewhat golden 
gloss in certain lights. 

24. Astathes montana, sp. n. 

Head, prothorax, underside, femora, and base of antennae, reddish- 
testaceous ; vertex of head and two small spots on the pronotum faintly 
piceous, intermediate joints of antennae pallid, last joints infuscate : 
elytra of a deep violaceous-blue colour, except at the extreme apical 
border where they are rufescent ; all the tibiae, and the posterior face 
of the front femora blackish. Head distinctly but rather sparsely 
punctured, with the interstices between the larger punctures on the 
front minutely punctulate ; prothorax sparsely punctured on the 
centro-dorsal tubercle, in the channel in front of it, and on the lateral 
tubercles ; elytra sparsely punctured from the base almost up to the 
apex. 

Long. 12, lat. 5 mm. 

Hah. Himalayas (Melly). Type ($) in Brit. Mus. 

In coloration this species resembles A. violaceipennis, 
Thorns., but differs in having the tibiae entirely black. It 
is distinguished further from that species in being less 
densely setose, and having the centro-dorsal tubercle of 
the prothorax less raised, and without a pit on each side 
in front. 

25. Astathes velata. 

Astathes velata, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 557 (1865) ; 
Pasc, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (3) iii, p. 353. 

Yellowish-testaceous j with the last five or six joints of the antennae 
infuscate ; and the elytra from the base almost to the middle, 
violaceous-blue, but with this violaceous-blue area more or less widely 
interrupted at the suture by a triangular extension forwards of the 
testaceous area. Centro-dorsal tubercle of the prothorax feebly 
raised, appearing as little more than the median portion of a sinuate 
ridge crossing the pronotum from side to side ; but w T ith the anterior 
slope of the tubercle extending to the transverse groove in front and 
raised slightly above its level so as to interrupt it. 



Astathes and allied Genera of Longicorn Coleoptera. 53 

Hah. Java and Sumatra. Type ( $ ) in coll. Oberthur. 

This species is closely allied to A. lexis, Newra., and is 
chiefly distinguishable from it by the less extent of the 
violaceous area on the elytra, and the feebler development 
and closer puncturation of the centro-notal tubercle. This 
tubercle is of somewhat the same size and form in all the 
remaining species of this section. 

In M. Oberthur's collection there is a specimen ticketed 
" intermedia Thorns, type " which can only be regarded as 
a variety of velata, Thorns. Though labelled ' type ' it has 
not, to my knowledge, been described. It differs from the 
type of velata m having the elytra violaceous from the base 
quite up to the middle, and this violaceous area not so 
widely interrupted at the suture. The locality of the 
specimen is not indicated by any label, but a specimen in 
the Brit. Mus. very closely agreeing with it, is ticketed 
Java. 

26. Astathes rufescens. 

Astathes rufescens, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 559 (1865). 

Very closely allied to A. velata, Thorns., and probably only a 
variety of that species, the chief differences noticeable relating to the 
colour of the elytra. Elytra entirely yellowish-testaceous, giving 
more or less strong purplish reflexions, especially towards the base, 
in certain lights ; with a small area on each side between the middle 
and the base rather closely beset with blackish setas, the setse over 
the rest of the surface being more sparsely scattered, and tawny in 
colour. (In some specimens the shoulder of each elytron has a 
distinct purplish colour.) 

Hah. JAVA and Sumatra. Type ($) in coll. Oberthur. 

Having been unable to find any structural difference 
between this form and A. velata, I was inclined to think 
that the difference in coloration might be due to 
immaturity of the specimens. But from an examination 
of a large number of specimens, M. Oberthur has come 
to the conclusion that this is not the case. He believes, 
however, that A. nfescens is only a unicolorous form of 
A. velata. 

27. Astathes nitens. (Plate IV, fig. 5.) 

Cerambyx nitens, Fab., Syst. Eleuth., ii, p. 279 (1801). 
Lamia daldorjii, var. 3, Illig., in Wiedem. Archiv. fur Zool. 
i, 2, p. 136 (1800). 



54 Mr. Charles J. Gahan's Revision of 

Cerambyx ignitus, Illig., Mag. fur Insekt., iv, p. 109 (1805). 
Astathes nitens, Pasc., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (3) iii, p. 350 

(1867). 
Astathes fabricii, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 558 (1865). 
Yar. Astathes apicalis, Thorns., 1. c, p. 558. 
Astathes humeralis, Heyden, Abb. Sencken. nat. Ges., xxiii, 

p. 578 (1897). 

Head, prothorax and abdomen black ; antennae yellowish or 
reddish-testaceous, with a variable number of the joints nearest the 
apex more or less infuscate ; elytra testaceous, with the posterior 
sixth or seventh part violaceous ; prosternum and hind breast 
entirely, or in part only, testaceous ; legs variable in colour, the 
femora and tibise being usually for the most part pitchy-black, but 
sometimes entirely testaceous. Head and prothorax distinctly, but 
rather sparsely punctured, the punctures on the prothorax being 
mostly confined to the centro-dorsal and lateral tubercles; these 
tubercles not more raised than in the preceding species, and similar 
to them in form, that is they appear as little more than the median 
and lateral parts of a sinuate ridge crossing the pronotum from side 
to side sloping gradually in front, and abruptly raised and rather 
sharply edged behind. Elytra distinctly enough, but sparsely, 
punctured, each with two distinct dorsal costae in addition to one 
alongside the suture, the costae external to these being almost, or 
quite, obsolete. 

Hal. Sumatka, Nias L, Borneo, Malacca and Siam. 

This species is placed in the Munich Catalogue as a 
variety of A. splendida, Fab., and so also is A. fulgida, 
Fab., but it will be seen from the positions which I have 
assigned to them, that these three species are really very 
distinct from each other, differing as they do by strongly 
marked structural characters. A. nitens varies to some 
extent in colour. In some specimens the elytra are 
entirely testaceous, or have only the extreme apical border 
violaceous, while in the type ($) of apicalis, Thorns., from 
Malacca, the whole posterior third part of the elytra is 
violaceous. In humeralis, Heyd., described from one ($) 
example from Baram in North Borneo, the apical fourth part 
of the elytra is violaceous, a condition somewhat intermediate 
between that of apicalis and the typical form of nitens. 

28. Astathes caloptera. 

Astathes caloptera, Pasc, Journ. of Ent., i, p. 63 (1860). 
Astathes cyanipennis, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 557 (1865). 



Astathes and allied Genera of Longicom Coleoptera. 55 

Entirely black with the exception of the elytra and antennae ; 
elytra of a deep violaceous-blue colour, and the antennso pale 
yellowish with the last three or four joints infuscate. In its 
relatively broad form and in all its structural characters the species 
agrees well with A. nitens, Fab. 

Hal. Borneo. Type (<J) of caloptera in Brit. Mus. 
Type ($) of cyanipennis in coll. Oberthiir. 

This species varies very considerably in size, one of the 
male specimens described, by Pascoe measuring only 9 mm. 
in length, whereas a large female in the Brit. Mus. 
collection has a length of 17 mm. 

29. Astathes posticalis. 

Astathes posticalis, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 558 (1865) ; 
Pasc, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (3) iii, p. 351 (1867). 

Head, prothorax and abdomen black ; elytra violaceous from the 
base to a little beyond the middle, thence to the apex testaceous, the 
violaceous area with an almost straight hind border ; antennae 
testaceous, with the intermediate joints pallid, and the last five or 
six infuscate ; hind-breast testaceous ; legs more or less piceous. 
Agrees with A. nitens, Fab., in structural characters. 

Hah. Borneo. Type ($) in coll. Oberthiir. 

This species appears to vary in the extent of the 
violaceous colour on the elytra. In one specimen before 
me the violet area does not reach quite up to the middle, 
in another it reaches just to the middle, while in all the 
remaining specimens it reaches to a little beyond the 
middle. 

30. Astathes ignorantina. 

Tetraophthalmus ignorantinus, Thorns., Archiv. Ent., i, p. 
51 (1857). 
Head and prothorax black ; elytra dark violaceous for nearly 
two-thirds of their length from the base, apical part testaceous ; 
metasternum and abdomen testaceous, with the middle of the first 
segment black ; fore and middle femora blackish, hind femora 
testaceous ; tibise all slightly black at base, and testaceous towards 
the apex ; tarsi testaceous ; antennas pale yellowish-testaceous. 
Pronotum sparsely punctured, with transverse ridge and median 
tubercle closely resembling those of caloptera, Pasc, and nitois, Fab. 

Hah Java. Type (?) in coll. Oberthiir. 

Var. Differs from the type in having the abdomen entirely 



56 Mr. Charles J. Gahan's Revision of 

testaceous, the posterior femora, as well as the anterior and middle 
femora, black, and the tibiae, especially the anterior pair, black to a 
greater extent. 

Hah. West Borneo, Pontianak. In coll. Oberthtir and 
in Brit. Mus. 

Astathes huhenthali y Heyden (Abh. Sencken. nat. Ges., 
xxiii, p. 578 (1897), from Samarinda in East Borneo, seems 
to be identical with this variety. It is described as being 
closely allied to A. posticalis, Thorns., but differing as 
follows : elytra violaceous to a greater extent (for four- 
sevenths of their length from the base) ; front tibiae 
wholly, and the middle and hind tibiae in their basal part, 
black ; abdomen rufous ; central tubercle of pronotum 
strongly raised (" thorace in medio postice alte calloso "). 
These differences, with the exception of the last, are almost 
precisely the same as those by which the above variety 
may be distinguished from posticalis; but there is no 
appreciable difference in the size or form of the pronotal 
tubercle, and it is therefore possible that Hey den's species 
may be one of the varieties of A. terminata, Pasc. instead. 
In none of these varieties known to me, however, are the 
front tibiae black to a greater extent than those of the 
other two pairs ; as a rule, they are less black. 

31. Astathes purpurea. 

Astathes purpurea, Pasc, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (2) iv, p. 
108 (1857) ; id. (3) iii, p. 354. 

Head and prothorax black and glossy ; the underside and legs 
pitchy-black, but with the hind-breast, the tarsi, and apices of the 
tibiae testaceous ; elytra entirely of a dark purplish or violet colour ; 
first three joints of the antennae brownish, the remaining joints pale 
testaceous. Front of head distinctly but not very closely punctured ; 
furnished with a rather feeble median carina in its lower part in the 
female ; vertex of head and disk of prothorax sparsely punctured ; 
centro-dorsal tubercle of prothorax feebly raised, slightly notched in 
the middle behind, and impressed with a shallow pit in front. 
Elytra relatively rather narrow, sparsely but rather strongly 
punctured ; each with a juxta-sutural and two dorsal costae. 

Hah. Singapore. Type (?) in Brit. Mus. 

This species somewhat resembles A. caloptera, Pasc, in 
general coloration, but differs in having the tarsi and 
hind-breast testaceous instead of black ; and is further to 



Astathes and allied Genera of Longicom Coleoptera. 57 

be distinguished by its relatively narrow form. In general 
form it is more like the species of the next section ; but 
from the structure of its prothorax I consider it to be more 
nearly allied to the species placed in the present section. 

SECTION V. 

Centro-dorsal tubercle of prothorax small and narrow, not pro- 
longed in front to interrupt the anterior transverse groove, the latter 
being continued in a straight line right across the pronotura ; dorso- 
lateral tubercles not sharply edged behind. Elytra each with two 
distinct dorsal costae in addition to the sutural costa. Last ventral 
segment of the female not foveate. The species of this section are, as 
a rule, smaller, and relatively narrower than those of the preceding 
sections. 

32. Astathes straminea. 

Astathes straminea, Pasc, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (2) iv, p. 
108 (1857). 
Head and prothorax black ; elytra entirely yellowish-testaceous ; 
underside almost wholly pitchy-black ; femora and tibiae more or 
less piceous ; antennae pale testaceous with the basal joints more or 
less brown. Head distinctly and rather closely punctured in front, 
less closely on the vertex ; pronotum closely punctured at the sides 
of the central tubercle and in the groove in front of and behind it. 
Elytra feebly punctured. 

Hob. Burma. Type in Brit, Mus. 

The type specimen appears to be slightly immature, 
the legs antennse and elytra being paler than in other 
specimens, and the centro-dorsal tubercle of the prothorax 
slightly testaceous instead of black. 

33. Astathes bipartita. 

Astathes bipartita, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 558 (1865). 
Astathes pulchella, Pasc, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (3) iii, p. 
354 (1867). 

Keddish-testaceous or fulvous ; with the basal half of the elytra 
violaceous-blue, the apical half yellowish, the metasternum at the 
sides, and the last three or four joints of the antennae dark brown. 
Head densely punctured in front. Pronotum less closely but more 
strongly punctured, except on the central and lateral tubercles which 
are somewhat smooth and glossy. Elytra sparsely and rather feebly 
punctured, each with two distinct dorsal costae in addition to the one 
alongside the suture. 



58 Mr. Charles J. Gaban's Revision of 

Hob. Malacca, Tringano, Patani, Singapore, and 
Sumatka. Type of hvpartita in coll. Oberthtir ; type of 
pulchella in Brit. Mus. 

In size, form and structure tbis species agrees pretty 
closely with A. straminea, Pasc, but has an entirely 
different coloration. 

34. Astathes cincta, sp. n. (PI. IV, fig. 6.) 

Yellowish-testaceous ; with a broad steel-blue band crossing the 
whole width of the elytra between the base and the middle, the 
anterior border of the band being at a short distance behind the base, 
and the posterior, a little in front of the middle of the elytra ; apex 
of antennae slightly infuscate. Head thickly punctured in front and 
furnished with a feeble median carina near the base ; less closely 
punctured above and impressed with a median line. Prothorax 
slightly protuberant at the middle of each side : closely and strongly 
punctured above except along the central tubercle, the latter in the 
form of a slightly raised obtuse ridge extending from the posterior 
to the anterior transverse groove. Elytra rather sparsely punctured ; 
each with two distinct dorsal costae in addition to the sutural costa. 
Antennae of the male a little longer than the body; those of the 
female a little shorter than the body. 

Long. 9-10 mm. 

Hob. Java, Gounod Gedeh (Ledru). Type in coll. 
Oberthtir. 

This species, though closely resembling A. fasciata in 
coloration and in the relative position of the elytral band, 
is much smaller in size and differs further in having the 
centro-dorsal tubercle of the prothorax obtuse instead of 
strongly acute. 

35. Astathes fasciata, sp. n. 
Astathes levis, var. (3. Newman, The Entomologist, i, p. 299. 

Head, prothorax, and first three joints of the antennae testaceous ; 
intermediate joints of the antennas pale yellow, last five or six 
infuscate ; elytra yellowish- or reddish-testaceous, with a broad blue 
band crossing them transversely just before the middle ; body under- 
neath, and legs testaceous, with the tarsi and the discal half of the 
tibiae infuscate. Head densely and somewhat rugosely punctured in 
front, sparsely and feebly above ; the front with a prominent median 
carina in its lower half. Antennae reaching to the apex of the elytra 
in the male. Prothorax feebly tuberculate at the sides ; its centro- 
dorsal tubercle taking the form of a sharp riclge extending from the 



Astathes and allied Genera of Longicorn Coleoptera. 59 

posterior to the anterior transverse groove ; strongly and rather 
closely punctured except on the centro-dorsal ridge. Elytra feebly 
and sparsely punctured, but with the punctures appearing larger 
through being surrounded each by a small dusky area ; two distinctly 
raised costoe, in addition to the juxta-sutural costa, present on each 
elytron. 

Hal. Philippine Islands. Type ( $ ) in Brit. Mus. 
Two $ examples collected by C. Semper, in coll. 
Oberthiir. 

36. Astathes contentiosa. 

Astathes contentiosa, Pasc, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (3) iii, 
p. 352. 

Head, prothorax, and body underneath, black ; elytra purplish- or 
violaceous-black in the basal half, testaceous or yellowish in the 
hinder half, with the testaceous colour extending forwards triangularly 
at the suture ; antennae testaceous or fulvous, with the last few 
joints slightly infuscate ; femora blackish, tarsi, and the tibiae to a 
greater or less extent, testaceous. Head and prothorax sparsely 
punctured, the punctures being thickest and most distinct around the 
central tubercle of the pronotum. Elytra sparsely and rather feebly 
punctured. 

Hob. Malacca, Singapore, Johore, and Sinkip Island. 
Type in Brit. Mus. 

In the type from Singapore, the elytra are slightly- 
tinted with purplish at the apex, and in the specimen from 
Johore they are distinctly but very narrowly tipped with 
violet. The species is very nearly allied to A. partita 
(= daldorfii, Fab.), but is somewhat smaller in size, and 
distinguishable by the much greater extent of the 
violaceous area on the basal half of the elytra. 

37. Astathes partita, sp. n. 

Gerambyx daldorfii, Fab. (nee Illiger), Syst. Eleuth., ii, 

p. 279. 
Astathes daldorfii, Pasc, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (3) iii, 

p. 350. 

Head, prothorax and scutellum, black ; elytra reddish- testaceous, 
but with the apex and a spot extending inwards to a greater or less 
extent from each shoulder, violaceous-blue ; antenme reddish-brown 
at the base, fuscous at the end, the intermediate joints being pale 
testaceous ; body underneath black ; legs piceous with the tarsi and 
sometimes also the apices of the tibiae testaceous. 



60 Mr. Charles J. Gahan's Revision of 

Hab. Malacca and Sumatra. Type in Brit. Mus. 

This species agrees pretty closely with A. straminea, 
Pasc, and A. Jlaviventris, Pasc, both in form and structure, 
and is chiefly distinguishable from them by the difference 
in the coloration of the elytra. It is without doubt the 
species described by Fabricius as Cerarribyx daldorjli, but 
it certainly is not one of the three forms included by 
Illiger under that name. Illiger's C. daldorjli seems to 
have been made up of three very distinct species, his 
var. 1 being identical with splendida, Fab., his var. 2 with 
Julgida, Fab., and his var. 3 with nitens, Fab. 

38. Astathes Jlaviventris. 

Astathes Jlaviventris, Pasc, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (3) iii, 
p. 352. 

Head, prothorax, and scutellum black ; elytra for about one-half 
or two-thirds of their length from the base, violaceous-blue, and 
thence to the apex, testaceous ; antennae reddish-brown at the base, 
pale yellow in the middle, infuscate towards the apex ; body under- 
neath and legs, piceous or black, with the abdomen, the tarsi and the 
apices of the tibiae testaceous. Head distinctly, but not very closely 
punctured in front, more feebly and sparsely punctured on the vertex. 
Pronotum closely punctured at the sides of the central tubercle and 
in the transverse grooves. Elytra feebly and somewhat sparsely 
punctured. 

Hab. Borneo. Type in Brit. Mus. 

This species greatly resembles A. terrninata, Pasc, in size, 
form and coloration, so much so that specimens of the two 
species are sometimes mixed up together in collections. 
But an examination of the character of the centro-dorsal 
tubercle of pronotum will readily enable one to distinguish 
them. Another character to be noted is the presence of a 
rather well-marked depression on the last ventral segment 
in the female of A. terrninata, and the almost complete 
absence of any such depression in A. Jlaviventris. 

Genus Anastathes, gen. nov. 

Head almost flat between the antenniferous tubercles. Antenna? 
rather short and thick, those of the female scarcely reaching to the 
apical third of the elytra ; third joint not longer than the first ; 
second joint scarcely longer than broad ; last joint sharply pointed 
and sub-glabrous at the apex. Prothorax transverse, furnished with 
an obtuse, transverse tubercle or ridge at the middle of each side, and 



Astathes and allied Genera of Longicom Coleoptera. 61 

a large obtuse tubercle on the middle of the disc. Elytra nearly 
parallel-sided, broadly rounded and unarmed at the apex. Inter- 
coxal process of the presternum raised in the middle almost to a level 
with the coxa3 ; mesosternal process vertical in front, turned back at 
the end to meet the anterior process of the metasternum, which is 
advanced nearly three-fourths of the way between the middle coxae. 

Type of the genus : Astathes nigricornis, Thorns. 

1. Anastathes nigricornis. 

Astathes nigricornis, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 560. 
TetraophthalnuLS nigricornis (Dej. Cat.). 

9 . Reddish -testaceous ; with the elytra somewhat paler towards 
the apex ; antennae entirely black. Head sparsely and rather feebly 
punctured ; front slightly concave in the middle between the 
antennae, convex in its lower part. Antennae reaching about to the 
apical third of the elytra ; first joint very closely punctured. 
Prothorax almost equally broad at the base and apex, rather deeply 
canaliculate at each side behind the lateral tubercle, less deeply in 
front of it ; the discoidal tubercle extending almost from the base to 
the apex, strongly and rather closely punctured. Elytra about one- 
half longer than broad, sparsely and not strongly punctured from the 
base to a little beyond the middle ; each with two feebly raised dorsal 
costae. Last ventral segment with an impressed line along the 
middle, and a faint depression near the apex. 

llab. Malacca (Type ? in coll. Oberthiir), Penang 
(Lamb) and Java. 

2. Anastathes bijrfagiata, sp. n. (Plate IV, fig. 9.) 

9 . Yellowish-testaceous ; elytra each with a large oval black spot 
placed transversely just before the middle ; antennae with the first 
three joints black and glossy, the remaining joints dark brown and 
dull. Head strongly but not closely punctured ; the front broad, 
nearly flat above between the antennae, slightly convex below and 
furnished with a very faint median carina. Antennae scarcely 
extending beyond the middle of the elytra ; the first joint very 
closely punctured ; the last eight joints together hardly longer than 
the first three together. Prothorax almost as broad in front as at the 
base ; the centro-notal tubercle large and obtuse, extending almost 
from the base to the apex, strongly and rather closely punctured. 
Elytra distinctly but not closely punctured, the punctures becoming 
gradually smaller on the posterior half ; costae almost entirely 
obsolete. Last ventral segment as long as the three preceding it 



62 Mr. Charles J. Gahan's Revision of 

impressed with a groove along the middle, and a faint depression 
near the apex. 

Long. 10, lat. 4 mm. 

Hah. SiAM, Laos (in coll. Oberthur), Lakhon (Armand 
— in Paris Museum). 

Genus Cleonaria. 

Cleonaria, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 119 (1864). 

Narrow and elongate in form. Head slightly depressed between 
the antennae. Antennae shorter than the body in both sexes, 
densely setose, the setae being longer and forming a fringe on the 
posterior side ; first joint shorter than the third, asperate in front near 
the apex. Prothorax sub-cylindrical, scarcely broader than long, 
slightly rounded in the middle at the sides, feebly raised in the 
middle of the disc, impressed with a straight anterior and a sinuate 
posterior transverse groove. Elytra more than twice as long as 
broad, a little wider than the prothorax, and slightly wider 
posteriorly than at the base. Intercoxal process of prosternum 
narrow in the middle, and not strongly raised. Mesosternal process 
nearly horizontal, prolonged between the middle coxae for the greater 
part of their length. Legs rather short, the hind femora scarcely 
reaching beyond the second abdominal segment. Tarsal claws 
appendiculate in both sexes. Last ventral segment of the female 
long, and impressed with a median line ; that of the male shorter 
and narrower and without impression. 

Type of the genus : Cleonaria hicolor, Thorns. 

1. Cleonaria hicolor. 
Cleonaria hicolor, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 119 (1864). 

Head and prothorax testaceous yellow, with a faint ochreous 
pubescence, and furnished also with erect tawny setae ; head with a 
dark spot behind the lower lobe of each eye, and sometimes also, 
with a dark spot on each of the antenniferous tubercles ; prothorax 
with a dark blue band along the lower part of each side ; antennae 
black ; elytra pale yellow or stramineous ; body underneath, with 
the exception of the pro- and meso-sterna, dark metallic-blue ; legs 
black, varying to piceous. Head and prothorax distinctly but not 
very closely punctured. Elytra setose, thickly and strongly 
punctured, except near the apex ; slightly flattened along each side 
of the suture. Antennae reaching to the apical fourth of the elytra 
in the male, to a little beyond the middle in the female ; first joint 
very thickly jmnctured. 



Astathes and allied Genera of Longicom Golcoptera. 63 

Hah. SlAM (Type $ , in coll. Oberthlir) ; and S. India, 
Madras, Nilgiris. 

I have been unable to detect any sufficient specific 
difference in the examples from South India. They agree 
in all essential respects with' the type. In the latter, the 
head is not darker at the base of the antennas, and the 
dark spot behind each eye is very faint ; but the same is 
true also of most of the South-Indian specimens. 

2. Cleonaria cingalensis, sp. n. 

Apical fourth or fifth part of the elytra dark metallic-blue ; the 
coloration of all the remaining parts of the insect very similar to that 
of C. bicolor, Thorns. Head with a median, carini-form tubercle on 
the lower part of the front in the male, slightly gibbous in front in 
the female. In other structural characters, and in general form, the 
species agrees with G. bicolor. 

Long. 10-13, lat. 

Rab. Ceylon. Types {$ $) in Brit. Mus. ; Sj. in coll. 
Oberthlir. 

Genus Chkeonoma. 

Chreonoma, Pasc, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (3) iii, p. 358. 

Head broadly and moderately concave between the antenniferous 
tubercles. Antennae a little longer than the body in the male 
usually shorter than the body in the female ; first joint asperate in 
front at, or near, the apex ; second joint nearly twice as long as 
broad. Prothorax transverse, sub-cylindrical, protuberant, or not, 
at the middle of each side ; the disc with a more or less distinct 
median elevation. Elytra slightly widened out posteriorly, rounded 
and unarmed at the apex, without raised lines. Prosternum not 
very strongly raised between the coxae ; mesosternum sloped in front, 
prolonged between the middle coxae for the greater part of their 
length. 

Type of the genus : Chreonoma venusta, Pasc. 
The more typical species of this genus form a group or 
section distinguished by the following characters : 

Scape of the antennae as long as, or slightly longer than, the third 
joint, gradually and slightly thickened towards the apex ; last joint 
sharply pointed and sub -glabrous at the tip. Prothorax very 
slightly or not at all protuberant at the sides ; the anterior groove 
feeble and indistinct, especially in the middle ; the posterior groove 
distinct at the sides, very narrow and strongly bowed back in the 



64 Mr. Charles J. Gah an's Revision of 

middle behind the discal elevation ; the latter very slightly raised 
and only apparent on the posterior part of the disc. Last ventral 
segment of the female obtusely pointed at the apex. 

This section includes G. venusta, Pasc, and G. seclusa, 
Pasc, from Batchian, G. bimaculata, Pasc, from Waigiou, 
G. fiavicincta, Pasc, from Say lee, G. vermda, Pasc, from 
Morty, and C. annulicornis, Pasc, from Celebes. 

The following four species are closely related to these 
but differ in having the prothorax more protuberant at the 
middle of each side ; the last joint of the antennas less 
sharply pointed and covered entirely with pubescence ; 
and the last ventral segment of the female more broadly 
rounded at the apex. 

Chreonoma pallida. 

Astathes pallida, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 559. 
Astathes kraatzi, Thorns., 1. c, p. 559. 

Entirely pale yellowish-testaceous, excepting the last five to seven 
joints of the antennae which are infuscate. Prothorax with a very 
slight elevation extending along the middle of the disc almost from 
the base to the apex ; this elevation smooth, and only distinctly 
limited posteriorly where it is bounded by the basal transverse 
groove. Elytra rather thickly punctured from the base to a little 
beyond the middle. Scape of the antennas a little longer than the 
third joint, asperate in front at the apex. Last ventral segment of 
$ with a rather broad and deep fovea before the apex. 

Hah. Java (Type g of pallida) and Philippine Islands, 
Mindanao (Type % of kraatzi). 

Chreonoma puncticollis. 

Astathes puncticollis, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 559. 

9. Characters as in C. kraatzi, Thorns., but with the smooth 
space along the disc of the prothorax much narrower and restricted 
to the posterior part of the disc ; and the pronotum at the sides of, 
and in front of, this smooth space much more thickly punctured. 

Hob. Philippine Islands. Type ($) in coll. 
Oberthur. 

Ghreoma dapsilis. 

Phsea dapsilis, Newm., The Entomologist, i, p. 300 (1842). 

9 . Yellowish-testaceous, with the last six joints of the antenna? 
dark brown, and rather more than the apical half of the elytra dark 



Astathes and allied Genera of Longicom Golcoptera. 65 

metallic-blue, this blue area being extended somewhat further 
forward in the middle, with its anterior margin rounded. Head 
distinctly but rather sparsely punctured in front, without raised line 
or carina. Antennae three-fourths the length of the body ; scape 
equal in length to the third joint, slightly thickened towards the 
apex, thickly punctured, asperate near the apex. Prothorax 
sparsely punctured, except along the middle of the centro-notal 
elevation, which is smooth. Elytra rather thickly punctured on the 
basal testaceous area. 

Hal. Philippine Islands, Manilla. Type in Brit. 
Mus. 

Ghreonoma dilecta. 

Ph&a dilecta, Newm., The Entomologist, i, p. 300 (1842). 

9 . Antennae, and the apical fifth of the elytra black ; all the rest 
of the body pale yellowish-testaceous. Head almost impunctate ; 
front with a very feeble median carina in its lower half. Antennae 
nearly as long as the body ; first joint a little shorter than the third, 
asperate over nearly the whole of its anterior face. Prothorax very 
slightly protuberant at the middle of each side ; the centro-notal 
elevation sparsely punctured, ill defined in front, distinctly limited 
behind by the backwardly deflexed part of the posterior groove. 
Elytra slightly widened out posteriorly, rather thickly punctured 
except near the apex. 

Eab. Philippine Islands, Manilla. Type ($) in Brit. 
Mus. 

In the remaining species of the genus, the scape of the 
antennae is shorter than the third joint, and the last joint 
is entirely pubescent and not very sharply pointed : the 
prothorax is more distinctly protuberant at the middle of 
each side, its anterior groove is continued across the 
pronotum, its posterior groove is less strongly bowed back 
in the middle, and the central elevation, lying between 
these grooves, is more strongly raised. 

These include C. albicomis, Pasc, G melanura, Pasc, 
and G. tabida, Pasc, in addition to the following : 

Ghreonoma discoidalis. 
Astathes discoidalis. Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 559. 

9 . Head and prothorax reddish-testaceous, the elytra of a paler, 
yellowish- testaceous colour ; underside, legs, and antennae, testaceous. 
Head sparingly punctured. Prothorax with a slight elevation on the 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART I. (APRIL) 5 



66 Mr. Charles J. Gahan's Revision of 

middle of the disc between the anterior and posterior transverse 
grooves ; this elevation strongly and rather thickly punctured, the 
lateral parts of the pronotum being less thickly punctured. Elytra 
sparsely, but rather strongly, punctured for about two-thirds of their 
length from the base. Scape of the antennae with two or three short 
oblique ridges near the apex, the one nearest the apex being the 
longest, and somewhat resembling the limiting carina of the open 
cicatrice met with in the Mesodnx. 

Bah. Malacca. Type (?) in coll. Obertlmr. 



Chreonom a pcdlidiventris. 

Astathes pallidiventris, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 559. 
Astathes tegrota, Thorns., 1. c, p. 560. 

Very closely allied to C. discoidalis, Thorns., and similar to it in 
colour, the only characters serving to distinguish it being the some- 
what more strongly raised, and less thickly punctured, elevation on 
the middle of the pronotum, and the greater number — five or six — 
of the short transverse ridges forming the rasp-like roughness near 
the apex of the antenna! scape. In the male type the front of the 
head is furnished with a cariniform tubercle similar to that 
occurring in C. frontalis, Gahan, but much less strongly developed. 

Bab. Cochin China. Types in coll. Oberthlir. 

The type of pallidiventris is a male, that of i&grota, a 
female ; and there can be no doubt that both belong to one 
species. 

Ghreonoma nigriventris. 

Astathes nigriventris, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 559 (18G5). 
Chreonoma nigriventris, Pasc, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (3) 
iii, p. 360 (1867). 

Hal. Malay Peninsula, Singapore (Wallace), Perak 
(Ridley). 

This species is closely allied to C. discoidalis, Thorns., 
but differs in having the metathorax and abdomen, black ; 
and the centro-notai tubercle of the prothorax less closely 
punctured. In the male, the head has a strongly developed 
cariniform tubercle on the middle of the front : in the 
female the front of the head is somewhat gibbous in the 
middle, but is without a tubercle or carina. 



Astatkes cm<l allied Genera of Longicmm Coleopter'a, G7 

C 'h rconom a test ace a . 

Tetraophthalmns tcstaceus, Thorns., Archiv. Ent., i, p. 55 

(1857). 

Metasternum and the first three abdominal segments blackish- 
brown ; hind femora also dark brown, except at the extremities ; all 
the rest of the body, including the elytra and antennae, testaceous. 
In structural characters this species agrees pretty closely with C. 
pallidiventris and C. 7iigriventris, but in the male the front of the 
head is only slightly more gibbous than in the female and is without 
a distinct carina or tubercle. 

Rah. Java. Type ($) in coll. Oberthiir. 

Chrconoma punctata. 
Astathes punctata, Thorns., Syst. Ceramb., p. 559. 

Hah. Malacca. Type (?) in coll. Oberthiir. 

This species was described from a female example which 
greatly resembles the female of C. testacca, Thorns., differ- 
ing only in having the underside entirely testaceous. 

Chrconoma frontalis. 

Chrconoma frontalis, Gahan, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, (2) 
xiv, p. 100 (1894). 

Hah. North India and North Burma. 

Chrconoma hasalis. 
Chrconoma hasalis, Gahan, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1894,p. 487. 
Hah. Hong Kong. 

Chrconoma corned a, sp. n. (Plate IV, fig. 8.) 

3 . Head, antennas at the base, prothorax, and a narrow trans- 
verse band at the base of the elytra, yellowish-testaceous • rest 
of the elytra violaceous-blue ; lost six joints of the antenna? and 
the apices of the fourth and fifth, dark brown ; body underneath, 
and legs, testaceous, densely clothed with tawny hairs, which are 
much longer and more densely placed on the sides of the 
abdomen. Head rather broad and convex in front, without a 
median carina, densely setose. Prothorax with the centro-notal 
tubercle rather strongly raised, somewhat oval in outline, convex 
above, and distinctly and closely punctured except along the middle. 
Elytra rather closely punctured, with the punctures becoming 



68 Mr. Charles J. Gahan's Revision of 

gradually smaller towards the apex ; somewhat densely setose, the 
setse being longer on the basal part, shorter near the apex, black on 
the violaceous area, and tawny like those of the head and thorax, 
on the basal testaceous band. Antennae longer than the body ; first 
joint rather short, obconical, asperate in front near the apex ; joints 
3rd to 8th or 9th slightly angulate at the apex on the anterior side, 
the same joints with a fringe of short seta? on the posterior side. 
Long. 12 mm.; lat. 4 mm. 

Hah. Hong Kong. Type {$) in coll. Oberthur. 

This species greatly resembles G. hasalis, Gab., in size, 
form and coloration, and comes from the same locality. It 
differs in having the testaceous band at the base of the 
elytra nearly twice as broad, the head of the male without 
a frontal carina, the antenna! joints slightly angulate at 
the apex and more densely setose, the legs and body 
underneath much more thickly covered with tawny hairs, 
and these hairs very much longer, especially on the sides 
of the abdomen. 

Ghreonoma fortunci. 

Plaxomierus fortunci. Thorns., Archiv. Ent., i, p. 58, pi. 8, 
fig. 2. 

Hak China, Shanghai. 

Var. jajwnica, var. n. 

Differs from the Chinese form in having the antenna? entirely 
black. 

Hah. Japan, Kaisa, and Province of Satsuma. (In coll. 
Oberthur, and in Brit. Mus.) 

Ghreonoma ivcisei Hey den. 
Abhand. Senck. Naturf. Gesellschaft, xxiii, p. 577 (1807). 
Long. 8 mm. 

Hah. Celebes, Donggala. 

This species is unknown to me ; but since it is described 
as having the suture and two costas on the posterior part 
of the elytra, strongly raised, I have considerable doubt 
as to its being a true Ghreonoma. It seems to be very 
like Astathes hipartita, Thorns., in coloration, and possibly 
belongs to that genus. 



Astathes and allied Genera of Longicom Goleoptera. 69 

Genus Plaxomickus. 

Plaxomicrus, Thorns., Archiv. Ent., i, p. 57 (1857). 
Placomicrus (Thorns.), in Cat. Getnm. and Harold. 

Head depressed between the antenniferous tubercles. Antennae 
sparsely ciliate, a little longer than the body in the male, shorter 
than the body in the female ; first joint shorter than the third, 
asperate in front at the apex ; second joint longer than broad ; last 
joint more or less sharply pointed, but not glabrous at the apex. 
Prothorax slightly protuberant at the middle of each side, and with 
a central swelling or tubercle on the disc. Elytra more or less 
strongly dilated posteriorly, attaining their greatest breadth at about 
a third or fourth of their length from the apex ; broadly rounded at 
the apex. Intercoxal process of prosternum very narrow in the 
middle, and but slightly raised. Mesosternal process narrow and 
nearly flat, prolonged between the middle coxae for the greater part 
of their length. Middle tibiae bent inwards near the apex, very 
strongly in the male, less strongly in the female. Tarsal claws 
appendiculate in both sexes. 

Type of the genus : Plaxomicrus ellipticus, Thorns. 

1. Plaxomicrus ellipticUs. (Plate IV, fig. 7.) 

Plaxomicrus ellipticus, Thorns., Archiv. Ent., i, p. 58 
(1857) (?). 

Yellowish-testaceous and nitid ; with the elytra almost entirely 
violaceous, the extreme basal and apical margins only being 
testaceous ; the last six or seven joints of the antennae deeply 
infuscate ; the tarsi, and the apices of the tibiae slightly infuscate. 
Head feebly and sparsely punctured, impressed with a median 
longitudinal line. Prothorax closely and rather strongly punctured 
over almost the whole ivpper surface : the anterior transverse groove 
straight and distinct across the middle as well as at the sides ; the 
posterior groove bent back in the middle forming a boundary to the 
central tubercle. Elytra very strongly dilated behind, strongly but 
sparsely punctured in their anterior half, with the interstices finely 
and sparsely punctulate ; furnished above with sparsely scattered 
erect setae, and along the outer margins with a fringe of short setae. 
Underside rather thickly clothed with tawny setae. 

& . Antennae a little longer than the body. Middle tibiae strongly 
bent inwards at about one-third from the apex ; first tarsal joint of 
the same legs with a long laminate process projecting in front of the 
second joint and equal in length to that joint. 



70 Mr. Charles J. Gahan's Revision of 

$ . Antennae a little shorter than the body. Middle tibiae slightly 
incurved towards the apex. Last ventral segment impressed with a 
median line which widens into a shallow pit near the apex. 

Hob. Shanghai. Type ( $ ) in coll. Oberthtir. $ $ and 
? ? in Brit. Mus. 

2. Plaxomicrus vcntralis, sp. n. 

£ . Very similar in form and structure to P. ellijrticus, Thorn?., 
and closely resembling it also in coloration, but distinguishable as 
follows: Elytra entirely violaceous; first four abdominal segments 
black ; tarsi, apices of the tibia?, and the whole outer face of the 
four front tibiae, black. Head rather closely punctulate in front. 
Prothorax somewhat more thickly punctured than in P. ellipticus, 
especially on the centro-notal tubercle. 

Long. 13 mm.; lat. (ad basin elytroruin), 4*25 mm.; lat. max., 6 mm. 

Rob. Upper Tonkin, N.W. of Bao Lac (Dr. Battarel — in 
coll. Obertblir). 

3. Plaxomicrus loins, sp. n. 

^ . Yellowish-testaceous and nitid ; with the elytra almost entirely 
violaceous, a small spot only at the extreme base of each adjoining 
the scutellum being, like the latter, testaceous ; the last seven joints 
of the antennae dark brown ; the tarsi, the apices and almost the 
whole of the outer face of the tibiae, black. Head feebly and 
sparsely punctured, impressed with a median line. Prothorax 
distinctly, but rather sparingly punctured ; the anterior transverse 
groove somewhat shallower and less distinct in the middle. Elytra 
strongly dilated behind, attaining their greatest breadth at about 
one-third from the apex ; strongly but sparsely punctured on the 
anterior half, finely and sparsely punctulate over their whole 
surface ; furnished above with longer and shorter black setae, and 
along the lateral margins with a fringe of short black setae. Under- 
side sparsely clothed with tawny setae. Antennae reaching to the 
posterior third of the elytra. Middle tibiae incurved towards 
the apex. 

Long. 12-13 mm. ; Lit. (ad basin elytroruin), 5 mm.; lat. max., 
7*25 mm. 

Rah. Bhutan, Maria Basil and Pedong. Type ($) in 
coll. Obertlillr. 

This species is very similar in coloration to P. ellipticus ) 
but has a different form, the head, prothorax, and base of 
the elytra being relatively broader than in that species, 



Astathcs and allied Genera of Longiconi Goleoplcra. 71 

and the dilatation of the elytra behind not so great in 
proportion to the width of the anterior parts. It differs 
also in having the prothorax more sparsely punctured, and 
the anterior transverse groove shallower and less distinct 
in the middle. 

4. Plaxomicrus oberthuri, sp. n. 

$ . Pale testaceous-yellow, and nitid ; with the elytra in their 
basal half, excepting a spot on eacli side of the scutellum, violaceous ; 
the last four or five joints of the antennae, the tarsi, and the outer 
faces of the tibiae more or less deeply infuscate. Head very minutely 
punctulate, marked also with some larger sparsely scattered punctures 
both on the front and vertex. Prothorax slightly nitid, strongly and 
closely punctured on the centro-notal tubercle and in the transverse 
groove in front of it ; the centro-notal tubercle slightly flattened 
on top. Elytra gradually and not strongly dilated behind ; sparsely 
punctured on the basal violaceous area ; the hind margin of this 
area indented at the suture and also, but less strongly, at about the 
middle of the width of each elytron ; setae sparsely scattered above, 
aggregated at the lateral margins to form a short black fringe. 
Antennae reaching to the apical third of the elytra. Middle tibia} 
very feebly curved. Last ventral segment impressed with a median 
line, flattened and scarcely depressed .in the middle before the apex. 

Long. 12 mm.; lat. ad basin elytrorum, 4 mm.: lat. max. 5*5 mm. 

Sab. Assam, Khasia Hills, 2000'. Type in coll. Oberthilr. 

This species, though having the elytra less dilated 
posteriorly, and the middle tibiae but very slightly curved, 
agrees pretty closely in other points of structure with the 
typical forms of Plaxomicrus, and I have, therefore, placed 
it in this genus rather than in Gkreonoma towards which 
it shows an approximation in general form. 

Genus Lasiophrys, gen. nov. 

£ . Head very broad, flattened in front, widest between the lower 
lobes of the eyes, furnished with a short fringe of hairs just above 
the upper margin of each of these lobes ; labrum short, broad, 
attached by an equally short and broad membranous cpistome to the 
clypeal margin ; mandibles broad, flattened in front. Antennae a 
little longer than the body; first joint shorter than the third and 
fringed with short hairs underneath ; last joint somewhat obtusely 
pointed, and not glabrous, at the apex. Prothorax with a slight 
protuberance at the middle of each side followed by a groove which 
extends upwards to, and widens out at, the side of a centro-notal 



72 Mr. Charles J. Gahan's Revision of 

elevation ; the latter somewhat oblong in form, limited behind by 
the narrow basal groove, and continued uninterruptedly to the 
anterior margin in front. Elytra about twice as long as their con- 
joint width at the base, slightly widened out posteriorly and broadly 
rounded at the apex. Sternal processes as in Ghreonoma. Claws of 
tarsi strongly toothed at the base. 

9 . Head a little less broad, slightly convex in front, and without 
a fringe over the lower lobe of each eye ; mandibles narrower, and 
slightly convex in front. Antennae shorter than the body, and with- 
out a fringe under the first joint. Last ventral segment longer, 
impressed with a line along the middle, and a shallow pit near 
the apex. 

Lasiophrys latifrons, sp. n. (Plate IV, fig. 10.) 

<$ . Head and prothorax yellowish- or reddish-testaceous in colour, 
with the apex and inner edge of the mandibles black ; basal half of 
elytra black, the rest yellowish ; antennce testaceous, with the last 
four or five joints dark brown ; body underneath yellowish-testaceous, 
with the meta-thorax, especially at the sides, more or less reddish- 
brown ; legs black, with all the coxse, and the anterior face of the 
front femora, testaceous. Head widened upwards from the base to 
the lower lobes of the eyes, and as wide there as the elytra in their 
widest part, sparsely punctured with rather small unequal-sized 
punctures, marked with a dark longitudinal line, which becomes 
slightly raised, forming a short carina, on the crown ; antenniferous 
tubercles feebly raised, with the broad front between them slightly 
concave ; mandibles rugosely punctured in front except at the edges. 
Prothorax strongly and rather thickly punctured on the centro notal 
elevation. Elytra sparsely punctured. 

$ . Antennae reaching to the apical third of the elytra ; last ventral 
segment with an impressed line along the middle. 

Long. 16-18, lat. 6 mm. 

Hab. Bhutan, Maria Basti. (In coll. Oberthtir, and in 
Brit. Mus.) 

Genus Momisis. 

Momisis, Pasc, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (3) iii, p. 361 

(1867). 

Type. M. segrota, Pasc, J. c, p. 362, pi. xvi, fig. 4. 

This genus was founded for a single species represented 
only by one female specimen. The male of the same, or 
a very closely allied, species has been described by Ritsema 
under the name of Bacchisa nigriventris (Notes), Leyden 



Astathes and allied Genera of Longicorn Goleoptera. 73 

Mus., iii, p. 7). Though Mr. Ritsema subsequently pointed 
out (1. c. p. 82) that his species was founded upon the 
male sex of Momisis segrota, he seems still later to 
have altered his opinion in regard to the identity of the 
two species, for in a list published in the ' Notes/ 
vol. x, p. 253, he gives them as being distinct, referring 
both, as well as two other species described by him, to the 
genus Bacchisa. 

Bacchisa coronata, Pasc. — the type of Bacchisa — is, how- 
ever, distinguished from all these species by characters 
which seem to me to be of more than specific importance, 
and I, therefore, retain Momisis as a distinct genus. The 
two genera agree in general form, in sternal characters, 
and in the fact that the male is furnished with tufts of 
hairs on the sides and vertex of the head ; but they are 
distinguishable as follows : 

Scape of the antennae scarcely reaching to the middle of the 
prothorax, much shorter than the third joint ; tarsal claws very 
feebly or not at all appendiculate at the base. — Bacchisa, Pasc. 

Scape of the antennae reaching beyond the base of the prothorax, 
almost, or quite, as long as the second and third joints together ; 
tarsal claws distinctly appendiculate in both sexes. — Momisis, Pasc. 

Momisis melanura, sp. n. (Plate IV, fig. 11.) 

<$ . Testaceous, with the antennae, the apical sixth of the elytra, 
the abdomen and tarsi black. Head with a long tuft of tawny hairs 
on the vertex between the antennae, another on each side placed 
obliquely between the lower lobe of the eye and the antennary tuber, 
and one smaller in front of each of the antennary tubers ; lower 
part of the front with a concave shovel-like process, which projects 
downwards in front of the mandibles ; upper part of front with a 
sharp median ridge which is more strongly raised at its upper (or 
posterior) end. Prothorax nearly parallel-sided, slightly narrowed 
towards the base, clothed with a faint tawny pubescence, and without 
tubercle or elevation on the disc. Elytra rather thickly punctured, 
the punctures being tolerably large from the base to the middle, and 
becoming gradually smaller and less distinct posteriorly ; clothed 
with tawny pubescence and erect tawny setae on the testaceous part, 
with black pubescence and setae on the apical black area. Antennae 
twice as long as the body ; the first joint nearly equal in length to 
the second and third together, fringed with long tawny hairs on 
anterior side near the base, with shorter black hairs on both sides for 
the greater part of its length ; third joint with long hairs on posterior 



74 Mr. Charles J. Gahan's Revision of Astathcs, etc. 

side. Metasternum slightly black along the outer margins ; middle 
and hind tibiae somewhat blackish at apex. 
Long. I0h, lat. 3 mm. 

Hah. North Queensland, Bellendcu Ker (B. G. Rye). 
Type $ in Brit. Mus. 

This species is distinguished from the other species of 
Momisis by the much greater length of the male antenna 1 , 
these organs being twice as long as the body, whereas in 
M. nigriwntris, Rits., they are very little more than half 
as long again as the body, and in M. singularis, Rits., are 
only equal to the body in length. 



Explanation of Plate IV. 



Fig 



1. 


Astathe 


s posticata, sp. n. 


2 


V 


In /hi. sp. n. 


3. 


)5 


perversa, sp. n. 


4. 


» 


fulgida, Fab. 


5. 


55 


nitens, Fab. 


6. 


J> 


cincta } sp. n. 


7. 


Plaxomicrus ellipticus. Thorns., ' 


8. 


Ghreonoma co-mata, sp. n., J. 


9. 


Anastathes biplagiata, sp. n., y . 


10. 


Lasiophi 


•;/.s latifrons, sp. n., J . 


11. 


Momisis melanura, sp. n., £ . 



C 75 ) 



IV. Butterflies of the Lebanon. By Mary De la Beche 
Nicholl, F.E.S., with a Preface and Notes ly 
Henry John Elwes, F.R.S, F.L.S., etc. 

[Read November 21st, 1900.] 

[Mrs. Nicholl lias asked me to examine the butterflies 
which she collected in Syria, and to make some remarks on 
them. I have done this very imperfectly, because the Syrian 
butterflies are worse represented in my collection than 
those from most parts of the Palsearctic region, and indeed 
seem to be less known. Except the species which have 
been collected by Zach near Beyrout, and those which Mr. 
Leech procured through a native collector, ten or twelve 
years ago, from North Syria, no list or account of which has 
been published, few Syrian butterflies have reached England. 
Consul Paulus of Jerusalem has printed privately a list of 
Palestine Lepidoptera, and Freiherr von Kalchberg has in 
Iris X, p. 1G1, published a list of Lepidoptera from Haifa ; 
but no one apparently had made a systematic attempt at 
collecting in the higher parts of the Lebanon until Mrs. 
Nicholl went there. I have received a small collection, sent 
by Prof. Day of Beyrout, to Miss Sharpe, which contains 
several species that Mrs. Nicholl did not find, and I have no 
doubt that there are more to be discovered in the higher 
northern parts of the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon. Dr. 
Staudinger has described briefly in the new edition of his 
catalogue several varieties from Syria and the Lebanon, but I 
do not know from whom they were procured, and a much 
larger series than I possess is necessary to enable me to 
identify some of the Lycenidae found by Mrs. Nicholl as 
certainly as I should wish. The following notes must be 
considered therefore as provisional only, and if I am able 
to carry out my intention of visiting the Lebanon this year, 
I shall hope to make a complete list of the Syrian 
butterHies later. — H. J. Elwes.] 

Very little is known of the butterflies of Syria. A 
catalogue exists of Lepidoptera taken by the German 
Consul, near Jerusalem ; and another, printed by Ledcrer, 
enumerates the Lepidoptera taken by Franz Zach fifty 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LONI). 1901. — PART I. (APRIL) 



76 Mary de la Beche Nicholl on 

years ago, this collector however seems to have confined 
his researches to the coast and immediate neighbourhood 
of Beyrout. The ranges of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon 
have been practically unknown to European collectors, so 
I determined to spend May and June in the district. I 
had hoped for the advantage of Mr. Elwes' companionship, 
but a sudden outbreak of plague at Port Said interfered 
so seriously with his journey to Beyrout, and quarantine 
regulations made travelling so difficult, that he was com- 
pelled to give up the expedition, which would probably 
have produced a far more complete collection had I had 
the advantage of his assistance. I have given the heights 
of the principal peaks of both the Lebanon and the Anti- 
Lebanon. I ascended all the southern summits of any note, 
but time failed me for the' highest, the most northerly, and 
the most interesting — Dahr el Khotib, 9500 feet, at the 
northern end of the range of Lebanon. 

The two ranges run exactly parallel to each other, in a 
northerly and southerly direction, and are divided by the 
high and fertile plain of the Bekaa ; which is from ten to 
fifteen miles in width, and forms the watershed of the 
rivers Orontes and Litany. Seen from the Bekaa, the two 
mountain chains resemble one another most curiously, 
rising gradually from the plain in long stony ridges, seamed 
with steep gullies, generally running east and west down 
to the Bekaa. These gullies are still filled with snow at the 
higher elevations in May and early June, giving a peculiar 
striped appearance to both Hermon and the high Lebanon 
peaks. Neither range falls precipitously towards the 
Bekaa, and the lower foothills are often chalk, the higher 
mountains are limestone, with some kind of red sandstone 
formation cropping up in many places. The limestone 
ridges are terribly dry, except where the elevation is 
sufficient to ensure snow-fed streams during most of the 
year, but the red sandstone valleys are well watered and 
fertile. The western face of Lebanon presents a striking 
contrast to the eastern, the mountains fall very steeply from 
an elevation of from 5000 — 9500 feet to the sea-level, and 
the streams cut their way through precipitous and almost 
inaccessible gorges downwards. This steep western face of 
the range is favoured with much more rain, mist, and wind 
than falls to the share of the eastern side ; grass, shrubs 
and trees flourish (but the latter are generally cut down 
before they attain any size). 



Butterflies of the Lebanon. 77 

Notwithstanding these advantages, I believe there are 
more butterflies to be had on the barren inland slopes 
than in the wind-swept gorges of the western side. 
Insects do not thrive in the salt gales and mists that drift 
perpetually up to Dahr el Khotib and Djebel Sunnin, and 
except on the hot sea-coast where some of the tenderer 
butterflies occur, I think more variety is to be obtained 
further eastwards. 

Of the northern part of the Lebanon I am unable to 
speak. It certainly differs considerably from the southern 
districts, and Dahr el Khotib produces at least one 
definitely alpine butterfly, Pieris callidice, which was 
taken on its summit by Prof. Day in July, and which I 
failed to find on Hermon, June 8th, and on Djebel Sunnin 
on June 19th. 

I arrived at Beyrout April 28th, and received much 
kindness and hospitality from our Gonsul-General and Mrs. 
Drummond Hay. The Consul put me in charge of an 
excellent dragoman, who attended to all my wants and 
wishes during my travels, so that I never had the smallest 
difficulty in carrying out my plans. I also had the great 
good fortune to make acquaintance with Prof, and Mrs. 
Day (of the American College at Beyrout), and received 
much assistance and information from them. They are both 
Lepidopterists, and have a very interesting local collection of 
insects taken near Beyrout, and also a good many species 
from the Lebanon. But college work detains the Professor 
in Beyrout till mid July, so that they can do nothing in the 
mountains during the early summer. 

I found that I was too late for D. apollinus, E. damone, 
and E. belemia, all of which are common along the coast. 
They do not appear to go high up into the mountains, as 
I entirely failed to get any. 

After making several excursions round Beyrout, along 
the fertile irrigated strip between the mountains and the 
sea, to Dog River glen, and to Brummana, — a summer 
resort about 3000 feet above the sea, and too near 
it to be good for insects, — I took train for Damascus on 
May 6th in very cold wet weather, which lasted till the 10th. 
Returning to Beyrout, I halted for a day at Zebedani (on 
the railway), and Blouden in the Anti-Lebanon. The 
latter is a mountain village and health resort, 4500 feet 
high, beautifully situated on the flank of Djebel Chekif. 
I found this a good place for butterflies, and returned here 



78 Mary de la Beehe Nicboll on 

later. On both occasions I took species which I did not 
meet with elsewhere. I then went to Beit Cliabab, a 
Lebanon village, where my dragoman lived, and thence 
we started with tents on May 17th, and crossed the main 
ridge of Lebanon to Zableh by a pass between Djebel 
Sunnin and Djebel Keneysseh. 

On the eastern slope of Djebel Keneysseh I took a good 
many interesting butterflies, all of which, however, I met 
with later. Weather continued very cold and windy, but 
it improved as we worked our way slowly northwards, 
along the foothills on the eastern face of Lebanon. We 
were several days reaching Ain Aata, a well-known halting- 
place on the direct track from Baalbek to the Cedars. I 
made many interesting captures on this route, of which 
the most remarkable were E. ckarlonia, Th. myrtale, C. 
asabinus, G. ocliimus, and G. thcrsamon, var. omphale, Lycama 
semiargus, var. Antiochena and var. Bcllis, L. antcros, var. 
crassipuncta, and L. Isaurica. From Ain Aata I rode to 
the Cedars, across the high main ridge of Lebanon, return- 
ing same day (May 27th). There was still much snow on 
the pass, and no butterflies out above 5000 feet, so I 
resolved to give up the higher Lebanon for the present, and 
to try the lower range of the Anti-Lebanon and Hermon. 
Near Baalbek, in cornfields on chalk hills, I took the first 
specimens of an unknown Lycxnct with orange spots on the 
upper side of the hind-wings. This insect frequents chalk, 
as all my specimens well marked with orange on the upper 
side were taken in cornfields on the chalk. Here, too, I 
got a specimen of L. loewii. 

From Baalbek I crossed a very wild, mountainous 
district, where butterflies were abundant, to the old Roman 
road leading southwards to Damascus. This we followed 
to Zebedani and Blouden, and I went up Djebel Chekif, 
7000 feet high, where I found a good deal of snow (it was the 
first week of June), and no butterflies except, P. megsera and 
Vanessa urticte, var. turcica. But Blouden and Zebedani 
again proved good collecting ground, and here I caught 
V. polychloros, Par. roxclana, and Z. theophrastus, none of 
which I ever saw elsewhere. We then turned southwards 
to Hermon, and rode for several days across low rocky 
limestone mountains, quite treeless and much overgrazed, 
but cultivated more or less in the hollows. I took a good 
many butterflies on this route, of which Sat. pelopea and 
Sat. acted, var. hadjina, were the most remarkable. The 



Butterflies of the Lebanon. 70 

former is common, but the latter I never met with except 
on the flanks of Hermon, rather high up. We now had 
a sirocco, which blew for five days, and was most exhaust- 
ing to man and beast ; even the butterflies were lazy, and 
would not fly freely. I did not get many new species 
along these western valleys of Hermon. Most of the 
mountain was limestone, but in some places we came across 
the red sandstone, with well-watered valleys and oleanders 
in full bloom along the streams. In these favoured spots 
I found Cigaritis acamas Hying in some numbers, but all 
in very bad order. I failed to get any perfect specimen. 
The ascent of Hermon (8750 feet) on June 7th was dis- 
appointing from an entomological point of view ; only a 
few very common insects were to be found on the broad, 
stony plateau which forms the summit, and the gullies on 
the way up and down were hardly remunerative. Many 
of them were full of snow. L. isaurica was the most 
interesting insect I took, and there were very few butter- 
flies of any kind to be had. I saw several P. mnemosyne, 
in bad order. The heat was now so intolerable that I 
returned across the Bekaa to the Lebanon, where I found 
cloud and cold sea breezes again. We encamped for 
several days at a very nice place called Khan Sunnin, 
situated on the western slope of Djebel Sunnin, about 
6000 feet above the sea. This is good butterfly ground, 
as the grazing is reserved for cattle and horses, and no 
sheep and goats allowed till late in the year, over a con- 
siderable tract of mountain, but here I again came in for 
much wind and cold sea-fog, which did not favour collecting. 
I went up Djebel Sunnin (8800) June 18th in brilliant 
weather, and again found the butterflies on the summit 
disappointing ; there was nothing new to be had though I 
took a good many insects of various kinds about 1500 feet 
lower down. From Khan Sunnin we went two days' 
journey northwards to Afka, riding across a beautiful 
mountain country, but all terribly overgrazed. For hours 
I scarcely saw a flower or a fresh green leaf, or a butterfly. 
Only the cornfields, generally ill cultivated and full of 
weeds, afford a haven for the insects. A field of green 
corn will generally produce something of interest to the 
collector, and no one ever seems to object to a chase in the 
corn so long as it remains green. The only places where 
many species of butterfly can be looked for after the end 
of May, are those tracts of mountain where the grazing is 



80 Mary de la Beche Nicholl on 

reserved for the cattle, and for late summer, and if you 
have a good dragoman, he will find out from the country 
people where such spots are to be found, and encamp there ; 
when a good bag is easily and speedily made. Near Afka 
we again encamped in such an oasis, and I had two good 
days collecting, June 20th and 21st, my last in Syria. 
Here I took P. ergane, the only specimens I got in this 
country. On the 22nd of June I had to ride to Beyrout 
in order to catch the direct steamer for Europe, such 
steamers being few and far between during quarantine. 
I much regret that I did not revisit the Cedars and explore 
the Dahr el Khotib district, but the northern Lebanon is 
too cold for butterflies before June 20th, the sheep do not 
go up to the highest pastures till June 15th or 18th, and 
as I was obliged to leave Syria a full week sooner than I 
had intended, Dahr el Khotib had to be given up. 

1 . Papilio podalirius. 

At Brummana and around Beyrout, not very common. 

2. P. machaon. 

At Brummana and near Beyrout, not common. All I 
took were damaged. 

3. Doritis apollonia. 

(Abundant at Ain Zohatta early in April, but not seen 
by Mrs. Nicholl. Most of the specimens have the blackish 
border on the hind-wing more developed than in the Asia 
Minor form, and thus come near the var. bellavgits, Stgr., 
but are not so dark as those from Antioch. — H. J. E.) 

4. P. mnemosyne. 

Lebanon, Djebel Keneysseh, and Hermon, not very 
common anywhere, about 4000 feet. (The specimens 
have the spots of the cell small, and the black inner 
margin narrower than in any others I have seen. — 
H. J. E.) 

5. P. apollo. 

(Not found by Mrs. Nicholl, but a large form most like 
var. sibirica, Nordm., was sent to Mr. Leech from North 
Syria.— H. J. E.) 



Butterflies of the Lebanon. 8l 

6. Thais cerisyi. 

Zebedani, Jedideh near Damascus, Brummana, April and 
May, common. At Khan Sufiiu, in mid June, and 6000 feet, 
common. I found the larva of a Thais of some sort, 
nearly full fed, feeding on the aristolochia in great 
numbers. It sheltered between two leaves, which it spun 
together during the hottest sunshine. I tried to rear some, 
but entirely failed in getting any to go into chrysalis before 
I left Syria. (Seems widely distributed in Syria, both on 
the coast, where it is found in April, and at Damascus, and 
in the Anti-Lebanon, where Mrs. Nicholl took it in May. I 
have also specimens from North Syria, Aintab and Malatia, 
which are catalogued by Staudinger as var. dcyrollei, Ob., 
which he distinguishes as " tricaudata." None of these, 
however, are more strikingly tricaudate than my specimens 
from the Balkans, which are typical cerisyi, or than those 
from Broussa and Greece. I therefore am inclined to look 
upon the name of Deyrollei as useless. — H. J. E.) 

7. 67. rhamni, var. farinosa. 

Common among the foothills on the eastern side of 
Lebanon, and in the valleys of Hermon. I also took it at 
Afka, on the west side of Lebanon, flying with G. cleopatra, 
var. antonia. (This species seems constantly distinct from 
rhamni, though not easy to distinguish, except by the 
scales of the fore-wings, which, according to Petens, Berlin 
Ent. Society, 1885, p. 165, are distinct in the two sexes. 
Cf. Stgr. in Hor. Ent. Ross., xiv., 1899, p. 50 (in separata). 
I have specimens from Greece, Asia Minor, and Turkestan, 
which agree with one from Hermon in the male being of 
a paler colour, especially on the underside, than rhamni. 
Both species occur in Greece, and at Amasia, vide 
Staudinger. — H. J. E.) 

8. G. cleopatra, var. laarica (Stgr.), antonia, Butl. Ann. 
Mag., 1885, p. 408. 

Common in the western valleys of Lebanon. (Speci- 
mens from Beyrout and Damascus and Galilee belong to 
this form, and agree with males from the Taurus in 
having the fore-wing of the male paler than in typical 
cleopatra. My nine specimens, however, do not average 
larger than the type, as Stgr. says, and I cannot 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND, 1901. — PART I. ( APRIL) 6 



82 Mary de la Beche Nicholl on 

distinguish the females from those of the typical form. — 
H. J. E.) 

9. Aporia cratsegi. 

Common ail through the eastern side of Lebanon and 
Anti-Lebanon at 3000 feet and upwards. But has not 
been taken by me on the western side of Lebanon, and is 
probably an insect which dislikes sea air. 

10. Colias edusa. 

Common everywhere. (Taken on Hermon and the 
Lebanon at 5000 feet, and higher by Mrs. Nicholl. 

C. aitrorina, var. libanotica. This species must be found 
either later in the season, or further north than Mrs. Nicholl 
travelled, and does not seem to have been found by any 
recent collector. — H. J. E.) 

11. C. edusa, var. hcllcc. 
Not uncommon. 

12. Pieris callidice. 

(Not taken by Mrs. Nicholl. A pair taken on the tup 
of the Cedar Mountains (Dahr el Khotib) on August 18th, 
by Prof. Day, are perhaps referable to the var. ckrysidice, 
H. S., from Asia Minor, and the Caucasus, but the 
distinctive characters mentioned by Stgr. both for this, 
and for the var. orientalis, are inconstant, and I cannot 
judge of it properly from two specimens. — H. J. E.) 

13. P. brassicse. 

Common in gardens. (Specimens taken by Dr. Day 
at Beyrout, in August, are neither larger, nor have they 
larger spots, as in the supposed var. catoleuca Bobcr, 
which Staudinger catalogues from Asia Minor, and Syria, 
as " var. (gen. test ?)." They have, however, the underside 
whiter than in any specimens in my collection, and almost 
entirely free from black scales. It is remarkable that the 
hot climate of Beyrout has not affected the coloration of 
this species in at all the same way as in the Canary 
Islands.— H. J. E.) 

14. P. rapte. 

Common in gardens, and on the mountains. (Taken 
at Beyrout by Dr. Day in May. — H. J. E.) 



Butterflies of the Lebanon. 83 

15. P. napi. 

One bad specimen only at Zebedani, early in May. 
(Belongs to the first generation. — H. J. E.) 

16. P. daplidice. 

Universally common. (Var. raphani (Esp.), one speci- 
men from Djebel Sunnin. — H. J. E.) 

17. P. ergane. 

Two specimens near Afka, June 21st. Probably not 
uncommon there, second brood would be just coming out 
at that date. (This species has not, 1 believe, been 
recorded from Syria. — H. J. E.) 

18. Etochloe belemia, 

(Taken by Mrs. Day at Sid on in April, but not by 
Mrs. Nicholl.— H. J. E.) 

19. E. belia. 

Not uncommon along the coast, but scarce inland. I 
took it only at Zebedani and near Damascus, May. 

20. E. charlonia (Donz), var. penia (Freyer). 

Not common, but widely distributed in the Anti-Lebanon 
and inland districts. I saw none on the west side of 
Lebanon. I took four specimens, viz. two at Bluden, one 
near Chemoustar, east side of Lebanon, in May, and one 
in June, about 5000 feet up; on a foothill of Hermon I 
saw about four others, in various places. (A specimen 
taken at Ain Zohatta in April, by Mrs. Day, and others 
taken by Mrs. Nicholl are paler than the var. mesopotamica, 
Stgr., from Malatia, which he catalogues as a summer form, 
but not so pale as the var. transcaspica (Staud.), and 
must be referred to the form Penia (Freyer), which Stgr. 
catalogues from Pontus and Kurdistan as a spring form, 
which the dates of capture show to be the case in Syria. 
The discoidal spot of the underside below is pale, as in 
mesopotamica and E. tomyris, not dark, as in transcaspica, 
hccilla and charlonia. — PL J. E.) 

21. E. damonc. 

(Taken by Mrs. Day at Ain Zohatta, April 8th. Not 
seen by Mrs. Nicholl.— H. J. E.) 



84 Mary de la Beche Nicholl on 

22. E. gruneri. 

(Received by Mr. Leech from Shard eresy in North 
Syria, not taken by Mrs. Day or Mrs. Nicholl. — H. J. E.) 

23. E. cardamines. 

One female taken at Brummana in April. I saw several 
males, and neglected them. It is, I believe, a common 
coast insect. I never saw any inland; but in June, on 
Djebel Sunnin, about 6000 feet, I saw three fine males, 
which I failed to catch. (A pair taken at Dauniv (near 
Beyrout), by Mrs. Day belong to the var. Phamissa 
(Kalchberg), Iris, x, p. 163, in which the orange of the 
fore- wing does not go beyond the discoidal black spot, as 
in ab. Turritis, and the underside of the hind-wing is less 
marked with green and yellow scales. This form seems 
fairly constant in Syria. — H. J. E.) 

24. L. sinapis. 
Generally common. 

25. L. dioponcheli. 

Blouden, Ain Aata, Afka, Jedideh, near Damascus, not 
uncommon. (Fresh specimens of the first brood seem 
yellower than any others in my collection. — H. J. E.) 

26. L. Camilla. 

Common along the coast. Also in the valleys of Hermon. 

27. Pyrameis atalanta. 

Brummana, April, common along the coast. (Speci- 
mens were raised from larvae found by Mrs. Day at Afka, 
July 23rd, exactly like those taken in Europe. — H. J. E.) 

28. P. cardui. 
Common. 

29. V, itrtica, var. turcica. 

Ain Aata, Djebel Chekif (above Blouden), top of 
Hermon, top of Djebel Sunnin. Common on all high 
mountains, and replaces type, which I never saw in Syria. 

30. V. polychloros. 
Zebedani only, early June. 



Butterflies of the Lebanon. 85 

31. Polygonia egea. 

Brummana. Common along the coast, April. (Speci- 
mens taken at Afka by Mrs. Day, August 4th, belong to 
the summer brood, J. Album ; those taken by Mrs. Nicholl 
are of the spring brood. — H. J. E.) 

32. Melittea didymci. 

Common everywhere. (The specimens vary extremely, 
and there is much difference in size and colour between 
the sexes; they resemble the var. persea (Kolh), which has 
a wide distribution in Western Asia, and is typically small, 
and the males little spotted. — H. J. E.) 

33. M.phcebc, 

Common everywhere, always small, and a pale var. 
often met with. (The specimens are most like the 
Algerian var. punica (Obth.), but the bands of hind-wing 
below not so pale. — H. J. E.) 

34. E. trivia. 

Generally common, 3000 — 5000 feet, Hermon, Lebanon, 
Brummana. Specimens all small. (The specimens are 
not so small as the European var. nana,, but resemble most 
the form from Turkestan, Catapelia (Stgr.). — H. J. E.) 

35. M. cinxia. 

Not common. Above Blouden, about 5500 feet, very small 
and pale, with spots on the margin of hind- wing almost 
obliterated. Also on Djebel Keneysseh about 4500 feet. 
May. (Some of Mrs. Nicholl's specimens are identical 
with those taken on Demavend, North Persia; which 
Grum-Grshimailo called var. amardea, of which Staud- 
inger says, " vix nominanda." That is true, but it applies 
with equal truth to a large proportion of the varieties of 
Melitea, which he and others have named. — H. J. E.) 

8G. Argynnis lathonia. 
Common. 

37. A. pandora. 

Blouden, Hermon Valleys, Lebanon. Not uncommon. 

38. A. niobc, var. eris. 

Very common on all the higher mountains, but not 



86 Mary de la Beche Nicholl on 

taken below 4000 feet. Specimens all small, and rather 
tinged with green underneath. 

39. D. chrysippus. 

Common along the irrigated strip of fertile land along 
the coast from Beyrout to Dog River. I saw it every time 
I passed that way, from end of April to June 22nd. 

40. M. titea. 

Common all along the coast and along the west slope of 
Lebanon as high as Afka. I took it end of April at the 
mouth of Dog River, and then saw it no more till I 
returned to the western face of the Lebanon in June. Very 
common near Afka, which is the head water of Dog River 
in June. 

41. M. larissa. 

Very common in May and June in all the inland 
districts. I never took it on the western face of Lebanon. 
(If. titea, var. titania, Calb. Iris, iv, 1891, p. 41 ; Rom. 
Mem. vi, p. 15. Judging from the numerous specimens 
taken by Mrs. Nicholl, these have as much right to be 
considered distinct species as several other nearly allied 
Melanargias. 

M. titania, which Mrs. Nicholl mistook for larissa, has 
not, as far as I know, been recognised in Syria, but 
agrees with my specimens from Aintab, and with the 
plate in Romanoff's Memoirs, and seems constant. It is 
easily distinguished from the coast form titea by the much 
narrower black border on both wings above, and by the 
well-marked marginal spots, which are reduced to roundish 
dots in titea. — H. J. E.) 

42. Satyr us hermione, L. 

One specimen in May in a mulberry garden on Lebanon; 
it is very common along the coast, later. (Two females 
taken by Mrs. Day at El Frat on October 10th do not 
show the character by which Staudinger distinguishes his 
var. syriaca, which is said to have the hind-wings below 
more unicolorous than type. — H. J. E.) 

43. S. telephassa. 

Universally common, May and June. 

44. S. authe. 
Universally common, June. 



Butterflies of the Lebanon, 87 

45. S. pelopca. 

Not quite so common, mid June. 

46. S. semele, var. mersina. 
Common on Lebanon in June. 

47. S. actseco, var. hctdjina. 

Only .on the higher foothills of Hermon, June. (Var. 
hacljina, Heyne-Ruhl. The specimens brought by Mrs. 
Nicholl seem to come nearest to this form, from Armenia, 
but have only one ocellus on the fore-wing below — which, 
if constant, might serve to separate them. There are, 
however, already too many named forms of this species, 
which do not seem very constant. — H. J. E.) 

48. Yphthima asterope. 

Very common near the coast. I never took any in the 
mountains. 

49. Epinephele jurtina, Linn. (Janira), var. (? bona sp.), 
telmessia, Zell. 

Very common everywhere, and has a curious habit of 
sitting on the bare earth which Janira never does. April, 
May, and June. (This appears to me, as it did to Staud- 
inger in 1879, though he now treats it as a var. of 
jurtina, to be a good species. Lederer, however, as 
quoted by Staudinger, says that there are intermediate 
forms. All my numerous males from Syria, Armenia, and 
the Taurus seem distinct from jurtina in size, colour, and 
shape, and in the different form of the sexual brand. 
The females are not so distinct, but as Staudinger says 
that both telmessia and jurtina are found in Anatolia and 
Cyprus, this is an additional reason for treating it as a 
species. — H. J. E.) 

50. E. lycaon. 

Common. Hermon and Lebanon, 3000 — 5000 feet, June. 
(This should be a form which has been described by 
Staudinger as follows — " var. Libanotica, wagnitudine 
Lycaonis, multo pallidior, ^ at. ant. fere totispallide ochraceis 
al. post. (£ et.$) subtus albido-griseis." I have a specimen 
from Staudinger from the Lebanon, so named, which 
conforms to the description, but one from Afka taken by 



88 Mary cle la Beche Nicholl on 

Mrs. Day, in August, is much larger and darker, and three 
of Mrs. Nicholl's from Hermon are as dark on both surfaces 
as any in my collection. This variety therefore is clearly 
not constant enough to be named. — H. J. E.) 

51. Pararge roxclana. 

Two specimens only. Zebedani, June. I saw no more. 

52. P. egeria. 

Not common. Dog River, Afka, Damascus, May and 
June. (A pair from Afka, taken by Mrs. Day, in 
September, and a female from Damascus, in May, are of 
the southern form. Those I took at Patras, in Greece, in 
May, are intermediate ; those from South Russia, Podolia 
and the Caucasus, being of the paler form egerides, which as 
a rule is fairly distinct. Thus it cannot be called a "forma 
septentrionale" though it occurs as far north as St. Peters- 
burgh.— H. J. E.) 

53. Pararge racer a, var. 

Lebanon. Common. (The form found in Syria is separ- 
ated by Stgr. as " var. orientalis, differt. a var. Adrasta colore 
castaneo, in $ etiam. al. ant. cellula med. castcmeo ins r pcrsa." 
Besides Mrs. Nicholl's specimens, I have others from 
Beyrout and North Syria, which agree fairly, but which 
differ so little in either sex from German specimens taken 
by myself at Kreuznach in June, that I would hardly like to 
say that I could distinguish individuals among them, though 
I could tell the habitat from a series. Var. Adrasta is 
supposed to be a summer brood, but the seasonal differences 
are not at all definite in my large series from many 
localities, which vary extremely. — H. J. E.) 

54. P. megxra. 

Very common everywhere above 4000 feet ; swarms on 
all the highest summits in May and June. 

55. Ccenonymplia pamphilus. 

Common everywhere. I did not take var. lyllus, which 
probably occurs later. (Mrs. Day sent a pair of very worn 
specimens of lyllus. — H. J. E.) 

56. Thecla spini. 

Common at low elevations, Dog River, foothills of 



Bit Iter flirt of the Lrhanon. 89 

Lebanon, and Hermon, Afka. Var. Melantho replaces type, 
or nearly so, on the higher mountains, common on Lebanon 
and Hermon. (From Mrs. NichoH's specimens I cannot 
distinguish two forms of this species, " subtus pallidior, 
longius caudata" which is Stgr.'s definition of melantho; 
does not seem to be a well-marked character in those 
taken at higher elevations, or in those that I bad before 
from Beyrout,— H. J. E.) 

57. Th. ilicis. 

Not very common. Hermon and Lebanon Valleys. 
Var. caudatula occurs with type. Not uncommon. (All 
my specimens from Asia Minor and Syria seem to have 
somewhat longer tails than those from Germany, Bulgaria, 
and Greece, but the difference is trifling. — H. J. E.) 

58. Th. acacim, var. abdominalis. 

(Specimens taken on the Lebanon and at Hassan 
Niha by Mrs. Nicholl belong to this form, the differences 
of which " siibtus pallidior al. ant. angulo anali plaga 
fusca," seem trifling and inconstant. — H. J. E.) 

59. Th. rubi. 

Lebanon and Hermon ranges. Common at 6000 feet, 
May and June. (A specimen from Blouden, like one I 
have from North Syria, agrees with the var. sua veola from 
Turkestan described by Stgr. as " major, subtus pallidior 
al. post, acaudalis!' I have no Turkestan specimens for 
comparison, and as there were none in the Grum-Grshi- 
mailo collection, I suppose it is rare there. A pair from 
North Persia, taken by Christoph, are much like this, but 
one taken by Mrs. Nicholl at the Cedars of Lebanon is like 
the common form. — H. J. E.) 

GO. Th. myrtale. 

Common on all the higher mountains, 4000 — 6000 feet, 
May and June. (This has, since Klug described it in 
1832, remained one of the least known butterflies of our 
fauna, and I am not aware that any specimens have since 
been obtained until Mrs. Nicholl found it. It is a distinct 
species of a plain grey colour above, and the tail is very 
short and inconspicuous, or wholly absent. Below, it is 
grey, with a faintly marked band of white spots across the 



90 Mary de la Beche Nicholl on 

hind-wing below, sometimes extending to the fore-wing, 
and often obsolete. At the anal angle are two, sometimes 
three, faintly marked yellow spots, with a black dot on the 
inner edge. — H. J. E.) 

61. G. ochimus. 

Not uncommon. Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, 3000 — 
4000 feet, end of May. 

62. G. thetis. 

(A male taken by Prof. Day, August 8th, at the 
Cedars of Lebanon. This species does not seem to have 
been found in Syria since Klug's time. It has no indication 
of a tail, as in var. caudatus, Stgr. Mrs. Nicholl did not 
meet with this species. — H. J. E.) 

63. G. thersamoriy and var. omphale, Klug. 

Common everywhere: coast in April, mountains, May 
and June. (The specimens taken by Mrs. Nicholl in May 
and June. have little or no tail in the male, and a short 
one in the $ sex. Those taken at Beyrout in September 
have tails of considerable length, showing that this is, as 
Stgr. says, a summer or rather autumn brood. Podolian 
specimens in Grum's collection show the same difference. 
— H. J. E.) 

64. G. asabinus. 

Not uncommon east side of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, 
May and June. 

65. G. phleas. 

Not very abundant, but generally distributed. 

66. C. dorilis. 

Rare, only a few taken on Lebanon, 4000 — 5000 feet, 
May. (A $ specimen was taken by Prof. Day at the 
Cedars in August, — H. J. E.) 

67. Gigaritis acctmas. 

Not uncommon in valleys near Hermon, June, 4000 
feet. Taken abundantly later in summer in the Lebanon. 
(Taken at Beyrout by Prof. Day, September 4th. — 
H. J. E.) 



Butterflies of the Lebanon. 91 

68. Lampides bietica. 

Common in the Lebanon, 2000 — 6000 feet, April to 
June. 

69. L. gamra. 

Not common. I took very few, and mostly bad speci- 
mens, on the coast near Bey rout, April. 

70. L, galba, Led. ? 

(Mrs. Nicholl did not take this species. Prof. Day 
sends a pair of what has stood for many years in my col- 
lee tion> and is generally called galba, Led., but which, on 
referring to Lederer's plate in Zool. Bot. Verein. Wein., 
1855, t. i, fig. 4, is clearly not the insect figured by him. 
He says of it " above hardly differs from lysimon" and this 
is the case with the so-called galba also, which so nearly 
agrees with lysimon taken by myself at Biskra in Algeria, 
and at Ismailia in Egypt, that I cannot distinguish it. 
On the underside, however, the figure of galba is very 
unlike lysimon, and exactly like the type of L. phiala, 
Gr.-Gr., from Khabadian in Bokhara, of which I also have 
a specimen sent me from Mergab in S.-E. Armenia by 
Dr. Stauclinger as phiala. The males of this are paler on 
the upperside than the so-called galba, and much paler 
than Lederer's figure. Until, however, I am able to see 
the Lederer types, which I believe are now in the Staud- 
inger collection, I must remain doubtful as to what to call 
the lysimon like species which has hitherto passed for 
galba. Lederer says that he only got eight specimens, 
which were taken by Zach in company with Lysimon in 
clover fields. I may add that the true lysimon of Htibner, 
which Stgr. gives as from the south of France, Andalusia, 
Algeria, the Canaries, Asia Minor, India, and Africa, but 
not from Syria, is put by him in the genus lycxna, and is 
very close to the Indian lycmna, Sangra, Moore and Indica, 
Murray. My specimens from the Canaries and Granada 
have the spots below much less distinct than in the Syrian 
insect. — H. J. E.) 

71. L. trocliylus. 

Common on limestone rocks, from sea-level to 5000 feet. 
April to June. 



92 Mary de la Beche Nicholl on 

72. L. theophrastus. 

A single specimen Zebedani, May. (A single specimen 
from Blouden, taken by Prof. Day, is, I believe, this species, 
whicli Lederer records from Beyrout (taken by Zach) ; 
halkanica, however, is so close that I do not know how 
to distinguish them certainly. — H. J. E.) 

73. Lycmna argus, and var. betta, H. S. 

Common above Afka in June. All the specimens very 
small. (Two males from Afka seem to come nearest to 
this form.— H. J. E.) 

74. L. loewii. 

One at Baalbek, May 31st, and one in the Anti-Lebanon, 
4000 feet, 

75. L. astrarche. 

Common above 4000 feet, Lebanon, Anti-Lebanon, and 
Hermon. 

76. L. panagea. 

Rare. Hermon and east face of Lebanon, 4500 feet, 
May and June. 

77. L. anteros, var. crassipuncta, Christoph. 

Common from 3000 — G000 feet, Lebanon, Anti-Lebanon, 
Hermon. (Though the types of this well-marked variety 
from Kasikoparan in Armenia was not in Cliristopli's 
collection, it has been identified with it by Mr. Banghaas. 
All the males taken by Mrs. Nicholl are perfectly alike, 
and very different from those found in Bulgaria and Asia 
Minor. This variety, however, seems to occur only locally, 
as a specimen from Shah-deresey, North Syria, is inter- 
mediate in colour, and those from Borjom in Armenia in 
the Christoph collection are typical. The female has, like 
those of eurypilus, broad orange red bands on both wings 
above.— H. J. E.) 

78. L. iscmrica, Stgr. 

Common all through the Lebanon range from 4000 — 
5000 feet, May and June. (Among the specimens which 
Mrs. Nicholl identifies with this, were three of which I 
was doubtful, and sent to Dresden. Mr. Banghaas returns 



Butterflies of the Lebanon. 93 

them as follows — " Isaurica $," and " certainly $ and £ of 
one species which I do not know." Isaurica is labelled 
Ain Haour, and the other two from Afka and Hassan 
Niha resemble candalus very much, but are of a somewhat 
different shade of blue above. — H. J. E.) 

79. L. candalus, H. S. ? 

(Besides these are several males, some very small, from 
the Cedars of Lebanon, taken by Mrs. Day, in August, 
which might be candalus or eros, which latter occurs in the 
Caucasus. As, however, there are no females, I cannot be 
certain what they arc, and must leave the identification of 
them till I have more material. — H. J. E.) 

80. L. amanda. 

Very common. Hermon, Anti-Lebanon, and Lebanon, 
3000 — 6000 feet. (Two females in bad condition, 
from the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, are blue with a dark 
broad costal and apical border, and a marginal row of 
orange red spots, which give them a very peculiar and 
brilliant appearance. There is nothing like them in my 
collection, though three females from Sweden are all blue 
with black marginal spots on the hind-wing above. — 
H. J. E.) 

81. L. poscidon, H. S. 

(I am inclined to refer specimens taken at Cedars of 
Lebanon in August, by Prof. Day, to this species, though 
Staudinger doubtfully refers what I suppose to be the 
same insect to a var. of clamonc, Ev. He admits no less 
than twelve named forms of this very difficult species, 
which I have studied very carefully, and in which my 
series is extremely rich ; but notwithstanding this, I fail 
to follow the minute distinctions which he adopts in 
separating them. — H. J. E.) 

82. L. bellargtis, Rott., var. polonus, Zett. 

Common. Anti-Lebanon and Lebanon, 3000 — 6000 
feet. (Staudinger refers the form found in the 
Lebanon to this var., which seems also to occur in East 
Prussia and Aragon. Mrs. Nicholl's specimens differ from 
the type of bellargns in their colour and broader border 
above, and are apparently quite as near the Caucasian form 



94 Mary de la Beche Nicholl on 

of corydon as they are to bellargus. The underside, though 
paler than in bellargus, seems more like that than corydon. 
— H. J. E.) 

83. L. meleager, Esp. 

(A pair from the Cedars, taken by Prof. Day in August, 
and three from the Natural Bridge, Lebanon, show some 
variation from the type, but do not agree with the short 
diagnosis of the var. ignorata, Stgr. (versicolor Stgr. in 
litt.), or with a specimen of this from the Taurus, though 
two of them are evidently a transition to that form. — 
H. J. E.) 

84. L. admetus, and var. ripartii, Freyer. 

Very common 4000 — 5000 feet. Lebanon, Afka, June. 
(Prof. Day took this at the Cedars and Afka in August. — 
— H. J. E.) 

85. L. semiargus, var. bellis, Freyer. 

Not uncommon at 4000 — 5000 feet. Lebanon, Djebel 
Keneysseh, and Djebel Sunnin. I took none on Hermon. 

86. L. semiargus, var. antiochena, Led. 

Four specimens only, three on the western face 
of Lebanon at 8000 — 4500 feet, third week in May, 
and one on May 31st at Baalbek, in very bad order. 
Probably an early var. (Male specimens of var.. bellis 
agree with those I have from Asia Minor, Armenia, and 
North Persia, but I have no females from Syria. A male 
which I sent to Dresden is returned by Herr Banghaas as 
bellis, while a pair from Lebanon taken by Mrs. Nicholl 
are returned as antiochena, Led. Of these the male seems 
to me more like a very small specimen of zephyrus, var. 
nieholli, whilst the female is undoubtedly antiochena, 
which has been treated by Stgr. as a variety of semiargus, 
but my Syrian specimens are not sufficient to decide 
whether, as I believe, antiochena is a variety or not. 
Semiargus seems to be represented in Greece and Syria 
respectively by the vars. known as parnassia and bellis, but 
the males are not so distinct as the females, and though Mrs. 
Nicholl appears to have taken the two in different localities, 
as I took helena and parnassia in Greece, I must remain 
in doubt as to their specific identity — H. J. E.) 



Butter/lies of the Lebanon. 95 

87. L. ey Hants, var. ceribginosa, Stgr. 

Very common at Brummana and in the Lebanon, 
3000 — 0000 feet, April to June. (The two specimens of 
this brought home by Mrs. Nicholl have the hind-wings 
below sufiused with green and blue extending almost to the 
fringe, a character which is usual in specimens from this 
region, though only occurring as an aberration in Europe. — 
H. J. E.) 

88. Lycsena argiolus. 

Common, 3000 — 5000 feet, Blouden, Afka, etc. 

89. L. icarus. 

Common, Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon. (Some of the 
specimens which I refer to this species, taken at the 
Cedars of Lebanon by Mrs. Day, are very small, and may 
perhaps be candalus ; others irom Beyrout are more like 
form persica, Bienert ; others again from the higher parts 
of the Lebanon are normal. — H. J. E.) 

90. L. zephyr us, var. 

The form with brightest orange spots on upperside of 
hind-wings I took chietiy on chalk hills among green 
corn at Baalbek and Blouden, end of May and first week in 
June. I also got several, not so brilliant, at the Cedars of 
Lebanon. But the same insect without orange spots on 
the upper side is generally distributed on Lebanon and 
Anti-Lebanon, from 3000 — 0000 feet. May and early 
June. 

(Mrs. Nicholl collected a good series of this at various 
places in the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, which are like 
nothing in my collection, though they come nearest to 
three specimens which were in the Gram collection from 
Mesopotamia, and which were sent him by Staudinger as 
zephyr as. I sent three males (from Lebanon) to Staudinger 
just before his death which were returned to me by Mr. 
Banghaas, labelled in one case " Zephyrus," and in the other 
" Zephyrus certain." I have a good series of all the forms 
of zephyrus from the Alps, Spain, and various parts of 
Central Asia and Asia Minor, and have taken it myself 
in Greece and Bulgaria. All the males except the three 
from Mesopotamia above mentioned are distinguished by 
well-marked marginal black spots on the hind-wing above, 
which is not been on the Syrian insect, whilst not one 



96 Mary de la Beclie Nicholl 



on 



of them except one of those from Mesopotamia has a 
trace of the orange spots on the margin of the hind- 
wing above, which is conspicuous in about half of the 
Syrian males, and only absent in a few specimens. 

The females above are like those of zephyr us, except that 
they all have a well-marked marginal series of reddish 
orange spots on both wings, above and below; which 
occur in my zcphyrus females only in one from Granada, 
and one from Mesopotamia, though visible to some extent 
on the hind-wing only, in other females. 

Below, the Syrian form in both sexes is more like 
zephyrus, though the pale band of arrow-head shaped marks 
on the hind-wing usually, but not always, seen between the 
orange and the inner series of black spots, is wanting. 
Notwithstanding the variation shown by this insect, I 
could recognise all, or nearly all, the specimens by the 
characters mentioned, at least as well or better than any of 
the other named vars. of zephyrus, and propose for it the 
name of var. nicholli, in which probably the Mesopotamian 
form will be included. — H. J. E.) 

91. L. eurypilus, Freyer. 

(Mrs. Nicholl seems to have found this in several 
places on the Lebanon and on Hermon, but did nut 
recognise them as distinct from the last species, of which 
the females are very similar in appearance. The Syrian 
form has in both sexes broader and more extended 
marginal bands on both wings above, than any of those I 
have from Asia Minor and Persia. — H. J. E.) 

02. Parnara mathias. 

Dog River and along the coast, not common, May. 

93. Erynuis comma, Linn. 

(Staudinger describes the Syrian form as " var. pallida" 
but a pair taken by Prof. Day in August, as well as one 
from N. Syria, do not show any well-marked distinction ; 
though, as might be expected, all my southern and eastern 
specimens are paler than those from North and Central 
Europe.— H. J. E.) 

94. Spilothyrus althete. 

Common, coast, Djebel Keneysseh, 4500 feet, Anti-Leba- 
non, etc. 



Butterflies of the Lebanon. 97 

95. S. alcese. 

Common below 4000 feet. 

96. Syrichthus alveus. 

Very common everywhere up to 6000 feet. 

97. S. oroifer. 

Common, Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon up to 4000 feet. 

98. S. serratidse. 

Not very common, Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, 3000 — 
4000 feet. 

99. S.poggei. 

Not common, Damascus and Anti-Lebanon, 3000 — 
4500 feet, 

100. S. nomas. 

Common everywhere from the coast to 6000 feet, May 
and June. 

101. S. melotis. 

Very common, coast to 5000 feet, April to June. 

102. Hespevia thaumas. 

Common, Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, 3000 — 5000 
feet. 

103. H. lineola. 

Not so common, Hermon and Anti-Lebanon, 3000 — 
5000 feet. 

104. H. actteon. 

Not common, Dog River glen only. 

105. H. nostrodamus. 

I also took this species, but obtained no good specimens, 
so I cannot exhibit any. 

106. Nisionades marloyi. 

Not uncommon, Blouden, Hermon, etc., 4000 — 5000 
feet. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART I. (APRIL) 7 



( 99 ) 



V. Enumeration of the Heteroptera (IZhynchota) collected 
by Signor Leonardo Fea in Burma and its vicinity. 
By W. L. Distant. 

Part I. 

Family PENTATOMID^E. 

[Read April 3rd, 1901.] 

This enumeration refers to the whole of the Pentatomidse 
excepting the sub. fam. Plataspinie which has already 
been studied by A. L. Montandon ("Annali Museo Civico 
di Storia Naturale di Genova," vol. xxxiv, 1894, pp. 119- 
144). The collection made by Sign. Fea in this Family 
alone is a very representative one, and with a few specimens 
collected by Capt. D. Comotto comprises no fewer than 
136 species, which, with the addition of the 19 Plataspinse 
enumerated by Montandon, gives a total of 155 species. 
They are all contained in the Genoa Museum, and are 
distributed in the following subfamilies : — 



Scutellerinre 


16 








Graphosomime 

Cydninee 

Pentatominae 


5 
17 

54 


New Genera 


2 
1 


New Species 4 
. 8 


Asopinse 
Tessaratominas 


7 
9 




1 


. 2 


Dinidorinoe 


10 






1 


Phylloeephalinpe 
Urolabidinee 


10 

4 






. 2 
. 1 


Acanthosominoe 


4 









136 'A 18 

The new genera will be figured in a forthcoming volume 
of Mr. Blanford's "Fauna of British India," on which I 
am now engaged, and which will be devoted to the order 
Rhynchota. 

Family PENTATOMIM]. 

Subfamily SCUTELLERIN^. 
Solenostethiicm rubropunctatuni, Guer., Tenasserini; Mee- 
tan. 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART I. (APRIL) 



100 Mr. W. L. Distant's Enumeration of the 

Cantao ocellahis, Thunb., Burma ; Carin, Asciuii Cheba, 

1200-1300 m. 
Pcecilocoris latus, Dall., Burma ; Carin Cheba, 900-1100 m. 
Pcecilocoris hardivicki, Westw., Burma; Carin Cheba, 

900-1100 m. 
Pcecilocoris drursei, Linn., Burma; Cntein Cauri, Asciuii 

Cheba, 1200-1300 m. ; Carin Cheba, 900-1100 m. 
Poecilocoris rufigenis, Dall., Burma ; Carin Cheba, 900- 

1100 m. 
Pcecilocoris interruptus, Westw., Burma ; Carin Cheba, 900- 

1100 m. 
Scutellera nobilis, Fabr., Tenasserim ; Moulmein. 
Brachyaulax oblonga, Westw., Burma; Bhamo, Mitanga. 
Ghrysocoris grandis, Thunb. 

var. baro, Fabr., Burma ; Carin Cheba, 900-1100 m. ; 
Tenasserim; Mt. Mooleyit, 600-1200 m. 

var. fallens, A. and S., Burma ; Bhamo. 
Ghrysocoris stolii, Wolff, Burma ; Carin Cheba, 900-1100 m. 

Bhamo, Toungoo. Pegu; Palon. Tenasserim, Tha- 

gata, Malewoon. 
Ghrysocoris cques, Fabr., Burma ; Carin Cheba, 900-1100 m. 
Ghrysocoris fascialis, White ; Burma ; Carin Cheba, 900- 

1100 in. 
Lamprocoris lateralis, Guer., Burma; Carin Cheba, 900- 

1100 m. 
Lamprocoris spinigerct, Dall., Burma ; Catcin Cauri. 
Hotea curculionides, Herr. Schaeff., Burma; Carin Cheba, 

900-1100 m.; Burma; Bhamo. Tenasserim; Meetan. 

Pegu ; Palon. 

Subfamily GRAPHOSOMINjE. 

Podops affinis, HagL, Burma; Carin Cheba, 900-1100. 
Podops obscura, Dall., Tenasserim ; Malewoon. 
Podops coarctata, Fabr., Burma ; Rangoon, Bhamo, Teinzo. 
Podops limosa, Walk., Burma ; Rangoon. Tenasserim ; 

Kawkareet. 
Aspidestrophus lineola, Voll., Burma; Carin Cheba, 900- 

1100 m. 

Subfamily CYDNINJE. 

Stibaropus callidits, Schicedte, Burma; Schwego-Myo 

Toungoo, Katha, Rangoon. Pegu ; Palon. 
Stibaropus minor, Walk., Burma ; Katha, Bhamo. 
Stibaropus molginus, Schicedte, Burma ; Sheninaga. 



Heteroptera (Rhynchota) collected in Burma. 101 

Lactistes truncato-serratus, Sign., Burma ; Rangoon, Teinzo, 
Carin Cheba. Tenasseriui ; Thagata. Pegu ; Palon. 

Lactistes rastellus, Schioedte, Burma ; Rangoon, Toungoo, 
Prome, Carin. — Minhla (Comotto). Pegu ; Palon, 
Tenasserim ; Thagata. 

Adrisa magna, Uhler, Burma ; Asciuii Ghecu. Tenasserim ; 
Meetan. 

Cydnus perpunctatus, Sign., Burma ; Schwego-Myo. 
Pegu ; Palon. 

Cydnus indicus, Westw., Burma ; Teinzo. 

Cydnus nigritus, Fabr., Burma ; Carin Cheba, Mandalay, 
Rangoon. 

Gampsotes parallelus, Sign., Burma ; Toungoo, Schwego- 
Myo, Rangoon, Katha. Pegu ; Palon. 

Macroscytus snbsenens, Dall., Burma; Carin Cheba, Katha, 
Schwego-Myo. Tenasserim ; Thagata, Kawkareet. 
Pegu ; Palon. 

Geotomus pygmseus, ~Dai\., Burma; Bhamo, Toungoo, Ran- 
goon, Mandalay, Shennagon, Carin Cheba, Katha, 
Teinzo. Pegu ; Palon. 

Cydnopeltus incisus, sp. n., Burma; Teinzo. 

Cydnopeltus minutus, sp. n., Burma ; Asciuii Ghecu. 

Nishadana tyvica, Dist., Burma ; Rangoon. 

Heumius typicus, gen. n., sp. n., Burma ; Asciuii Ghecu. 

Heurnius erebus, sp. n., Burma ; Rangoon. Pegu, Palon. 

Subfamily PENT A TOMINJE. 

Dalpada oculata, Fabr., Burma ; Bhamo, Carin Cheba. — 

Minhla (Comotto). Tenasserim ; Malewoon. Pegu ; 

Palon. 
Dalpada clavata, Fabr., Burma; Bhamo, Teinzo. — Minhla 

(Comotto). Pegu; Palon. 
Dalpadajugatoria, Leth., Burma, Carin Cheba, 900-1100 m. 
Erthesina fullo, Thunb., Burma ; Mt. Heanlain. Pegu ; 

Palon. 
Surenus normalis, gen. n., sp. n.. Burma ; Carin Cheba, 

900-1100 m. 
AsylafecV, sp. n., Burma; Catcin Cauri. 
Belopis unicolor, Dist., Burma; Carin Cheba, 900-1100 m. 
Halyabbas unicolor, Dist., Burma ; Metanja. 
Laprius antennahos, sp. n., Burma; Asciuii Cheba. 
JEdnus obscurus, Dall., Burma ; Bhamo. Pegu ; Palon. 
JZnaria elongata, Dall., Burma; Teinzo. Tenasserim; 

Kawkareet. 



102 Mr, W. L. Distant's Enumeration of the 

Ockrophara montana, Dist., Burma ; Bhamo, Carin Cheba. 
Odius obscurus, sp. n., Burma ; Katha, Teinzo. 
Plcxippits fulvesccns, Dall., Burma ; Bhamo, Teinzo, Ran- 
goon, Carin Cheba, 
PUxippns vittatus, sp. n., Burma; Cariu Cheba, 900- 

1100 m. 
Cappsea taprobanensis, Dall., Burma; Carin Cheba, 900- 

1100 m. 
Niphe subferruginca, Westw., Burma ; Asciuii Cheba. 

Pegu ; Palon. 
Halyomorpha picus, Fabr., Burma; Asciuii Cheba, Pegu; 

Palon. 
Tolumnia latipcs, Dall., Burma ; Bhamo, Carin Cheba. 
[Adria parvula, Dall.] Burma. — Minhla (Comotto). 
JZschrocoris tuberculatus, Stal., Burma; Cariu Cheba, 

Bhamo. Pegu ; Palon. 
JEsclirocoris obscurus, Dall., Burma ; Carin Clieba. 
Eysarcoris guttigcra, Thunb., Burma ; Bhamo, Catcin 

Cauri, Carin Cheba. — Miuhla (Comotto). Tenasserim, 

Plapoo, Malevvoon. Pegu ; Palon. 
Eysarcoris vcntralis, Westw., Burma ; Teinzo, Yenang- 

young, Bhamo. 
Eysarcoris rosaccus, sp. n., Burma; Carin Cheba, 900- 

1100 m. 
Carbula crassiventris, Dall., Burma ; Rangoon, Catcin 

Cauri, Carin Cheba. Tenasserim ; Mt. Mooleyit. 
Carbula scutdlata, Dist., Tenasserim ; Moulmein. 
Carbula producta, sp. n., Burma ; Carin Cheba. 
Cratonotus coloratus, Dist., Burma ; Carin Cheba. 
Agnoscelis nubila, Fabr., Tenasserim ; Malewoon. 
Eurydcma pulchra, Westw., Burma ; Teinzo, Bhamo. 
Eurydema liturifera, Walk., Burma ; Teinzo. 
[Stenozygiim spcciosum, Dall] Burma. — Minhla (Comotto). 
Cinxia limbata, Fabr., Burma ; Catcin Cauri. Tenasserim ; 

Thagata. 
Strachia crucigcra, Halm., Burma ; Teinzo, Bhamo, 

Schwego-Myo. 
Alcimus coronatus, Stal., Burma; Teinzo, Bhamo; Cariu 

Cheba, 
Hoplistodera incisa, Dist., Burma; Carin Cheba. 
Hoplistodcra viresccns, Dall., Burma; Asciuii Ghecu, Carin 

Cheba. 
Catacanthus incarnatus, Dru., Burma ; Bhamo. — Minhla 

(Comotto). 



Heteroptera (Rhynchota) collected in Burma. 103 

Nezara viridida, Linn., Burma ; Catcin Cauri, Carin 
Cheba. Tenasserim ; Thagata. 

Hyllus florens, Walk., Tenasserim; Malewoon. 

Plautia jimhriata, Fabr., Burma ; Bhamo, Teinzo, Carin 
Cheba. 

Gritheus lineatifrons, Stal., Burma ; Carin Cheba. Tenas- 
serim ; Kawkareet. Pegu ; Palon. 

Antcstia anchora, Thunb., Burma ; Carin Cheba, Bhamo. 
Tenasserim ; Thagata. 

Antcstia pulchra, Dall., Burma ; Carin Cheba. Tenas- 
serim ; Thagata. 

Antcstia degenera, Walk., Burma; Teinzo, Bhamo, Rangoon, 
Katha. 

Menida histrio, Fabr., Burma ; Bhamo, Schwego-Myo. 

Menida formosa, Westw., Burma; Bhamo, Carin Cheba. 

Brachycoris insignis, Dist., Burma; Rangoon. Pegu; 
Palon. 

Rhyncocoris humeralis, Thunb., Burma; Bhamo. 

Priassus exemptus, Walk., Tenasserim ; Mt. Mooleyit. 

Femelius indicus, Dist., Burma ; Carin Cheba. 

Sennertus typicus, gen. n., sp. n. ; Burma; Carin Cheba. 

Placostemum taunts, Fabr., Burma ; Bhamo. 

Subfamily ASOPIN^E. 

Zicrona cterulea, Linn., Burma, Carin Cheba. 

B Lochia ducalis, Walk., Burma ; Carin Cheba. 

Cazira verrucosa, Westw., Burma; Schwego-Myo, Bhamo. 

Carin Cheba. — Minhla (Comotto), Tenasserim ; Meetan , 

Thagata. Pegu ; Palon. 
Canthecona fiircellata, Wolff., Burma; Bhamo, Teinzo, 

Carin Cheba. 
Canthecona tibialis, Dist., Burma ; Bhamo. 
Picromerus obtusus, Walk., Burma; Carin Cheba. 
Asopus malabaricus, Fabr., Burma; Bhamo. Pegu; Palon. 

Subfamily TESSARA TOMINsE. 

Tessaratoma javanica, Thunb., Burma; Carin Cheba. 

Tenasserim ; Meetan. 
Eusthenes polyphcmus, Stal., Burma; Carin Cheba. 
Eusthenes curytus, Dist., Burma ; Catcin Cauri. 
Eusthenes rubefachis, sp. n., Burma ; Carin Cheba. 
Vilruvius insignis, gen. n., sp. n., Burma; Rangoon. 
Eurostus ochraccous, Montana 1 ., ? Burma ; Carin Cheba. 



104 Mr. W. L. Distant's Enumeration of the 

Pycanum rubens, Fabr., Tenasserim ; Mooleyit, Thagata. 
Pycanum ochraceum, Dist., Burma, Carin Gheba. 
Pycanum ponder osum, Stal., Tenasserim; Malewoon. 



Subfamily DINIDORJNJE. 

Gyclopelta obscura, Lep. and Serv., Burma ; Carin Cheba. 

Gyclopelta siccifolia, Westw., Burma ; Metanja, Teinzo, 
Bhamo, Rangoon. — Minhla (Comotto). 

[Aspongopus janus, Fabr.] Burma. — Minhla (Comotto). 

Aspongopus circumcinctus, Walk., Burma ; Carin Cheba, 
Catcin Cauri. 

Aspongopus fuscus, Westw., Tenasserim; Meetan. 

Aspongopus nepalensis, Westw., Burma; Bhamo. Tenas- 
serim ; Malewoon. 

Aspongopus brunneus, Thunb., Burma ; — Minhla (Comotto). 

Megymenum brevicome, Fabr., Burma ; Rangoon. 

Mcgymennm subpnrpurascens, Westw., Burma; Bhamo, 
Carin Cheba. Pegu ; Palon. 

Byrsodepsus nigritus, sp. n., Pegu ; Palon. 

Subfamily PHYLLOCEPHALINyE. 

Crcssona valida, Dall., Burma ; Carin Cheba, Bhamo. 
Dalsira scabrata, sp. n., Burma; Carin Cheba, Asciuii 

Cheba. 
Dalsira glandidosa, Wolff, Burma ; Bhamo. 
Gonopsis coccinea, Walk., Burma ; Bhamo, Carin Cheba, 

Pegu ; Palon. 
Gonopsis lunata, sp. n., Burma; Carin Clieba. 
Diplorhinus quadricornis, Stal, Burma ; Rangoon. 
Tetroda histeroides, Fabr., Burma ; Bhamo, Carin Cheba. 
Megarhynchus limatus, Herr. Schgeff., Burma ; Bhamo. 
Megarhynchus truncatus, Westw., Pegu ; Palon. 
Megarhynchus rostratus, Fabr., Burma; Teinzo, Carin. 

Tenasserim ; Malewoon. Pegu ; Palon. 

Subfamily UROLABIDIN^E. 

Urolabida histrionica, Westw., Burma ; Bhamo, Rangoon. 
Urostylis fumigata, Walk., Burma; Carin Cheba. 
Urostylis gracilis, Dall., Burma, Carin Cheba. 
Urostylis farinaria, sp. n., Burma ; Rangoon, Carin 
Cheba. 



Heteroptera (Rhynchota) collected in Burma. 105 

Subfamily ACANTHOSOMINJE. 

Microdeuterm megacephalus, Herr. Schaeff., Pegu; Palon. 
Sastragala javanensis, Dist., Burma; Carin Cheba. 
Anaxandra compacta, Dist, Burma ; Carin Cheba. 
Anaxandra sigillata, Stal., Burma ; Carin Cheba. 



Descriptions of New Genera and Species. 
Cydnopeltus incisus, sp. n. 

Black, shining. Head with the lateral marginal areas thickly and 
coarsely punctate, the disk more sparsely punctate ; antennae dark 
castaneous the apices of the joints somewhat paler ; pronotum 
glabrous with a deep straight discal transverse impression ; scutellum 
with a basal series of punctures, the lateral margins coarsely and 
lineately punctate from a little beyond base, the disk rugulose and 
with some scattered very deep punctures ; corium coarsely punctate 
excepting the inner apical area which is levigate ; membrane very 
pale brown. 

Long. 6 millim. Lat. 4 millim. 

Habitat. Burma ; Teinzo (Fea). 

Allied to the Javan G. horvathi., Sign., but differing by 
the transversely impressed pronotum, different punctuation, 
etc. 

Gydnopeltus minuhis, sp. n. 

Pale castaneous ; antennae with the apices of the joints distinctly 
paler ; head somewhat irregularly, coarsely and longitudinally 
carinate ; pronotum depressed and levigate near anterior margin 
where there is a distinct central longitudinal incision, remaining 
area sparingly punctate, and with a transverse central incision ; 
scutellum sparingly punctate and transversely wrinkled from 
beyond base, depressed near apex ; corium sparingly punctate, the 
internal area and lateral margin ochraceous ; membrane pale 
ochraceous. 

Long. 3 millim. 

Habitat. Burma; Carin, Asciuii Ghecu (Fea). 

Hetirnms, gen. no v. 

Body elongate, apex of abdomen slightly attenuated narrower 
than pronotum. Head truncate anteriorly, the lateral lobes renexed 
and somewhat concave. Pronotum broader than long, the lateral 



106 Mr. W. L. Distant's Enumeration of the 

margins straight but convexly rounded towards apical angles, 
posterior margin straight, anterior margin moderately concave. 
Scutellum small, triangular, about one-third the length of abdomen. 
Corium small the apical margin concavely sinuate ; membrane 
large, a little more than half the length of abdomen. Anterior tibiae 
dilated and spined at apices. 

This genus is allied to Blxna, Walk. ( = Macrhy menus, 
Sign.), from which it can be at once separated by the 
shape of the scutellum. 

Heurnius typicus, sp. n. 

Black ; posterior margin of the pronotum, the scutellum and the 
corium dark castaneous ; antennae ochraceous ; membrane greyish ; 
legs castaneous, the tarsi ochraceous. 

Body above thickly and very coarsely punctate ; central lobe of 
head with the apical angles prominent. 

Long. 4 millim. 

Habitat. Burma ; Carin, Asciuii Ghecu (Fea). 

Heurnius erebus, sp. n. 

Black, shining ; antennas pale castaneous ; legs dark castaneous, 
tarsi ochraceous ; membrane pale greyish. 

Body above very thickly and coarsely punctate ; pronotum with a 
discal transverse impression. 

Long. 3^ millim. 

Habitat. Burma; Bangoon (Fea); Pegu; Palon, 
(Fea). 

Broader and less elongate than the preceding species, 
colour also different. 

Surenus, gen. n. 

Moderately ovate and elongate. Head long and moderately broad, 
the lateral lobes much longer than the central and broadly cleft 
between their apices which are obliquely subtruncate, lateral margins 
concavely sinuate and reflexed ; eyes prominent. Antennas hirsute, 
five-jointed, basal joint robust and reaching the apex of the head, 
second and fifth joints subequal in length. Rostrum reaching the 
intermediate coxse. Pronotum about twice as broad as long between 
the lateral angles which are subprominent, the lateral margins 
dentate and moderately sinuate, the anterior angles subspinous, 



Hctcroptera (Bhynchota) collected in Burma. 107 

posterior margin very slightly rounded. Scutellum more than half 
the length of the abdomen, its apex narrowed and subacute. Corium 
not quite reaching the margins of the connexivum which is moder- 
ately angulated at the segmental incisures ; apical margins of corium 
a little concavely sinuate, apical angle acutely produced. Membrane 
with longitudinal veins. Abdomen beneath globose ; tibiae sulcate 
but not dilated. 

I have placed this genius near Apodiphus with which it 
has many affinities. 

Surenus normalis, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum and scutellum piceous or very dark olivaceous, 
corium j>aler olivaceous, membrane dark cupreous, apex of scutellum 
narrowly ochraceous ; abdomen beneath piceous, castaneous on disk ; 
sternum and head beneath dark olivaceous ; legs castaneous ; antennae 
castaneous the apical joint stramineous. 

Head thickly and rather coarsely punctate ; pronotum finely 
granulate with an indistinct central impression. Scutellum finely 
granulate and transversely wrinkled. Corium thickly and finely 
punctate. 

Long. 20 millim. Exp. pronot. angl. 11 millim. Max. exp. abd. 
12 millim. 

Habitat. Burma ; Carin Cheba (Fea). 

Asyla fcm, sp. n. 

Brownish-ochraceous ; head, pronotum, and scutellum transversely 
rugulose and coarsely punctate. Head with the central lobe more or 
less margined with black punctures ; antennae with the first, second 
and third joints black (remaining joints mutilated) ; corium thickly 
and finely punctate : membrane fuscous ; head beneath and sternum 
brownish-ochraceous ; rostrum legs and abdomen testaceous. 

Head with the lateral margins slightly sinuate and moderately 
refiexed, antennas with the second joint distinctly shorter than the 
third ; pronotum with the lateral margins crenulate, the lateral 
angles moderately prominent, their apices broadly subacute, their 
margins non-crenulate. Membrane with six longitudinal veins, 
asymmetrically bifurcate ; abdomen obscurely centrally sulcate on 
the second and third segments ; rostrum reaching the base of the 
third abdominal segment, its apex black. 

Long. 20 millim. Exp. pronot. angl. 9 millim. 

Habitat. Burma ; Catcin Cauri (Fea). 



108 Mr. W. L. Distant's Enumeration of the 

Strongly diverging from the only other and typical 
representative of the genus A. indicatrix, Walk., by the 
more flattened body and much less basal convexity of the 
pronotum, the lateral angles of which are much less 
produced ; the head is narrower especially at apex and 
the lateral margins less sinuate ; veins to membrane more 
bifurcate, etc. 

Characters not mentioned by Walker in his diagnosis 
of the genus Asyla are the obscure basal sulcation to the 
abdomen, and the presence of a small but distinct spine 
on the inner margin of the anterior tibiae at about one- 
third from apex. 

The affinities of Asyla are not with Galcdanta and 
Euschistus as stated by Walker, but with the genera allied 
to Atelocera in the group separated by Dallas as Halydidse. 

Laprius antennatus, sp. n. 

Ocliraceous, somewhat thickly, coarsely, and blackly punctate ; 
antennae fuscus, basal joint somewhat testaceous, bases of third, 
fourth and fifth joints luteous ; eyes black on the inner margins of 
which is an impunctate space ; pronotum with a distinct central pale 
carination ; scutellum with a pale levigate spot in each basal angle, 
and faint indications of a central pale carination ; basal costal 
margin to corium pale levigate ; body beneath somewhat thickly 
blackly punctate, the punctures thicker and more fasciate towards the 
lateral margins, with a series of raised elongate pale levigate spots 
before the stigmata ; femora reddish-ochraceous, blackly punctate, 
tibia) luteous, their apices and the tarsi piceous. 

Antenna3 with the first and third joints shortest, the pronotum and 
scutellum rugulose ; rostrum reaching the posterior coxae, its apex 
black. 

Long. 12 millim. 

Habitat. Burma ; Carin, Asciuii Cheba (Fea). 

Allied to L. varicornis } Dall., and differing by the colora- 
tion of the antennas, the somewhat broader body and more 
rugulose pronotum and scutellum, the punctures much 
coarser, and the pale ante-stigmatal spots larger and more 
elongate. 

Odius obscuriLS, sp. n. 

Dull ocliraceous, thickly covered with coarse black punctures ; 
antennas fuscous, the base of apical joints luteous ; abdomen above 
fuscous violaceous, connexium thickly blackly punctate ; membrane 



Heteroptera (Rhynchota) collected in Burma. 109 

smoky hyaline, the longitudinal veins fuscous ; body beneath piceous ; 
legs ochraceous, coarsely punctate. Head cleft at apex between the 
apices of the lateral lobes ; antennae with the second joint a little 
shorter than the third, fourth joint longest ; pronotum with the 
lateral margins strongly recurved, and with a faint central longi- 
tudinal levigate line which is continued throughout the scutellum. 
Long. 12 millim. Exp. pronot. angl. 6 millim. 

Habitat. Burma ; Katha, Teinzo (Fea). 

Plexippus vittatus, sp. n. 

Dull ochraceous, thickly and darkly punctate, the coloration 
distinctly darker on the head and anterior half of pronotum which 
is separated by a transverse levigate fascia ; body beneath pale 
ochraceous, the lateral areas of the sternum, a longitudinal fascia on 
each side of abdomen, the stigmata, and a spot on apical segment 
piceous ; legs ochraceous, antennae ochraceous, apex of third joint, 
more than apical half of fourth joint, and apical half of fifth joint 
piceous ; second and third joints sub-equal in length. 

Long. 11 millim. Exp. pronot. angl. 6i millim. 

Habitat. Burma ; Carin Cheba (Fea). 

Allied to P. affi?ds, Dist., but differing by the relative 
lengths of the second and third joints of the antennae, the 
fasciate sternum and abdomen, the distinct transverse 
levigate fascia crossing centre of pronotum, etc. 

Eysarcoris rosaceus, sp. n. 

Ochraceous, thickly and darkly punctate, finely and very thickly 
on head, more coarsely and sparingly on pronotum, scutellum and 
corium ; head with a central pale levigate longitudinal line not quite 
reaching apex ; antennae ochraceous ; pronotum with the anterior 
and lateral margins palely levigate, the lateral angles rosaceous, two 
clusters of dark punctures on each side of the anterior area ; pronotum 
with a large rounded pale levigate spot near each basal angle ; mem- 
brane pale brownish hyaline. Body beneath ochraceous, thickly 
and darkly punctate ; abdomen with a broad central greenish-black 
fascia, its lateral margins somewhat paler, with the stigmata and a 
series of small marginal spots, black ; legs ochraceous finely spotted 
with black. 

The head is long, almost as long as the pronotum ; the lateral 
angles are strongly and robustly produced, their apices broadly 
sub-acute. 

Long. 6-6£ millim. Exp. pronot. angl. 5-5^ millim. 



110 Mr. W. L. Distant's Enumeration of the 

Habitat Burma; Carin Cheba (Fea). 
A species to be recognized by the produced and roseate 
lateral angles of the pronotum. 

Garbula producta, sp. n. 

Ocliraceous, coarsely punctate ; head very thickly and darkly 
punctate, the apex of the central lobe ochraceous ; antennae with 
the first, second and third joints ochraceous, fourth and fifth joints 
black with their bases ochraceous ; pronotum coarsely and darkly 
punctate the lateral angles black ; scutellum coarsely and darkly 
punctate with a small levigate luteous spot in each basal angle ; 
corium more thickly punctate and slightly rugulose ; membrane 
pale hyaline. Body beneath and legs ochraceous, lateral areas of 
the sternum and abdomen with scattered dark punctures, stigmata 
and an abdominal lateral marginal series of small spots, black ; legs 
more or less finely black spotted. 

Head somewhat narrow, long, and tapering ; lateral angles of the 
pronotum strongly and robustly produced ; second and third joints 
of the antennae, and the fourth and fifth joints sub-equal in length. 

Long. 7 £-8 millim. Exp. pronot. angl. 6 millim. 

Habitat Burma; Carin Cheba (Fea). 

A species in which the elongate head resembles that of 
C. trinotata, Herr. Schaeff. ; the rest of the body more 
allied to C. obtusangula, Reut., but with the pronotal angles 
narrower and with their apices more acute. 

Senncrtus, gen. nov. 

Head subtriangular, considerably longer than broad, the lateral 
lobes much larger than the central lobe and strongly cleft between 
their apices, lateral margins nearly straight. Antenme with the 
basal joint short, robust, not nearly reaching apex of head, fourth 
joint longest, third and fifth joints subequal in length. Pronotum 
about twice as broad as long, the lateral angles prominent, robust, 
and obtusely angulated, the lateral margins moderately concave and 
serrate, anterior margin concave, posterior margin nearly straight. 
Scutellum about half the length of abdomen, moderate^ convex at 
basal area, narrowed at about one-third from apex which is angularly 
rounded, membrane with longitudinal veins. Abdomen gradually 
narrowing to apex. Rostrum with the second joint a little shorter 
than the third ; fourth joint very slender. Mesosternum centrally 
carinate. Abo^men unarmed. Odoriferous aperture long and 
slender. 



Heteroptera (Bhynchota) collected in Burma. Ill 

Allied to the Genus Amyntor, Stal., from which it differs 
by its more robust form ; lateral margins of head not 
sinuated ; anterior margin of the pronotum concave. 

Sennertus typicus, sp. n. 

Brownish-ochraceous, thickly and coarsely punctate, more sparsely 
on the head where there is a levigate ochraceous spot on the inner 
margin of each eye ; lateral margins of head and pronotum very 
narrowly fuscous, posterior margins of lateral angles narrowly 
ochraceous ; posterior margin narrowly levigate ; scutellum with a 
small black spot in each lateral angle ; corium with the lateral area 
more finely punctate than on disk ; body beneath ochraceous with 
scattered brown punctures, stigmata and a double series of small 
segmental spots on each side, piceous ; legs and antennae reddish- 
ochraceous, femora spotted with fuscous. 

Long. 22 millim. Exp. pronot. angl. 12 millim. 

Habitat. Burma ; Carin Cheba (Fea). 

Eusthenes rubef actus, sp. n. 

Above dark castaneous tinged with olivaceous ; body beneath with 
legs pale bright castaneous or ochraceous ; abdomen above purplish- 
red ; connexivum olivaceous spotted with ochraceous at segmental 
bases ; antennae piceous, with the basal joint — excluding apex — 
reddish-ochraceous ; eyes inwardly margined with reddish-ochraceous. 

Head with the lateral lobes obliquely striate, the basal area slightly 
rugulose ; antenna} with the third joint shorter than the second or 
fourth joints, extreme apex of apical joint ochraceous. Pronotum 
with the lateral margins strongly wrinkled, the lateral angles sub- 
prominent and subacute. 

£ . Posterior femora strongly incrassated, with a long and strong 
spine at less than half the length from base, a series of small spines 
on inner margin of apical area and with a prominent stout spine or 
tooth at apex. 

Long. 27-33 millim. Exp. pronot. angl. 12-15 millim. 

Habitat. Burma ; Carin Cheba (Fea). 

The spotted connexivum, and the colour of the body 
beneath and legs will at once distinguish this species. In 
structure it is allied to E. eurytus, Dist. 

Vitmvius, gen. no v. 
Body ovate, moderately gibbous, attenuated posteriorly. Head 
small, deflected, lateral lobes meeting in front of central lobe, lateral 



112 Mr. W. L. Distant's Enumeration of the 

margins reflexed, anterior margin subtruncate, posterior margin 
truncate, well inserted in the pronotum ; ocelli rather nearer to 
eyes than to each other. Eostrum reaching the intermediate coxae, 
second joint longest. Antennas five-jointed, basal joint stout, not 
quite reaching apex of head, second and third joints longest and 
subequal in length, fourth and fifth joints a little shorter and sub- 
equal. Pronotum convex, deflected anteriorly, broader than long, 
the whole lateral area produced into a broad subacute angulation ; 
scutellum convex, more than half the length of the abdomen, its 
apex narrowed and rounded. Corium with its lateral margin convex, 
its apical margin slightly rounded. Membrane with longitudinal 
veins emitted from basal cellular areas. Abdomen with the lateral 
margins entire, not projecting beyond corium. Prosternum longi- 
tudinally sulcate, mesosternum obscurely carinate ; metasternum 
obscurely elevated. Legs moderately robust ; tibias sulcated, tarsi 
three-jointed. 

A very distinct genus of the Tessaratominse belonging 
to the Division Eusthenina, Stal., and not closely allied 
to any genus with which I am at present acquainted. 

Vitruvius insignis, sp. n. 

Ochraceous ; anterior lateral margins of pronotum, lateral margins 
of corium near base, some obscure longitudinal series of punctures to 
pronotum in about six series, a double discal series at base of scutellum, 
and some scattered punctures on disk of corium and apical area of 
scutellum, black. Body beneath luteous, legs ochraceous. Head 
finely wrinkled and punctate, pronotum more coarsely so and with 
two elongate transverse impunctate spaces near anterior margin ; 
scutellum distinctly transversely wrinkled, with a faint and broad 
central impression ; corium somewhat thickly and finely punctate, 
but longitudinally levigate on disk. 

Long. 17 millim. Exp. pronot. angl. 10| millim. 

Habitat. Burma ; Rangoon (Fea). 

Byrsodepsus nigritus, sp. n. 

Piceous ; rostrum and apical joint of antennae — excluding base — 
brownish - ochraceous. 

Antennae with the second joint longest, third joint prominently 
dilated and slightly shorter than fourth joint ; head coarsely and 
rugosely punctate, the lateral lobes long and well separated in- 
ternally ; pronotum rugosely punctate, a broad transverse impression 
on anterior area which becomes foveate at lateral margins which are 



Heteroptera (Rhynckota) collected in Burma. 113 

obscurely crenulate ; posterior margin concave in front of scutellum ; 
scutelluin transversely rugose ; corium thickly and finely punctate ; 
femora robust armed on each side with a strong spine near apex. 
Long. 12 millim. Exp. pronot. angl. 5^ millim. 

Habitat. Pegu; Palon (Fea). 

Dalsira scabrata, sp. n. 

Very dark castaneous ; connexivum and abdomen beneath testa- 
ceous ; antennas fuscous, fourth and fifth joint pale hiteous, rather 
more than apical half of fifth joint fuscous ; membrane brownish- 
ochraceous. 

Head very coarsely punctate, somewhat tessellate on basal half ; 
second joint of antenna) a little shorter than third, third and fourth 
subequal, fifth longest ; pronotum very coarsely rugose with a distinct 
transverse ridge between the lateral angles beyond which it is deflected 
anteriorly and distinctly transversely foveate, the lateral margins 
strongly and coarsely dentate, the lateral angles a little prominent, 
broadly rounded and coarsely dentate ; scutellum transversely rugose ; 
corium very finely punctate and slightly wrinkled ; rostrum dull 
ochraceous and reaching the anterior coxas. 

Long. 17 millim. Exp. pronot. angl. 10-11 millim. 

Habitat. Burma ; Carin Cheba and Asciuii Cheba (Fea). 
A species with no near ally. 

Gonopsis hcnata, sp. n. 

Sanguineous ; antennas luteous — sometimes tinged with sanguine- 
ous — apical joint black with its base luteous ; ocelli luteous ; prono- 
tum with a transverse fascia between the lateral angles bright luteous 
—in some specimens this fascia is concolorous — and with two trans- 
verse dull ochraceous patches on anterior area ; scutellum with the 
lateral and apical areas more or less ochraceous ; membrane pale 
hyaline ; body beneath and legs sanguineous. 

Head triangular the lateral lobes meeting well in front of the central 
lobe, their margins and the central lobe coarsely punctate ; pronotum 
with the lateral angles very prominently and sublunately produced, 
their apices subacute, directed forwardly and a little upwardly, the 
lateral margins dentate, a distinct ridge between the lateral angles, 
behind which the surface is distinctly rugulose, between the ridge 
and the anterior margin it is deflected, with scattered coarse dark 
punctures, the dull ochraceous patches being foveate ; scutellum 
transversely rugose ; corium thickly and finely punctate, its basal 
lateral margin slightly crenate ; antennas with the second and third 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART I. (APRIL) 8 



114 Mr. W. L. Distant's ^Enumeration of the Heteroptera. 

joints short and subequal in length, fourth and fifth joints longer and 
subequal in length. 

Long. 15-18 millim. Exp. pronot. angl. 11-13 millim. 

Habitat. Burma ; Carin Cheba (Fea). 

A species to be recognised by the widely extended and 
lunate lateral pronotal angles. I possess a series of 
specimens from Upper Assam, collected by Mr. Doherty. 

Urostylis f armaria, sp. n. 

Very pale luteous in some specimens inclining to ochraceous ; eyes, 
aj)ical areas of third, fourth and fifth joints of antennae, and a spot 
near centre of apical margin to corium, black. 

Antennae with the third joint shortest ; pronotum and scutellum 
somewhat sparingly but coarsely punctate ; inner and outer claval 
margins with a longitudinal series of coarse punctures ; corium with 
the inner area impunctate, the outer area coarsely but sparingly 
punctate. 

Long. 10-12 millim. 

Habitat. Burma ; Carin Cheba, Rangoon (Fea). 

April 30, 1901. 





( US ) 



VI. A preliminary catalogue of the Lepidoptera Heterocera 
of Trinidad. By William James Kaye, F.E.S. 

[Read February 5th, 1901.] 

Plates V. and VI. 

Although Trinidad is within such easy reach of England, 
and has the inducement to visitors of being in a civilized 
state, its Lepidopterous fauna has been almost wholly 
neglected, and no scientific lists have been published, 
except the preliminary list of the butterflies by Mr. Crow- 
foot in the Transactions of the Trinidad Literary and 
Philosophical Society. This is all the more remarkable as 
the fauna is an exceedingly rich one, as one might expect 
in an island belonging to the Neotropical Region and lying 
so near to the Equator. The butterflies enumerated in 
Mr. Crowfoot's list number up 199, and this is far short of 
the actual total as my own records can show. If one can 
compute at all the number of Heterocera,, it should, without 
including Tortricidze and Tincidx, not fall far short of 
1000 species even at a modest estimate. I have been able 
to record only 245 at present, not including the Tortricidte 
and Tineidaz, but I hope to supplement this number at 
a future date. Hitherto nothing has, I believe, been 
published on the moths of Trinidad. It has therefore been 
necessary to search through the specimens at the British 
Museum for Trinidad labels. Comparatively few have been 
found, and the species are mostly those taken by my 
brother, Mr. S. Kaye, at Verdant Vale in 1895, and my 
own captures in various parts of the island in May and 
June 1898. My best thanks are due to Sir George 
Hampson for valuable help and advice in the compilation 
of this list. I have presented the types of new species to 
the British Museum. 

Family SYNTOMIDiE. 

COSMOSOMA MELATHOKACIA, n. sp. (Plate V, fig. 10.) 

Frons and collar bronze-green. Thorax with patagia and teguloe, 
and abdomen black, the last with square-shaped spots above, of 
the same colour as the collar ; except on first segment where 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART II. (JULY) 9 



116 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

they are replaced by two patches of brick-red. Forewing narrow, 
quite transparent in the median portion excepting the nervures 
which are clothed with black scales ; the costa, inner area and lower 
half of outer margin with narrow borders of black ; the discocellular 
patch and broad apical portion black. Hindwing similar, but with 
the costal marginal border very narrow. 

Expanse 42 millim. 

From Tabaquite. Taken in May 1898 (W. J. Kaye). 

COSMOSOMA RUBRISCAPUL.E, sp. n. (Plate V, fig. 9.) 

Frons bronze-green. Collar black, with only a few green scales. 
Thorax black ; patagia and tegulae vermilli on-red. Abdomen black 
with lateral rows of square-shaped pea-green metallic spots on all the 
segments save the first which has two spots of the same colour as the 
tegulse. Forewing rather broad, transparent ; the veins prominently 
black ; costa, inner margin and margin narrowly bordered with black'; 
a large apical black patch and the lower half of outer margin with a 
broad band. Hindwing rather broad. 

The wings of this species are more ample than in G. melathoracia. 

Expanse 44 millim. 

Taken flying gently by day in Morrison Valley, beginning 
of July 1898 ( W. J. Kaye). 

Saurita cassandra, Linn., Syst. Nat., i, p. 494 (1768). 

Saurita cassandra, Hmps., Cat. Lep. Phal., p. 274 (1898). 

Range. Venezuela. 

Specimens taken on flowers and at light in July 1898 
( W. J. Kaye) ; also recorded by Capt. Clark. 

Saurita lacteata, But!., 111. Het., i, p. 34, pi. 17. 

Saurita lacteata, Hmps., Cat. Lep. Phal., p. 276 (1898). 

Range. Amazon. 

One specimen at light in May 1898, at Tabaquite. 
The type specimen in the Brit. Mus. N. H. is from Kio 
Jutahi, Amazons. 

At Tabaquite (W. J. Kaye). 

Saurita temenus, Stoll, Pap. Exot., iv, pi. 367. 

Saurita temenus, Hmps., 1. c. p. 279. 

Range. Amazon. 
; Several specimens in May at Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 



Lepidoptera Heterocera of Trinidad. 117 

Histkea MELDOL.E, Butl., Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool, xii, 
p. 362 (1876). 

Histioea meldolm, Hmps., 1. c. p. 311. 

Range. Panama. ; Venezuela. 

This species was described by Butler from a Trinidad 
specimen. 

Histicea cepheus, Cram., Pap. Exot., iii, pi. 109, E 

(1780). 

Histicea cepheus, Hmps., 1. c. p. 313. 

Range. Venezuela. 

From Botanical Gardens ( W. E. Broadway) ; also recorded 
by C. W. Ellacombe. 

Macrocneme lades, Cram., Pap. Exot., i. pi. 83, E (1776). 
Macrocneme lades, Hmps., 1. c. p. 317. 

Range. Mexico ; Costa Rica; Venezuela; New 
Grenada ; Amazon. 

Specimens in National Collection (C. W. Ellacombe). 

Macrocneme thyra, Moschl., Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges., 
Wien. xxxii, p. 334, pi. 18, f. 24 (1883). 

Macrocneme thyra, Hmps., 1. c. p. 321. 

Range. Amazons; Bolivia. 

Specimens in National Collection (Caracciolo). 

Macrocneme nigritarsia, Hmps., 1. c. p. 326. 
Range. Mexico ; Guatemala. 

Calonotos tripunctata, Druce, A. M. N. H., (7) i, p. 401 
(1898). 

Calonotos tripunctata, Hmps., 1. c. p. 335. 

Range. Ignotus. 

The type specimen was from Trinidad, and is in coll. 
Druce. 



118 Mr. W. J. K aye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

POLIOPASTEA PLUMBEA, Hmps., 1. C. p. 337. 

The type specimen is from Parantins, Lr. Amazon. 
From the Marval Valley (0. W. Ellacombe). 

Dinia mena, Hiib., Samml. exot. Schmett., ii, (1827). 

Dinia mena, Hmps., 1. c. p. 339. 

Range. Throughout Centeal America ; Brazil ; 
Venezuela. 

In National Collection (C. W. Ellacombe, Caracciolo). 

Trichura cerberus, Pall., Spec. Zool. fasc, ix, p. 27, pi. 2, 
f. 8 (1772). 

Trichura cerberus, Hmps., 1. c. p. 342. 

Range. Brazil, S. Paulo, Rio. 

Aethria carnicauda, Butl., Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool., xii, 
p. 400 (1876). 

Range. Brazil, Rio. 

From Botanical Gardens {J. H. Hart). 

Urolasia brodea, Schans, J., N. Y. Ent. Soc, iv, p. 132 
(1896). 
Urolasia brodea, Hmps., 1. c. p. 370. 
Range. Ignotus. 

The type from Trinidad is in coll. Schaus (W. E. 
Broadway). 

Antichloris eriphia, Fabr., Gen. Ins., p. 276 (1776). 
Antichloris eriphia, Hmps., 1. c. p. 400. 
Range. Brazil; Amazon. 
Botanical Gardens ( W. E. Broadivay, Caracciolo). 

Napata walkeri, Druce, A. M. N. H. (6) iv, p. 86 (1889). 
Napata walkeri, Hmps., 1. c. p. 407. 
Range. Costa Rica ; Panama ; Mexico. 
From Verdant Vale in Dec. 1895 {S. Kaye). 



Lepidoptcra Heterocera of Trinidad. 119 

Napata broadwayi, Schans, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, iv, 
p. 130 (1896). 
Napata broadwayi, Hmps., I. c. p. 413. 
Range. Ignotus. 
From Botanical Gardens (W. E. Broadway). 

Cyanopepla submacula, Wlk., Cat. Het., i, p. 214 
(1854). 
Cyanopepla submacula, Hmps., 1. c. p. 444. 
Range. Venezuela; Guatemala; Panama. 

One specimen at rest on a leaf of an Orange tree in the 
Botanical Gardens ( W. J. Kaye). 

Aclytia heber, Cram., Pap. Exot., iii, pi. 287, A 
(1780). 
Aclytia heber, Hmps., 1. c. p. 457. 
Range. Central America ; Cuba ; Guiana ; Brazil. 

Eucereon cinctum, Schaus., Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, iv, 
p. 134 (1896). 

Eucereon cinctum, Hmps., 1. c. p. 486. 

Range. Amazon. 

The type specimen was described from Trinidad 
Botanical Gardens ( W. E. Broadway). 

Eucereon rosinum, Wlk., Cat. Het., i, 270 (1854). 
Eucereon rosinum, Hmps., 1. c. p. 492. 
Range. Venezuela; Mexico; Brazil, Rio. 
Botanical Gardens (J. H. Hart). 

Eucereon hyalinum, n. sp. (Plate V, fig. 11.) 

Collar yellowish-red. Patagia ochreous-brown striped with black. 
Tegulse black. Abdomen black ; on the 5th, 6th and 7th segments 
are narrow bands of crimson, slightly obscured in the middle by 
the general colour of the abdomen. Forewing very dark blackish- 
brown with the veins somewhat lighter ; on the outer margin, 
between veins 2, 3, and 3, 4, are buff-coloured spots, coalescing so as 



120 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

to form a blotch ; within each spot is an elongated black mark ; in 
the middle of the cell is a large square patch of the same colour. 
Hind wing with the middle portion semi-transparent with a bluish 
tinge ; a broad marginal black band widest at the anal angle. 
Expanse 38 millim. 

Taken at Verdant Vale in Dec. 1895 (S. Kaye). 



Eucereon LATIFASCIA, Wlk., vii, 1639 (1856). 
Eucereon latifascia, Hmps., 1. c. p. 498. 
Range. Central America ; Venezuela. 
Verdant Vale in Dec. (S. Kaye). 

Eucereon maia, Druce, Biol. Cent. Am. Het,, i, p. 86, 

pi. 9, f. 13 (1884). 

Eucereon maia, Hmps., 1. c. p. 499. 

Range. Costa Rica. 

At Tabaquite in April (F. W. Urich). 

Family ARCTIAD^E. 

Subfamily LITHOSIANJE. 

Antona diffinis, Wlk., xxxi, 105 (1864). 
Range. British Guiana ; Brazil. 
From Verdant Vale (S. Kaye). 

Thyone melanocera, Schaus, J., N. Y. Ent. Soc, vii, 
p. 217 (1899). 

Range. Unknown. 

In Schaus Coll. ( W. E. Broadway). 

Chionosia apicalis, sub. sp., Zell., Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges., 
Wien. xxiv, p. 424, pi. 12, f. 1. (1874). 

Range. Brazil. 

In Schaus coll. ( W. E. Broadway). 



Lepidoptera Hetcrocera of Trinidad. 121 

Subfamily ARCTIAN^!. 

Idalus DAGA, Dognin., Le naturaliste, 15 Mai (1891), 
p. 123. 

Range. Ecuador. 

From Verdant Vale in Dec. 1895 (S. Kaye). 

Eupseudosoma involutum, Sepp., Surin. Vlind., iii, t. 115 

(1852). 

Range. Brazil. 

In the National Collection. 

Rhipha laodamia, Drnce, Biol. Cent. Am. Het., i, p. 90, 

n. 2. t. 9, f. 20 (1884). 

Range. Panama. 

In the National Collection. 

Melese incertus, Wlk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. iii, p. 716 

(1855). 

Range. Brazil. 

In the National Collection. 

Ecpantheria abscondens, Oberth., Etudes d'Ent., vi, 
p. 106, t. 12, f. 7 (1881). 

Range. Mexico. 

In the National Collection. 

Thalesa seruba, H. S., Ausser. Eur. Schmett., f. 280 
(1855). 

Range. Mexico ; Amazons. 
In the National Collection. 

Ph^egoptera laudia, Druce, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lon. (1890), 
p. 497. 
Range. Venezuela. 
In the National Collection. 



122 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

Agoeea pellucida, Sepp., (Bomb. P.) Surin. Vlind, ii, 
t. 76 (1848). 

Range. Brazil ; Grenada ; Mexico ; Guiana. 
Verdant Vale in Dec. 1895 (S. Kaye). 

Ammalo chrysogaster, Wlk., (Hal. C.) Cat. Het., p. 312 
(1864). 

Range. Mexico ; Colombia. 

In the National Collection. 

Deiopeia ornatrix, Linn., Syst. Nat., i, p. 511, n. 80 

(1758). 

Range. Central America ; Venezuela ; Brazil ; 
West Indies ; Ecuador. 

Maraval Valley (C. W. Ellacomhe). 

Family NOCTUIDiE. 

Euplexia apameoides, Guen., Noct., i, p. 229. 
Range. Bermuda ; Jamaica ; Brazil, S. Paulo. 
In the National Collection. 

Euplexia sutor, Guen., Noct., i, p. 231. 
Range. Brazil ; Argentine ; Barbadoes ; Grenada. 
In Coll. Kaye. 

JUNCARIA UNICOLORATA, n. sp. (Plate V, fig. 21.) 
Range. Colombia, Sta. Martha. 

Forewing pale buff- coloured with some darker scales dispersed 
over the wing ; discoidal spot small distinct black ; a similar 
black spot lies wholly within the cell ; margin with a series of 
black spots. Hindwing similarly coloured but without any darker 
scaling ; the marginal black spots very distinct. 

Expanse 32 millim. 

Taken in May at Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 



Zepidoptcra Jleteroccra of Trinidad. 123 

Thyria amcenita, Oram., pi. 312, f. D. 
Range. S. America (? portion). 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Phrygionis quadriltnea, n. sp. (Plate V, fig. 17.) 

Forewing light ochreous shaded with darker pinkish-brown ; 
three metallic blue stripes cross the wing from the costa to the 
inner margin, the first of these is succeeded and the second and 
third preceded by a dark brown line of which the first two 
run almost parallel, whilst the third stripe for a short distance 
before reaching the inner margin approximates to the metallic stripe ; 
subterminal line silvery and barely reaching down to inner margin. 
Hindwing of same colour ; the costal half paler with the apex black. 
Expanse 30 millim. 

At Verdant Yale (8. Kaye) ; Tabaquite (F. W. Urich). 

Range. Amazons, Guru pa [E. E. Austen). 

Drobeda subrufescens, n. sp. (Plate V, fig. 14.) 

Forewing pale brown ; a large darker brown rectangular apical 
patch occupies almost one quarter the area of the wing, and is 
bounded by the vein enclosing the cell and the termination of vein 
4 on outer margin ; discoidal spot very indistinct not darker than 
the ground colour ; indications of transverse lines are present on 
the costa the third of which is duplicated and darker. Hindwing 
unicolourous dark brown with somewhat of a coppery tinge. 

Expanse 29 millim. 

St. Verdant Vale in November (S. Kaye). 

Aedia trinidadensis, n. sp. (Plate V, fig. 3.) 

Forewing with the basal half very dark brown terminated by a 
still darker broad stripe ; about midway between the base and the 
dark stripe is a dark wedge-shaped mark running up from the inner 
margin; marginal half of wing grey suffused with lighter brown, 
the inner portion paler, at the extreme apex paler still. Hindwing 
pearly-white ; costa dark brown • a very broad marginal blackish 
brown band ; central spot black. 

Expanse 30 millim. 

Verdant Vale (S. Kaye) ; Tabaquite {F. W. Urich). 

Note. — There is no other New World species in this genus, but the 
above appears to be congeneric with Aedia. 



124 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

Homoptera viridans, Guen., vii, p. 13. 
Range. Grenada ; St. Domingo ; Dominica. 
In the National Collection. 

Xylis bidens, n. sp. (Plate V, fig. 1.) 

Forewing much mottled with various shades of brown ; on the 
inner margin close to base is a short pale tooth-like mark ; near 
this mark is a short very dark brown line which starts broad and 
terminates sharply just before cell ; from thence to the costa is a very 
much paler much serrated line ; a short pale line starts on the costa 
just above angle of cell and terminates at vein 9 close to end of cell ; 
a bold submarginal line traverses the wing and is deeply toothed 
between veins 3 and 4 and less so between veins 6 and 7. Hindwing 
very dark brown, broadly margined with pale mottled brown. 

Expanse 43 millim. 

At Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Cgenipeta polynoe, Guen., vii, p. 31. 
Range. Amazons. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Noctua strix, Linn., Syst. Nat., iv, p. 833. 
Range. Mexico ; Brazil. 
Botanical Gardens (J. H. Hart). 

Letis alauda, Guen., vii, p. 154. 
Range. Panama; Amazons. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Letis hercyna, Drury., ii, pi. 24, f. 1. 
Range. Amazons; Panama; Jamaica. 
Verdant Vale (S. Kaye) ; also in National Collection. 

Letis magna, Karsten., Mus. Lesk., p. 100-2, 291 (1789). 
Range. Amazons. 
In the National Collection. 



Lepidoptera Heterocera of Trinidad. 125 

Letis myceiuna, Cram., Pap. Exot., pi. 172, B. 
Range, Panama; St. Domingo; Grenada; St. Lucia. 
Verdant Vale (S. Kaye). 

Syrnia iphianasse, Cram., pi, 172, A. 
Range. Unknown. 
Verdant Vale (S. Kaye) ; also in National Collection. 

Erebus odoratum, Linn., Syst. Nat., x, p. 505. 

Range. St. Lucia ; Jamaica; Brazil; Venezuela; 
British Guiana. 

Botanical Gardens (J. H. Hart) ; also in National 
Collection. 

Barydia bicristata, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 12.) 

Forewing pale brown ; first line very dark blackish-brown, very 
uneven in thickness and much indented, starting on the costa as a 
large somewhat squarish blotch, from thence to vein 1 a w is formed 
and thence to inner margin is another rather elongated blotch ; second 
line showing only as faint traces hardly darker than the ground colour; 
third line just traceable in places, between veins 4 and 6 it is most 
prominent and again from 3 to inner margin ; on the costa preced- 
ing the third line is a semicircular blotch of darker brown and a 
large roundish blotch is situated between veins 4 and 6. Hindwing 
paler brown with some black marks which form a line from anal 
angle for a short distance then merging into the ground colour of 
the wing ; on the second and third segments of abdomen are well 
formed conspicuous crests, that on the second segment is much the 
larger and is double fan-shaped. 

Expanse 67 millim. 

At Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

There is a co-type in National Collection taken by 
Broadway in Trinidad. 

Blosyius helima, var. rengus, Poey., Cent. Cub. (1832). 
Range. St. Domingo. 
In the National Collection. 



126 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

Peosina leontina, Stoll., pi. xxxiv, f. 6. 
Range. Brazil. 
In the National Collection. 

Dysgonia purpurata, n. sp. (Plate V, fig. 15.) 

Forewing variously shaded with purple ; first line crossing the 
wing obliquely and of unequal thickness, more prominent towards the 
costa, brownish-yellow ; from apex there runs a very dark almost 
black much curved line which meets another short line curved from 
the costa ; on the costa within this enclosed space are three or four 
faint yellow spots ; there is a bold reverse curve to that which starts 
at apex, running to inner margin ; on the inner side of this line is a 
very broad band of purple which almost reaches the first line near 
inner margin and which is most remote on costa. Hind wing very 
dark brown ; the cilia from veins 1 to 7 pale grey, from 7 to costa 
unicolorous with the wing. 

Expanse 67 millim. 

From Verdant Vale (S. Kaye). 

Melipotis fasciolaris, Htibn., Zutr., 443. 444. 

Range. St. Domingo; Venezuela ; Honduras ; U.S.A., 
Brazil. 

Botanical Gardens ( W. E. Broadway). 

Herminodes atrosignata, Walk., Cat. Het., 15, p. 1641. 
Range. Panama ; Venezuela. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Herminodes xanthipterygia, n. sp. (Plate V, fig. 6.) 

Forewing ochreous-yellow finely dusted with reddish scales 
especially over the basal half of the wing ; discoidal blotch slightly 
darker than remainder of wing ; there is a trace of a subterminal 
line indicated by three or four black dots, those between veins 4, 5 ; 
5, 6 ; and 6, 7 are most distinct ; there is also a row of well-defined 
subterminal dots. 

Expanse 33 millim. 

At Tabaquite in May (F. W, Urich). 



Lepidoptera Heterocera of Trinidad. 127 

Catamelas fusca-purpurea, i). sp. (Plate V, fig. 20.) 

Forewing dull brownish-purple with the markings rather indis- 
tinct, sharply incised below apex ; the lines slatish-grey ; basal line 
duplicated ; median line sharply angled before middle ; between 
these the orbicular stigma is larger and fairly distinct, the reniform 
stigma is very faintly outlined ; the postmedian line also faintly 
indicated ; beyond this a row of dots runs parallel. Hindwing with 
faint basal line and well-defined postmedian line, the discal stigma 
very large ; the row of dots beyond the postmedian line not parallel 
to margin as in forewing. 

Expanse 42 millim. 

In National Collection. 

ACANTHOLIPES INCISURA, n. sp. (Plate V, fig. 18.) 

Forewing grey rather suffused with a lilac tinge ; close to the 
base of the costal margin is a triangularly shaped spot of purplish- 
black ; a short way beyond there is another similarly coloured 
blotch and immediately below there is a round dot of the same 
colour lying wholly within the cell ; beyond this is a yellowish line 
that runs across the wing starting on the costa as a dark mark and 
immediately forming a sharp tooth-like bend, from there to the 
inner margin it is fairly straight and inclines inwards cutting the 
inner margin almost at the centre ; there is a row of terminal black 
dots ; cilia scalloped. 

Expanse 31 millim. 

Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Remigia repanda, Fabr., Ent. Syst., iii, 2. p. 49 (1794). 
Range. Brazil ; Jamaica ; Canada ; Central Africa. 
In the National Collection. 

Celiptera helvina, Guen., vii, p. 307. 
Range. Honduras ; Colombia ; Brazil. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Celiptera fuscilineata, n. sp. (Plate V, fig. 5.) 

Forewing brown with a slight reddish tinge ; first line dark 
brown edged internally with reddish ; median line replaced by two 
very faint indications of lines which run parallel to one another 



128 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

across the wing ; third line of same colour as first and succeeded by 
a row of black dots ; the outer marginal portion of the wing lighter 
coloured than the rest. Hindwing almost unicolorous dull grey- 
brown. 

Expanse 37 millim. 

At Tabaquite in June ( W. J. Kaye). 

Apistis fellearis, Htibn., Zutr., 379 — 380. 
Range. Venezuela. 
In the National Collection (W. E. Broadway). 

Apistis guttiluna, Walk., xxxiii, p. 1078. 
Range. Brazil. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Apistis eulalia, Stoll., pi. xii, fig. 2. 
Range. Brazil. 
In the National Collection. 

Pleonectiptera pancula, Wlk., Cat. Het., xv, p. 1838. 
Range. Honduras ; Grenada. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye) ; also in National Collection. 

Bendis formularis, Htibn., Zutr. H., 903, 904. 

Range. Jamaica ; St. Domingo ; St. Vincent ; Hon- 
duras; Dominica. 

Tabaquite {W. J. Kaye); also in National Collection. 

Amphigonia postponens, Wlk., xv, p. 1856. 
Range. Grenada ; Brazil. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Marthama squamivaria, Wlk., xv, p. 1631. 
Range. Brazil ; Panama. 
Tabaquite {W.J. Kaye). 



Ijepidoptera Heterocera of Trinidad. 129 

Genus Parvapenna, nov. 

Type, P. sentalis. 

Proboscis well developed, rather short ; palpi porrect, extending 
beyond frons about the width of the collar, heavily scaled with the 
third joint very short and naked just appearing out of the heavy 
scaling of the second joint ; antennas boldly pectinated to tip. 
Forewing narrow, the costa almost straight, the termen slightly 
rounded ; vein 3 well before angle of cell, 5 nearer 4 than 6, 8 and 9 
stalked. Hindwing with vein 8 anastomosing with 7 well beyond 
base, 7 from upper angle of cell. Fore tibiae with well developed 
spurs. 

Parvapenna sentalis, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 7.) 

Forewing pinkish-ochreous with two apical streaks, the inner one 
is the darker and wider of the two and terminates at less than 
one-third from base ; the outer one commences slightly below the 
extreme apex and terminates at less than two-thirds from base ; 
a minute discoidal spot and a second similar spot near the inner 
angle of the cell ; a row of minute dots precedes the somewhat 
yellowish subterminal line. Hindwing cream-coloured with a row 
of marginal dots. Underside of forewing dusky. 

Expanse 22 millim. 

Taken in May at Tabaquite (F. W. Urich). 
Range. Panama. 

Dagassa jarruana, Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 66 

(1879). 

Range. Amazons. 

Tabaquite ; also in National Collection ( W. J. Kaye). 

Orsa perusta, n. sp. (Plate V, fig. 22.) 

Forewing very dark black-brown ; the first line and the elbowed 
line form the margins of an even darker fascia ; immediately within 
the first line is a small inconspicuous dark ring ; the large discoidal 
blotch is ochreous-brown and is present in some individuals only ; 
beyond the elbowed line is a very indistinct slatish coloured serrated 
line ; in the marginal portion of the wing are some varying patches 



130 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

of dark ochreous-brown. Hind wing as forewing with only a trace of 
a first line. 

Expanse 30 millim. 

Types in National Collection. 

Range. Amazons. 

Oesa multusta, n. sp. (Plate V, fig. 1C.) 

Forewing ochreous-yellow finely dusted with reddish scales 
especially over the basal half ; discoidal blotch slightly darker than 
rest of wing ; there is a trace of a subterminal line indicated by 
three or four black dots, those between veins 4, 5 ; 5, 6, and 6, 7 
are most distinct ; there is also a row of well-defined subterminal 
dots. 

Expanse 33 millim. 

At Tabaquite in May (F. W. Urich). 

Orsa tenuata, n. s.p. (Plate VI, fig. 26.) 

Forewing very pale yellowish-brown with the markings darker ; 
a pale well-defined fascia traverses the wing and includes the darker- 
coloured yellowish-brown discoidal spot, which appears somewhat 
rectangular ; the outer line that borders the fascia very much 
serrated and partly duplicated in the upper portion ; towards the 
inner margin there is a patch of darker colour ; in the marginal 
portion of the wing are some scattered darker markings, but not 
sufficient to suffuse the ground colour of wing. Hind wing similar 
to forewing. 

Expanse 21 millim. 

Type in National Collection from Trinidad. 

Capnodes concinnula, Wlk., xxxiii, 1074 (1865). 
Capnodes distacta, Hmpsn., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1898, p. 
254, pi. 17, f. 19. 

Range. Dominica; Gkenada; Brazil, Rio Janeiro. 

In the National Collection. 

Capnodes l amid a, Druce, Biol. Cent. Amer. Het., i, p. 399, 
pi. xxxiii, f. 10. 

Range. Guatemala; Panama; Ecuador. 

In coil. Druce. 



Lepidoptera Heterocera of Trinidad. 131 

Massala sobria, Wlk., xxxiii, p. 1045. 
Range. Panama. 
In National Collection. 

HOMOPYRALIS PARVIQUADRATA, n. sp. (Plate V, fig. 13.) 

Fore wing deep black-brown with a violet tinge ; from base to 
two-thirds the length of costa ochreous-yellow ; a large brownish- 
black patch close to base commencing immediately below costal 
stripe and terminating on inner margin ; at less than two-thirds 
from base is another elongated rectangular dark patch commencing 
just before the termination of the costal stripe ; following this are 
four or five distinct white dots. Hindwing dull dark brown ; at the 
anal angle are two dark and one pale short yellowish lines. 

Expanse 19 millim. 

At Tabaquite in June ( W. J. Kaye). 

Homopyralis dotata, Wlk., xiii, p. 1067. 
Range. Panama; Brazil. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Yrias ypsilon, Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc. (1879), p. 64. 
Range. Amazons. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Macrodes gyges, Cram., pi. 102, fig. B. 
Range. Venezuela. 
In National Collection. 

Macrodes cynara, Cram., pi. 15, figs. C and D. 
Range. Jamaica; Brazil. 
In National Collection. 

Macrodes columbalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyr., p. 14. 
Range. Venezuela; Brazil. 
Verdant Vale (S. Kaye). 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART II. (JULY) 10 



132 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

Subfamily DELTOIDIN^. 

Renia mleka, Druce, Biol. Centr. Am. Het., i, p. 448, pi. 
xxxvi, f. 22, 23. 

Range. Panama. 

Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye) ; also in National Collection. 

Renia discoloralis, Guen., Delt. and Pyr., p. 82. 
Range. U. S. A. 
Tabaquite {W. J. Kaye). 

Renia sobrialis, Wlk., xvi, p. 228. 
Range. U. S. A. ; Nova Scotia. 
Tabaquite (W. J. Kaye). 

Megatomis antonia, Druce, Biol. Centr. Am. Het., i, p. 468. 
Range. Mexico. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Megatomis cyanolepia, n. sp. (Plate V, fig. 19.) 

Forewing dark brown with a slight purplish tinge ; a white dot 
at base and another smaller bluish-white dot lying wholly within 
the cell ; a post-median slightly darker almost straight line with 
a few bluish scales near the inner margin ; discoidal mark 
reniform in outline and margined with bluish scales ; marginal 
area of wing slightly paler. Hindwing unicolorous dull blackish- 
brown. Collar ochreous ; patagia purplish-brown. Abdomen, 1st 
segment with yellowish hairs ; 2nd segment with a dark chocolate 
patch above with a few blue scales. 

Expanse 30 millim. 

From Verdant Vale (S. Kaye). 

Atopomorpha singularis, Warren, Trans. Ent. Soc. 
Lond., 1889, p. 253. 

Range. Amazon. 

Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 



Lepidoptera Hetevocera of Trinidad. 133 

Megachyta priassalis, Wlk., xvi, p. 123. 

Range. Grenada; St. Lucia; Dominica; St. Vincent; 
Panama. 

Tabaquite ( W. J. Kayc). 

Hipcepa bogusalis, Wlk., xix, p. 863. 
Range. Brazil. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Bibacta griseirena, Hmpsn., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1898, p. 255. 

Range. West Indies; Panama. 

Tabaquite {W. J. Kaye). 

Hydrillodes totafusca, sp. n. (Plate V, fig. 4.) 

Forewing unicolorous dull blackish -brown ; ante-medial and post- 
medial lines dull fawn colour the latter much serrated ; a row of 
inconspicuous marginal black dots ; cilia unicolorous with wing. 
Hindwing of the same colour as forewing without any markings, 
the veins show through rather prominently. On the underside 
the forewing is considerably lighter the ante-medial line clearly trace- 
able and the post-medial conspicuous only on costa where there is a 
considerable yellowish spot ; about the costal area is a sprinkling of 
greyish scales. The hindwing on the underside is paler with greyish 
scales all over ; a conspicuous brown discoidal spot and two ill- 
defined brownish fasciae beyond the middle of the same colour. 
Head, palpi, thorax and abdomen unicolorous dull brown above 
and below. 

Expanse 28 millim. 

In National Collection (J. H. Hart). 
Zanclognatha bipunctata, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 1.) 

Forewing dirty greyish-brown with faintly darker markings ; 
discoidal spot distinct, black with a minute black dot just above 
it ; a subterminal line can be discerned as a series of faint greyish 
dots ; the margin with a row of black dots which are most con- 
spicuous about the centre and least so near tornus. Hindwing 
slightly darker than forewing with a broad rather paler marginal 
band ; some marginal dots just traceable as triangular marks. On 



134 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

the underside the forewing is slightly paler, the discoidal spot dis- 
cernible, the minute dots invisible. Hindwing considerably paler 
with two post-medial brownish strongly scalloped fascise, within 
the outer fascia lies a whitish scalloped line ; discoidal spot just 
traceable. Thorax and abdomen above unicolorous with wings. 
Expanse 35 millim. 

Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Bleptina thersalis, Wlk., xvi, p. 243. 
Range. West Indies ; Venezuela. 
In National Collection. 

Tortricodes ambigualis, Wlk., xxxiv, p. 119S. 
Range. North America. 
Tabaquite {W. J. Kaye). 

Tortricodes leucorabdota, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 3.) 

Forewing leaden-coloured tinged with greyish-brown with two 
straight well-defined whitish bands across the wing, the first ante- 
medial and the second post-medial, the space between them slightly 
darker than the rest of wing ; about midway between the post- 
medial line and the outer margin is a row of small yellowish dots. 
Hindwing from the base to beyond the cell with a broad white band 
running obliquely across the wing ; the dark discoidal spot shows 
faintly through from the underside where it is conspicuous ; the 
broad margins of the same colour as the marginal portion of the 
forewing. 

Expanse 23 millim. 

Taken in June at Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Hypena obditalis, Wlk., xvi, p. 48. 

Range. Honduras; Amazons; Grenada. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Paramimetica phtisialis, Guen., Delt. and Pyr., p. 87. 
Range. St. Domingo ; Brazil. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 



Lepidoptera Heterocefa of Trinidad. 135 

Paramimetica fuscireticulata, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 5.) 

Forewing brown, much netted with paler yellowish-brown ; first 
line straight, well-defined and oblique ; elbowed line reaching 
its greatest bend at vein 6 ; orbicular stigma round, distinct and 
margined with paler ; reniform stigma large, distinct and touching 
orbicular ; subterminal line slender very much indented ; marginal 
spots darker brown, elongated and hardly separately detached. 
Hindwing similar to forewing ; discoidal stigma slightly larger 
than that in forewing and very distinct ; cilia brown, scalloped, 
within the scallops greyish. 

Expanse 23 millim. 

At Tabaquite in June ( W. J. Kaye). 



Physula novitata, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 8.) 

Forewing ochre-yellow ; first line much curved and composed 
of a number of dots; medial line angled before middle ; discoidal 
spot elongated, black and almost touching the medial line at the 
angle ; third line distinct, much angled at veins 4 and 2 ; marginal 
area darker, darkest before middle and at tornus. Hindwing alto- 
gether darker, with two transverse lines, the first of which starts 
from the discoidal spot, which is fairly distinct, and almost as dark 
as that in forewing ; costa dusky brown. 

Expanse 24 millim. 

In National Collection. 

Sandasa micrastigma, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 21.) 

Forewing greyish-brown shaded with purplish towards the 
margins ; first line slightly angulated, dark brown, distinct. 
Medial fascia slightly darker than ground colour, sharply angled 
just above the dark conspicuous discoidal spot which lies wholly 
within the fascia ; at the extreme apex of wing is a small dark 
dot which is sometimes wanting. Hindwing very similar to fore- 
wing with a conspicuous excision between veins 3 and 4 ; the 
discoidal spot lies on the inner edge of the medial stria and not 
within it as in the forewing. 

Expanse 14 millim. 

Range, Panama. 

In June at Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). The co-type from 
Panama is in the National Collection. 



136 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

Mastigophora lysizona, Druce, Biol. Cent. Am. Het., i, 
p. 441. 

Range. Brazil, Thersapolis. 

Tabaquite (W. J. Kaye). 

Palthis bizialis, Wlk., xix, p. 865. 
Range. Grenada. 
In National Collection. 

Family HYPSID^. 

Laurona leucopelea, Wlk., Cat. Het., ii, p. 334. 
Range. Venezuela; Brazil. 
In National Collection. 

Hyalurga fenestrata, Wlk., Cat. Het,, iv, p. 916. 
Range. Brazil, Rio. 
In National Collection (Broadway). 

Phaloe lorzae, Boisd., Lep. Guat., p. 90 (1870). 
Range. Venezuela. 
In National Collection (Caraeciolo). 

Pericopis aglaura, Cram., Pap. Exot, iii, i, 26, pi. 263, 
f. F. 

Range. Venezuela. 
(W.J. Kaye.) 

Family NOTODONTID^E. 

Apela divisa, Wlk., Cat. Het., v, p. 1092 (1855). 
Range. Ignotus. 

Verdant Vale (S. Kaye) ; Tabaquite (F. W. Urich). 

Hampson has included this in his Moths of India, vol. i, 
p. 168, Walker having given N. India as the locality for 
the species. 



Lepidoptcra Heterocera of Trinidad. 137 

Hemiceras modesta, Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1878, 
p. 69. 
Range. Costa Rica ; Amazons. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Nystalea nyeus, Cram., Pap. Exot., i, t. 75, E (1775). 
Range. Surinam ; Panama ; Lesser Antilles. 

VerdaDt Vale (S. Kaye). 

Nystalea calophasioides, n. sp. (Plate V, fig. 2.) 

Fore wing short, variously dashed with brown and dull red, the basal 
area palest ; a marginal band occupies about one-sixth of the wing, 
interiorly it is reddish and forms two curves remote from base, 
marginally it is dull brown becoming paler towards the tornus 
where there are some pale indistinct wavy lines running upwards ; 
in the lower curve of the band two dark wedge-shaped marks arise 
and run inwards, the lower one being much the larger ; on the 
extreme margin is a much waved line ; the inner margin of the 
wing except at the base is uniform brown ; the cross vein of the 
discoidal cell is clothed with whitish scales which have a raised 
appearance. Hindwing dull brown of the same colour as the inner 
margin to forewing ; the medial portion paler. 

Expanse 33 millim. 

In National Collection (J. H. Hart). 

Hapigia orliqua, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., p. 766. 

Range. Ignotus. 

Verdant Vale (S. Kaye). 

The remarks under Apela divisa apply also to this species. 

Hapigia ribbei, Druce., Biol. Cent. Am. Het., i, p. 244, 
PI. 25, f. 8. 

Range. Mexico; Panama; Amazons. 

Verdant Vale (JS, Kaye). 

Heterocampa epona, Scbaus., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., May 
1892, p. 335. 

Range. Peru. 

In Coll. Scbaus. ( W. E. Broadway), 



138 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

Rosema deolis, Walk., v, p. 1170 (1855). 
Range. Central America; Brazil. 
Verdant Vale (S. Kaye). 

Family SPHINGID^E. 

Subfamily AMBULICINAE. 

Ambulyx strigilis, Linn., Mant. Plant., p. 538 (1771). 
Range. South America ; West Indies. 
Botanical Gardens {J. H. Hart). 

Subfamily CHCEROC AMPIN AV. 

Chcerocampa tyndarus, Boisd., Hist. Nat., p. 264, t. 4, 

f. 5 (1875). 

Range. Venezuela; Mexico. 

In National Collection (Gapt. Clark). 

Chozrocampa neoptolemus, Cram., Pap. Exot.. iv, PL 
301, f. F. 

Range. Central America ; Venezuela ; Brazil. 

Botanical Gardens ( W. E. Broadivay). 

Chcerocamfa tersa, Linn., Mant. Plant., p. 538 (1771). 

Range. Central America ; West Indies ; Brazil. 

(0. W. Mlacombe.) 

Anceryx scyron, Stoll., Pap. Exot., iv, PI. 301, E. 

(Plate V, fig. 12.) 

Forewing burnt-brown with somewhat of a greyish tinge ; be- 
tween veins 1, 2 ; 2, 3 ; and 3, 4 are blackish streaks situated well 
within the wing and not extending to the outer margin ; the veins 
towards the margin are rendered conspicuous with greyish scales ; 
between veins 4 and 6 the ground colour of the wing is less irrorated, 
becoming more so again towards the margin. Hindwing clear 
yellow with a narrow black border which stops short of the tornus ; 
cilia with some white spots at the extremities of the nervures. Patagia 



Lepidoptera Heterocera of Trinidad. 139 

warm brown with the margins finely edged with darker. Abdomen 
with the bases of the segments broadly grey, the upper portion 
almost black ; the first two segments with bunches of long hair on the 
central dorsal portion ; a broad brownish dorsal grey band extends 
to the anal segment ; on the underside creamy-white with some 
fine pinkish scales. 
Expanse 70 millim. 

Range. Venezuela ; Cayenne. 
Port of Spain (Caracciolo). 

Subfamily SPHINGINjE. 

Protoparce rustica, Fabr., Syst. Ent., p. 540, n. 15 

(1775). 

Range. Tropical and Sub-Tropical America. 
In Coll. Druce. 

Protoparce ochus, Klug., Neue Schmett., t. 3, f. 2 (1836). 
Range. Mexico; Honduras. 
Botanical Gardens (J. H. Hart). 

Protoparce paphus, Stoll., Pap. Exot,, iii, t. 216, B 

(1779). 

Range. Guiana; Brazil; Barbados. 
In Coll. Schaus. ( W. E. Broadway). 

Pseudosphinx tetrio, Linn., Mant. Plant,, p. 538 (1771). 
Range. Tropical America ; West Indies. 
St. Ann's Valley ( W. J. Kaye). 

Diludia florestan, Stoll., Pap. Exot., iv, t. 894, B (1782). 
Range. Brazil. 
Tabaquite(pr. J. Kaye). 

Dilophonota ello, Linn., Syst. Nat, i, p. 491, n. 11 

(1758). 

Range. Central and S. America. 
Botanical Gardens ( W. E. Broadway). 



140 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 
Subfamily MACB.OGLOSSINJE. 

Enyo gorgon, Cram., Pap. Exot., ii, t. 142, E. 
Range. Tropical and Sub-Tropical America. 
Botanical Gardens ( W. E. Broadway). 

Enyo lugubris, Linn., Mant. Plant., p. 537 (1771). 

Range. Tropical and Sub-Tropical America ; West 
Indies. 

Port of Spain ( TV. J. Kaye). 

Eupyrrhoglossum ceculus, Cram., Pap. Exot., ii, t. 14C, 

G (1777). 

Range. Central America ; Brazil. 
In Coll. Kaye (G. W. Mlacqmbe). 

^Ellopus Sisyphus, Burin., Sphing. Braz., p. 17 (1855). 
Range. Brazil. 
In Coll. Schaus. 



Family SATURNIAD^. 

Arseneura ERY r THRiN.E, Htibn., Verz. Schmett., 156 
(1632). 

Range. Guatemala; Brazil; Costa Rica; Vene- 
zuela. 

Verdant Vale (S. Kaye). 

Attacus hesperus, Linn., Syst. Nat., i, p. 495 (1758). 
Range. Brazil; Guatemala. 
Botanical Gardens (J. H. Hart). 

Attacus erycina, Shaw, Nat. Misc., vi, t. 230 (1797). 
Range. Brazil ; St. Vincent ; West Indies. 
In the National Collection. 



Lepidoptera Heterocera of Trinidad. 141 

Automeris IRENE, Cram., Pap. Exot., iii, t. 249. 
Range. Columbia; Brazil. 
In the National Collection. 

Automeris erisichton, Boisd., Ann. Soc. Ent. Beige., 
xviii, p. 218 (1875). 
Range. Venezuela. 
Verdant Vale (S. Kaye). 

Note. — The two specimens from Trinidad have the first line 
extra-angulated near the costa and also more excurved near the 
inner margin. In view of the fact that there is only a single speci- 
men in the National Collection for comparison it seems undesirable 
to describe another species on account of this. 

Automeris oblonga, Wlk., vi, p. 1296 (1855). 
Range. Grenada ; West Indies ; Colombia. 
In the National Collection. 

Automeris janus, Cram., Pap. Exot., i, t. 64, A, B (1775). 
Range. Mexico; Honduras; Guatemala. 
In the National Collection. 

Molippa sabina, Wlk., Cat. Het., vi, p. 1345 (1855). 
Ra,nge. Mexico; Brazil. 
In the National Collection. 

Dirphia SPECIOSA, Cram., Pap. Exot., t. 107, B (1779). 
Range. British Guiana; Brazil. 
In the National Collection. 

Ormlscodes ^gis, Cram., Pap. Exot., i, t. 30, F. (1775). 
Range. Mexico ; Brazil. 
Verdant Vale (S. Kaye). 

Ormlscodes avia, Stoll., Pap. Exot., iv, pi. 307, A (1780). 
Range. Unknown. 
In the National Collection. 



142 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

Family CERATOCAMPID^. 

Citheronia mexicana, Grote and Rob., Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. York, viii, p. 382, t. 13, f. 1. 

Range. Mexico. 

Maraval Valley ( W. J. Kaye). 

The occurrence of this species is remarkable, there can 
hardly be a doubt as to its identity. 

Citheronia magnifica, Wlk., Cat. Het., vi, p. 1373 

(1855). 

Range. Brazil; Nicaragua; Mexico. 
In the National Collection. 

Family EUPTEROTIDiE. 

Apatelodes basifulva, n. sp. (Plate VI, rig. 17.) 

Forewing yellow, much dusted with fulvous ; first line and post- 
medial line darker, well defined, the post-medial much angulated at 
vein 5 ; discoidal spot distinct ; between the first line and base 
the portion is filled up with irrorated fulvons, and within the patch 
is , a faint indication of another line parallel with that forming the 
termination of the darker patch ; margins paler with a well-defined 
scalloped marking traversing the sub-marginal area of the wing ; 
immediately before the apex is a small darker patch extending 
down to vein 5. Hindwing paler yellow with medial line, darker 
near the discoidal cross vein, the two lines uniting at the lower 
angle of the cell. 

Taken in June ( W. J. Kaye). 

There is a co-type in National Collection. 

Tarchon cuprea, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 11.) 

Forewing shining coppery-brown ; between veins 6 and 7, close 
to margin of wing, is an elongated cream-coloured mark ; discoidal 
spot darker than ground colour and shaped somewhat triangularly ; 
a faint indication of a line runs beyond the middle from the costa to 
inner margin, in the <$ this is nearly straight from vein 4, but in 
the <j? is considerably less so ; from the costa to vein 4 in both 
sexes the line is indented. Hindwing of the same colour with a 



Zepidoptera Heterocera of Trinidad. 143 

slightly darker central band followed by a fairly distinct line which 
forms a continuation of the line of the forewing. 
Expanse 52-60 millim. 

Taken by J. H. Hart. 

There are six specimens in the National Collection 
from which the description is derived. 



Family GEOMETRID^E. 

Subfamily BOAUMIINJE. 

(Enothalia perrubra, n. sp. (Plate V, fig. 8.) 

Forewing deep rich mahogany-red with two somewhat lighter 
small patches between veins 1, 2 and 4, 5, immediately above which, 
situated on the vein itself, is a small yellow dot ; a similar dot is 
placed on vein 1 about midway from base ; the costa broadly pale 
cream-coloured much irrorated with black but the extreme tip is 
unspotted, the pale stripe stretches across the thorax and collar and 
is there also unspotted ; two not very decided streaks of purplish 
traverse the wing about the middle. Hind wing unicolorous with 
forewing ; a paler short streak runs up from the outer margin 
between veins 4 and 6 ; situated between veins 2, 3 and 3, 4 are 
respectively two small round black dots placed a short distance from 
the margin. 

Expanse 50 millim. 

From Verdant Vale (S. Kaye). 

Chrysocestis fimbriaria, Cram., Pap. Exot., iv, 112, 
pi. 348, f. C. 

Range. Amazons ; Honduras; Columbia. 

(F. W. Urich.) 

Phrygionis privignaria, Guen., Uran. and Phal., i, p. 
401. 

Range. Honduras. 

In National Collection. 

Semiothisa transvisata, Guen., Uran and Phal., ii, p. 71. 
Range. Brazil; Panama. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye), also in National Collection. 



144 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

Semiothisa jemulataria, Wlk., xxiii, p. 884. 

Eange. Texas ; Flokida ; Washington State. 

In National Collection. 

The specimen is considerably worn. It is probable 
from the range of S. mmulataria that this is another 
species. 

Semiothisa limbularia, Htibn., Zutr., p. 179, 180. 
Range. Jamaica. 
In National Collection. 

Semiothisa arenisca, Dogn., Ann. Soc. Ent., Belgique, 
torn, xiv, 1896, p. 145. 

Range. Ecuador. 

Arima (S. Kaye). 

Flavinia osiris, Cram., Pap. Exot., ii, 28, pi. 115, f. E. 
Range. Venezuela. 
Maraval Valley (C. W. Ellacombe). 

Syrrhodia decrepitaria, Htibn., Samml. Exot. Schmett., 
ii, 29, 186 ff. 371, 372. 

Range. Brazil ; St. Domingo ; Honduras ; St. Vin- 
cent. 

( W. E. Broadway.) 

Drepanodes trogonaria, H. S. Auss. Sch., T. 94, f. 535. 
Range. Brazil. 
From Verdant Vale (S. Kaye). 

Parachoreutes subpurpurea, Warr., Nov. Zool., iv, p. 
417 (1897). 

Range, Rio Demerara; British Guiana. 

From Tabaquite (W. J. Kaye). 



Lepidoptera Heterocera of Trinidad. 145 

Patalene acuta, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 13.) 

Forewing rich ochreous, darker towards tornus and considerably 
irrorated with blackish ; an oblique slightly curved darker line 
commencing just before apex traverses the wing and terminates 
beyond the middle on the inner margin ; situated on this line are 
placed at intervals small elongated dots of greyish-white ; a large 
conspicuous blotch occupies the area at tornus ; there is a faint 
indication of a darker ante-medial line ; discoidal dot small, black ; 
hindwing similar to forewing, the pale dots on the transverse line 
less distinct than on forewing ; beyond the medial line the wing 
is much darker with more of a brownish tint similar in shade to 
tornus of forewing. Underside of both wings paler and darker 
towards the hind margins ; the transverse line on the forewing 
very distinct ; on the hindwing the line is almost obliterated. 

Expanse 43 millim. 

In National Collection, taken by Lady Broome. 



APICIA ALTERARIA, Guen., Uran. and Phal., i, p. 83. 
Range. Venezuela. 
From Verdant Vale (S. Kaye). 

Mucronodes minoa, Druce, Biol. Centr. Am. Het., ii, 

p. 47, t. 44, f. 17. 

Range. Panama. 
( W. J. Kaye.) 

Azelina exquisitata, Thierry-Mieg., Ann. Soc. Ent. 
France, 1894, p. 57. 

Range. Ecuador. 

From Arima (S. Kaye). 



Thysanopyga apicitruncaria, H. S. Auss. Schmett., 
f. 536. 

Range. Uruguay ; Panama ; St. Domingo ; Vene- 
zuela. 

From Tabaquite (W. J. Kaye). 



146 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

Thysanopyga nicetaria, Guen., Uran. and PhaL, ii, 
p. 107. 

Range. Haiti. 

From Arima (S. Kaye). 

Biston oppositaria, Wlk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxi, p. 361. 
Range. Venezuela. 
From Verdant Vale (S. Kaye). 

Gazena hypomelas, n. sp. (PI. VI, fig. 18.) 

Forewing greenish-grey strongly irrorated with blackish and 
having the appearance of lichen ; an ante-medial darker fascia tinged 
with pinkish towards the inner margin and bordered by a fairly 
distinct black line which is strongly elbowed within the cell ; a 
second similar fascia without any pinkish coloration commences on 
costa equidistant from base and apex and after curving out beyond 
the cell reaches the inner margin at half distance from base as on 
costa ; beyond is a dotted line almost following the curve of the 
fascia but rather more remote on costa ; radiating from these dots 
are some blotches of pink ; on the margin there is a distinct row of 
black dots ; discoid al spot blackish. Hind wing similar in coloration 
and markings to forewing but without any trace of markings ; 
discoidal spot very distinct, black. 

Expanse 35 milJim. 

From Verdant Vale (S. Kaye). 

Melanchroia expositata, Wlk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxv, 
p. 1461. 
Range. Tropical America; West Indies. 
Botanical Gardens (J. IT. Hart). 

Subfamily ACIDALIAN&. 

Jorrhcea pyraustaria, Guen., PhaL, i, p. 429 (1857). 
Range. Brazil ; St. Vincent (W.I.). 
{W. J. Kaye; F. W. Urich.) 

Hyria deportaria, Wlk., xxii, p. 673. 
Range. Venezuela. 
(F. W. Urich) 



Lepidoptera Reterocera of Trinidad. 147 

Apicia alteraria, Guen., Uran. and PhaL, i, p. 83. 
Range, Cayene. 
Verdant Vale {S. Kayc). 

Subfamily GEOMETRINM. 

Chlopjnthia pulcherrima, Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1881, 
p. 342. 
Range. Amazon. 
Verdant Vale (S. Kayc). 

• 
Gelasma hyperythraria, Guen., Uran. and PhaL, i, p. 
386. 
Range. Brazil. 
Tabaquite (F. W. Urich). 

OEnospila tenuilinea, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 16.) 

Forewing rather dull grass-green ; a whitish slightly curved basal 
line and a very greatly festooned post-medial whitish line, the 
apices of the festoons prominently white ; discoidal spot blackish ; 
cilia yellowish -white barred with pale brownish but not con- 
spicuously so ; the extreme edge of the costa satiny-white. Hind- 
wing as forewing but the discoidal spot much less conspicuous. 
Antennae with the shaft white. 

Expanse 34 millim. 

From Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Dichorda uricha, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 6.) 

Forewing unicolorous pea-green. Hindwing at the extreme base 
green, followed by a broad area of lemon-yellow which runs up 
into the end of the cell ; lying wholly within the cell is a very small 
reddish -brown blotch ; bordering the irregularly shaped yellow patch 
the colour is a dull purplish-red and rather suffused ; an irregular 
somewhat cross-shaped patch of yellow is situated beyond the cross 
vein of the cell ; the broad marginal portion of the wing green as 
in the forewing; fringes to both wings pale greenish without any 
spots whatever. 

Expanse 20 millim. 

Tabaquite (F. W. Urich). 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART II. (JULY) 11 



148 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

Racheospila SIGILLARIA, Guen., Uran. and Phal., i, 
p. 375. 
Range. Dominica; Brazil. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Racheospila expulsata, Wlk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxii, 
p. 566. 
Range. Amazon. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Racheospila undulosa, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 23.) 

Fore wing very delicate pale green ; costa white ; very slender 
much waved ante- and post-medial indistinct white lines ; discoidal 
spot a minute black dot. Hindwing precisely as forewing ; cilia 
to both wings white, preceded by a very slender reddish line. 
Abdomen with four or five distinct white patches. 

Expanse 17 millim. 

•Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Heterephyra subrubra, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 19.) 

Forewing brick-red, sometimes with a brownish tinge, with the 
transverse lines darker ; the basal line slightly waved ; the medial 
line strongly angulated at vein 2 ; the space between these two 
lines slightly darker; the post-medial line very much waved, the 
wing beyond this being again darker ; lying within this latter space 
are several indistinct whitish dots edged internally with obscure 
blackish ; discoidal spots white edged internally with black ; the 
underside much paler with only the post-medial line showing. 
Hindwing above similar to forewing ; the discoidal spot wholly 
black and lying either within, without, or on a feebly defined 
blackish line ; the post-medial line much indented near anal angle, 
and also in a less degree nearer costa, but very variable. 

Expanse 28 millim. 

From Tabaquite {W. J. Kaye). 

Subfamily LARENTIANjE. 
Psaliodes ACIDALIOIDES, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 9.) 

Forewing brownish cream-coloured; very near the base is a black 
line most conspicuous on the costa ; a broad blackish fascia strongly 



Lepidoptera Heterocera of Trinidad. 149 

angulatecl at the origin of vein 4 internally, and rather less so 
externally on vein 6 ; between the costa and these two points the 
band is much the widest and best defined ; discoidal dot black ; a 
dark cream patch on the costa beyond the fascia ; some dark blackish 
suffusion towards outer margin. Hind wing similar ; a broad basal 
fascia composed of several black-irrorated lines ; no dusky suffusion 
on margin. 

Expanse 15 millim. 

In National Collection (J. H. Hart). 
Gen. Arima, nov. 

Proboscis well developed; palpi porrect, the 3rd joint to well beyond 
frons, half as long as 2nd and naked ; 2nd joint clothed with stiff 
hair. Antennae simple, rather short, barely longer than half costa ; 
hind tibia? with short spurs. Abdomen in 9 not reaching beyond 
secondaries. Forewing with veins 3, 4 from angle of cell, vein 3 
almost straight ; vein 5 equidistant from 4 and 6 ; 8 and 9 and 10 
given off from 7 ; vein 5 extending into cell as a veinlet ; a slight 
fold in the wing between 4 and 5 ; a branch veinlet within the cell 
coincides with this fold at cross vein of cell. Hind wing, vein 2 from 
frds from base of cell ; 3 before end of cell ; 4 from angle ; 6 and 7 
on a long stalk ; 8 soon after leaving base anastomoses with 7 for 
a considerable distance. 

Arima isolata, sp. n. (Plate VI, fig. 25.) 

Forewing lightish olive-green with black markings ; four toler- 
ably well-defined lines traverse the wing ; the basal line consider- 
ably angled in middle ; second line composed of a costal patch, a 
somewhat elongated mark lying within the cell and an ill-defined 
patch on the inner margin ; situated between this line and the post- 
medial line on the costa is a well-defined black mark ; the post-medial 
line, clearly defined on costa, very slender, composed of dark dots to 
vein 2 and thence to inner margin with an irregular patch of black ; 
a fourth line commences with three distinct spots and then by an 
indefinite number of marks is continued to the inner margin ; dis- 
coidal spot black, elongated. Hindwing orange-yellow with a rather 
narrow grey marginal band, the orange colouring continued to 
margin between veins 3 and 4. Underside of both wings orange; a 
large blackish patch at apex of forewing. 

Expanse 30 millim. 

From Verdant Vale (S. Kaye). 



150 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

Subfamily (ENOCHROMIN^E. 

EPHIA.LTIAS tryma, Schaus., Jour. N.Y. Ent. Soc., iv, p. 154. 
Range. Amazons. 
Maraval Valley (C. W. Mlacomhe). 

Mecoceras nitocris, Cram., Pap. Exot., iii, 148, pi. 275, 
f. A. 

Range. Brazil ; Venezuela ; Central America. 

In National Collection {Lady Broome) ; Verdant Vale 
(S. Kaye) ; Taba quite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Phellinodes rubedinaria, Wlk., xxv, p. 1464. 
Range. Honduras. 
Verdant Vale (S. Kaye). 

Family URANIADiE. 

Subfamily EPICOPEIANJE. ' . 

Mania (S^ematura) empedoclaria, Htibn., Verz. Schmett., 
290, 2814. 

Range. Brazil. 

Maraval Valley (G. W. Mlacomhe). 

Mania (S^matura) action, Feld., Taf., cxxi, f. 5. 
Range. Honduras. 
Maraval Valley {G. W. Mlacomhe). 

Subfamily EPIPLEMIKJE. 

Schidax SQUAMMARIA, Hubn., Zutr., pp. 161, 162. 

Range. Brazil. 

In National Collection ( W. E. Broadway), and in Schaus 
Collection. 

Epiplema incolorata, Guen., Uran. and Phal, ii, p. 37. 
Range. Honduras; Brazil; Ecuador. 
In National Collection. 



Zepidoptera Heterocera of Trinidad. 151 

Family PYRALID.E. 
Subfamily CRAMBINjE. 

Diatkcea saccharalis, Fabr., Eat. Syst., iii, 2, p. 238. 

Range. Colombia; Honduras; Brazil; Vene- 
zuela; U.S.A.; West Indies. 

Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Often introduced with Sugar Cane. 

Diatrcea canella, Hmps., A. M. N. EL, (6) xvi, p 349. 
Range. Brazil, Castro Parana; Grenada. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Platytes divisella, Wlk., xxxv, p. 1765. 
Range. Colombia ; Brazil, Sao Paulo. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Subfamily SCHiENOBIANJE. 

Scirpophaga albinella, Cram., Pap. Exot. ; pi. 372, f. D. 

Range. Guiana; Brazil, Amazons; Panama; 
Grenada. 

Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Subfamily PHYGITINM. 

Hypsipyla grandella, ZelL, Isis, 1848, p. 881. 
Range. Brazil, Rio Janeiro. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Subfamily CHRYSANGINjE. 

Salobrena excisana, Wlk., Cat. Het.,xxviii, p. 446. 
Range. Brazil, Ega ; Panama. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Carcha hersilialis, Wlk., Cat. Het., xvii, p. 282. 
Range. Honduras ; Panama ; St. Domingo. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 



152 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

MlCROZANCLA IGNITALIS, Hmps., P. Z. S. 1897, p. 668. 
Range. Brazil, Rio, Sao Paulo. 
Tabaquite (F. W. Urich). 

Caphys bilinea, Wlk., Cat. Hot., xxvii, p. 13. 

Range. Honduras ; Brazil, Amazons ; Grenada. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Bonchis scoparioides, Wlk., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., (3) i, 
p. 128. 

Range. Brazil. 

Galasa rubidana, Wlk., Cat. Het., xxxv, p. 1802. (Plate 
VI, fig. 24.) 

Range. U.S.A. ; Jamaica. 

Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Note. — The Trinidad insect may prove to be distinct from G. 
rubidana as the marginal spots to the forewing are yellow, while 
those in the above are black. 

Epitamyra bisectalis, Hmps., P.Z. S. 1897, p. 686. 
Range. Jamaica; St. Lucia. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Chrysauge flavelata. Cram., Pap. Exot., iv, pi. 348, p. 
112. 

Range. Venezuela ; Brazil, Para. 

Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Subfamily PYRALIN^E. 

Pyralis nigrapuncta, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 15.) 

Forewing dull reddish -chocolate; first line blackish edged with 
yellowish ; medial line absent ; post-medial line blackish edged 
witli yellowish ; the first and post-medial lines bound a broad 
fascia which, occupies fully half the wing area ; discoidal spot 
distinct, black ; marginal portion of wing deeper coloured ; cilia 
yellow. Hindwing same colour as outer marginal portion of fore- 
wing ; cilia yellow. 

Expanse 17 millim. 

In June at Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 



Lepidoptem Heterocera of Trinidad. 153 

Mapeta xanthomelas, Wlk., Cat. Het., xxvii, p. 17. 
Range. Colombia; Venezuela; Jamaica. 
Verdant Vale (S. Kaye); Tabaquite [W. J. Kaye). 

Aulacodes psyllalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyr., p. 258. 

Range. Grenada. 

Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye) ; Botanical Gardens ( W. E. 
Bvoadivay). 

DlATHRAUSTA NERINAL1S, Wlk., Cat. Het., xix, p. 928. 
Range. West Indies; Panama; Ecuador. 
In National Collection. 

Stenia saponalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyr., p. 243. 
Range. Panama. 
In National Collection (F. W. Urich). 

Subfamily PYRAUSTINjE. 

Neurophyseta calla, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 14.) 

Forewing yellow and orange ; first line slightly curved ; second 
line absent ; third line much curved ; these ante-medial and post- 
medial lines form the limitations of an obscure fascia ; immediately 
preceding apex and at tornus are darker patches of orange. Hind- 
wing similarly coloured to forewing ; a large tuft of loose long 
scales situated at the base. Head and thorax white. 

Expanse 13 millim. 

Taken at Tabaquite in June ( W. J. Kaye). 

Desmia tages, Cram., Pap. Exot., ii, p. 2, pi. 97, f. D. 
Range. St. Domingo ; Cuba ; Brazil, Ega. 
At Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Leucochroma melusinalis, Wlk., xviii, p. 492. 
Range. Venezuela. 
At Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 



154 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

Syngamia rubrocinctalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyr., p. 199. 
Range. Panama ; Honduras. 
At Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Syngamia cassidalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyr., p. 199. 
Range. West Indies ; Brazil. 
In National Collection. 

Syngamia tytiusalis, Walk., xviii, p. 605. 

Range. Honduras ; Panama ; Brazil, S. Paulo ; 
Dominica. 

At Tabaquite {W. J. Kaye). 

Samea ecclesialis, Guen., Delt. and Pyr., p. 194, pi. 6, f. 7. 

Range. Brazil, Amazon ; Venezuela ; Honduras ; 
Ecuador ; Grenada. 

At Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

PlLOCROCIS PLUMBILINEA, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 4.) 

Forewing dull ochreous-brown ; ante-medial line strongly curved ; 
medial line, present only near inner margin the upper portion 
being replaced by the discoidal spot which is V-shaped and dark 
brown ; post-medial line much indented, especially towards 
costa. Hind wing slightly paler than fore wing ; an ante-medial line, 
hardly traceable on costa, is terminated on inner margin by a con- 
spicuous patch ; a minute black dot within the cell ; margins of 
both wings with marginal dots. 

Expanse 27 millims. 

At Tabaquite in June, several specimens (W. J. Kaye). 

PlLOCROCIS DRYALIS, Wlk., xviii, p. 573. 
Range. Jamaica ; St. Domingo ; Grenada ; Mexico. 
At Tabaquite. {W. J. Kaye). 

PlLOCROCIS liber alis, Guen., Delt. and Pyr., p. 350. 
Range. Panama ; Brazil. 

At Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 



L&pido2)tera Hetcrocera of Trinidad. 155 

Pilockocis infuscalls, Gueii., Delt. and Pyr., p. 350. 

Range. St. Domingo ; Colombia ; Brazil. 

Botanical Gardens ( W. E. Broadway) ; Tabaquite ( W. J. 
Kaye). 

Conchylodes platinalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyr., p. 282. 

Range. Brazil, Para ; Venezuela. 

Botanical Gardens ( W. E. Broadway) ; Tabaquite ( W. J. 
Kaye). 

Phryg anodes prolongalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyr., p. 353. 
Range. St. Domingo ; Jamaica ; Brazil ; Grenada. 
Verdant Vale (S. Kaye). 

Mesocondyla concordalis, Htib., Ztttr., vi, 3, 13, 1 ff. 
1-4. 
Range. Brazil ; West Indies. 
In National Collection (E. W. Urich). 

Nacoleia lacertalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyr., p. 244. 
Range. Brazil, Esperitu Santo. 
At Tabaquite {F. W. Urich). 

Sylepta amando, Cram., Pap. Exot., iii, p. 92, pi. 247, 
f. E. 
Range. Venezuela ; Brazil, Amazons. 
At Tabaquite (W. J. Kaye). 

Sylepta flavipennis, n. sp. (Plate V, fig. 7.) 

Forewing light orange-yellow ; a black spot near base on costa ; 
first line commencing as a similar black spot and then continued 
of a brownish colour ; discoidal spot almost black, triangularly 
shaped ; the post-medial line unicolorous throughout its length and 
terminating at vein 2 ; from vein 2, much more, remote from outer 
margin, is a short line of the same colour that runs down to inner 
margin. Hindwing of the same colour of forewing. Forelegs white 
ringed with black below femur. 

Expanse 31 millim. 

From Tabaquite (F. W. Urich). 



156 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue of the 

Sylepta matutinalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyr., p. 195. 
Range. St. Vincent ; Beazil, Amazons. 
At Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Lygropia bipunctalis, Hmpsn., A.M.N.H. (6), xvi, p. 334. 
Range. 
Botanical Gardens {W. E. Broadway). 

Leiopasia dorsalis, Hmpsn., P. Z. S., 1899, p. 216. 
(Plate VI, fig. 2.) 

Range. Grenada, W. I. 

At Tabaquite (F. W. Urich). 

Glyphodes lucidalis, Hiibn., Verz., p. 359. 
Range. Grenada ; St. Vincent ; Cuba ; Brazil. 
( W. E. Broadivay.) 

Glyphodes translucidalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyr., p. 299. 
Range. Brazil, Rio Janeiro. 
( W. E. Broadivay) 

Leucinodes elegantalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyr., p. 222, 
pi. 3, f. 1. 

Range. Brazil, Rio, Obydos, St. Paulo. 

In May at Tabaquite (F. W. Urich). 

Pachyzancla distincta, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 20.) 

Forewing very pale yellow ; costa dark brown ; outer margin 
lighter brown ; the transverse lines of the same colour ; first line 
angulated just below cell and immediately followed by a small spot 
of the same colour- close to the costa ; discoidal spot large and 
distinct, darker brown ; medial line present only beyond vein 2 and 
thence to the inner margin ; third line terminates at vein 2. Hind- 
wing same colour as forewing ; discoidal spot lightish brown ; a 
line commences about half-way from origin of vein 2 and runs to 
anal angle and another line from costa to near vein 2, but much 



Lepido'ptera Ileterocera of Trinidad. 157 

nearer to margin, of the same colour as the line of forewing. On the 
2nd segment of abdomen is a pair of conspicuous black spots. 
Expanse 20 millim. 

From Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

PlONEA EUPALUSALIS, Wlk., xviii, p. 605. 
Range. Venezuela ; Grenada. 
(W. E. Broadway; W. J. Kaye.) 

PlONEA vinotinctalis, Hmpsn., A.M.N.H. (6) xvi, p. 340. 
Range. Grenada. 
Botanical Gardens ( W. E. Broadivay). 

PlONEA taeniolalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyr., p. 172. 
Range. West Indies ; Brazil. 
In National Collection. 

Pyrausta falcatalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyr., p. 167. 

Range. North and South America ; China ; Western 
India ; West Africa. 

In the National Collection. 

Family PEKOPHORID^. 
Perophora magnapuncta, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 10.) 

Forewing pinkish-ochreous, with a strong oblique greyish black 
streak running up from the inner margin about the middle to vein 7 
where it is strongly angled and then slightly curved to costa ; dis- 
coidal blotch of the same colour very large almost touching the 
oblique streak ; there is an indication of an ante-medial line present 
as a faint mark on the costa and again below the cell between veins 
1 and 2 as a curved lunular mark ; on the inner margin is a small 
triangular mark. Hindwing similarly coloured to forewing ; an ante- 
medial streak forming a continuation of that on the forewing, 
slightly waved ; between this and base of wing the ground colour is 
slightly paler and more yellowish. Thorax and abdomen unicolorous 
with wings. The streak of the forewing on the underside is broken 
up into broad lunular-like marks between the nervures. 

Expanse 62 millim. 

At Tabaquite in June ( W. J. Kaye). 



158 Mr. W. J. Kaye's Preliminary Catalogue, etc. 
Family LIMACODIDiE. 

SlSYROSEA ALBIMARGINATA, sp. n. (Plate VI, fig. 22.) 

Fore wing whitish-grey ; the marginal band considerably paler 
than the rest of wing and occupying more than one-third of wing ; 
a row of marginal dots, very minute, blackish and inconspicuous ; 
the band is edged internally by a slender white line ; the inner 
portion of wing unicolorous dirty grey. Hindwing grey some- 
what intermediate in colour between the two shades present in the 
forewing. 

Expanse 19 millim. 

From Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 

Neomresia nesea, Stoll, Pap. Exot, iv, t. 305, C. (1781). 
Range. Brazil, Amazon. 
Verdant Vale (S. Kaye) ; also in National Collection. 

Semyra BELLA, H. S. Ausser. Schniett., i, f. 181 (1854). 
Range. Guatemala; Brazil. 
Verdant Vale (S. Kaye). 

Family MEGALOPYGID.E. 

Carama butleri, Baker, Trans. Ent, Soc. Lond., pp. 133- 
135, t. 6, f. 1-3 (1887). 

Range. South America. 

In the National Collection. 

Family CASTNIAD^. 
Castnia licus, Dru., 111. Ex. Ent., i, t. 16, ff. 1, 2 (1773). 
Range. Brazil; Ecuador. 
St. Ann's Valley (F. W. Uricli). 

Family SESIAML 
Sesia deceptura, Butl., A.M.N.H. (4) xiv, p. 409. 
Range. Amazons. 
Tabaquite ( W. J. Kaye). 



Explanation of Plate V. 



Fig. 1. Xylis bidens. 

2. Nystalea calophasioides. 

3. Aedia trinidadensis. 

4. Hydrillodes totafusca. 

5. Geliptera fuscilineata. 

6. Herminodes xanthipterygia. 

7. Sylepta flavipennis. 

8. (Enothalia perrubra. 

9. Cosmosoma rubriscapulx. 

10. Cosmosoma melathoracia. 

11. Eucereon hyalinzim. 

12. Anceryx scyron. 

13. Homopyralis parviquadrata. 

14. Drobeda subrufescens. 

15. Dystonia purpurata. 

16. ()rso. multusta. 

17. Phrygionis quadrilinea. 

18. Acantholipes incisura. 

19. Megatomis cyanolepia. 

20. Catamelas fusca-purpurea. 

21. Juncaria unicolorata. 

22. Orsa perusta. 



Explanation of Plate VI. 



Fig. 1. Zanclognatha bipunctata. 

2. Leiopasia dor salts. 

3. Tortricodes lencorabdota. 

4. Pilocrocis plumbilinea. 

5. Paramimetica fiiscireticidata. 

6. Dichorda uricha. 

7. Parvapenna sentalis. 

8. Phy sulci novitata. 

9. Psaliodes acidcdioides. 

10. Perophora magnapuncta. 

11. Tarchon cuprea. 

12. Barydia bicristata. 

13. Patalene acuta. 

14. Neiirophyseta calla. 

15. Pyralis nigrapuncta . 

16. (Enospila tenvAlinea. 

17. Apatelodes basifulva. 

18. Gazena hypomelas. 

19. Heterephyra subrubra. 

20. Pachyzancla distincta. 

21. Sandasa micrasticjma. 

22. Sisyrosea albimarginata. 

23. Bacheospila undulosa. 

24. Galasa rubidana. 

25. Arima isolata. 

26. Orsa tenuata. 



( 161 ) 



VII. Illustrations of the 6th $ ventral segment in 17 Osmia- 
species of the adunca- Group, witU a Note on the 
synonymy of four species, and descriptions of four 
which seem new. By the Rev. Francis David 
Morice, M.A., F.E.S. 

[Read December 5tli, 1900.] 

Plates VII and VIII. 

Having dissected numerous $ $ of Osmia, Pz., representing 
among them, I believe, 17 palsearctic species of the adunca- 
Group, I find that in all of them the hidden 6th ventral 
segment of the abdomen has a very elaborate and singular 
structure (reminding me a good deal of the 7th ventral in 
Golletes) — evidently highly specialised for some important 
(probably sexual ?) function. 

In each, the segment in question emits from its apex a 
distinct and conspicuous membranous appendage of some 
paradoxical form, which form differs so much in the various 
species that many can be distinguished by it at a glance. 

How far this structure is peculiar to or universal in the 
adunca-Grou]), I cannot yet say. But so far I have only 
found it there, and in one little " maniple " of species (one 
of which may be crenulata, Mor., and the others un- 
described) which, according to present ideas, would be 
grouped, but as I suspect not rightly, with papaveris. 
Neither papaveris itself nor its allies, cristata, saundersi, 
bisulca, etc., have any such appendage to the 6th ventral, 
and the character seems to me, fully as important as the 
form of the 7th dorsal, on which the groups of papaveris 
and adunca are at present separated. 

Unfortunately the segment cannot be viewed, without 
dissection of the specimen. But when extracted, its 
beautiful forms and most interesting structure amply repay 
the trouble of bringing it to light; and the characters 
presented by it in the various species are so clear and 
constant, that I think they well deserve an attention which 
has not yet been paid to them by the framers of specific 
diagnoses. In no Group of the Genus, perhaps, have 
describers been less successful in so characterizing their 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART II. (JULY) 



162 Rev. F. D. Morice on the 6th $ ventral segment 

species as not to mislead later students. Hence the 
synonymy of the Group has long been in great confusion, 
and in several cases that confusion seems to me to be rather 
increasing than diminishing, in spite of all attempts (even 
the most recent) to clear it up. 

As to the definition of the admica-Growp, the following 
diagnosis, founded mainly on the works of Schmiedeknecht 
and Ducke, represents, I believe pretty completely, the 
views on this subject now generally received, as far as $ 
characters are concerned. 

<$ . Corpus nigrum hand metallicum, fulvo vel pallido mediocriter 
pilosum. Abdominis segmenta dorsalia anteriora apicibus plus 
minusve pallido fimbriatis ; sextum lateribus dentatis sinuatisque ; 
septimum subquadrate productum. apice nee dilatato, nee spinoso, nee 
profunde emarginato. Segmenta ventralia quinque semper apparent, 
marginibus omnium fere simplicibus (nunquam profunde excisis nee 
acute productis), omnia mutica (tuberculis, etc. nullis) saepius tamen 
ante apicem transverse subcallosa. 

Clypeus productus margine apicali crenulato. Antennae nonnullis 
saltern articulis plerumque aliquo modo deformatis, vix unquam 
simpliciter cylindricis. 

To these characters — among which those of the ventral 
segments are perhaps the most important — I would pro- 
pose, on the strength of my recent investigation, to add 
the following — 

$ . Segmentum ventrale sextum quinto obtectum, magna parte et 
praesertim appendice conspicua apicali membranaceum ; septimum 
propter emarginaturam apicalem magnam bilobatum ; octavum parte 
apicali lata, emarginaturam septimi fere totam implente, lateribus 
paralletis, apice et in medio plerumque membranacea. Genitalia 
sagiltis latissimis, subfalcates ; stipitum parte apicali tenuissime 
elongata, subcylindrica — apicibus ipsis plerumque evidenter inflexis. 

For the 7th and 8th ventral segments, see Fig. 20 ; for 
the genitalia, Fig. 21. 

I believe that some of these latter characters should 
have at least as much weight as those given above in 
determining the true limits of the Group, if, as seems 
likely, it be a " good " one. 

It does not fall within the scope of this paper to deal 
with £ characters, but the universally pale scopa (white or 
grey) may be mentioned as among the most obvious. 



in 17 Osmia-spccies of the aduncn-Group- 163 

Before discussing the separate species, it may be worth 
while to describe in some detail the general structure of 
the 6th ventral segment in the achmca-Group and the 
general nature of the specific characters which occur in it. 
To draw it undamaged from its retirement under the 
5th ventral is not always easy. My own method is, after 
relaxing a specimen, to force apart with a dissecting-needle 
the 5th and 6th dorsal segments. Being rather firmly 
attached to the base of the latter, the 6th ventral generally 
comes out with it. It is then seen to be formed of several 
distinct layers superposed one upon another, some quite 
thin and hyaline, others more substantial and darker. 
Most of these at least do not extend to the base and apex 
of the segment, but occupy a part only of its full length. 
The actual base is pretty solid. It is deeply excised, 
accordingly bidentate — the two teeth are attached externally 
to the 6th dorsal by a membrane, which must be cut 
through carefully, if the segment is to be extracted entire. 
Beyond the basal excision begins the thickest and most 
substantial part of the segment. We see here, first, but 
(owing to their transparency) only in certain lights, two 
adjacent flakes of thin white membrane, attached only at 
their bases (the rounded apices being quite free) to the 
underlying layers of substance. Below these flakes, and 
partly at least projecting beyond them apically, is a much 
more solid transverse layer (or conglomerate of layers) 
divided longitudinally into two well-marked lobes — dark, 
punctured, and more or less pilose, especially towards their 
apices laterally. These I shall call in the following de- 
scriptions the " main lobes " of the segment. From between 
these lobes, at a rather lower level, originates the apical 
membranous appendage which I shall call the " process." 
It, also, usually assumes a somewhat bilobed form ; but in 
two species it is, instead, terminated by a single central 
(spine-like) prolongation. The base of the " process " 
rarely occupies the whole space between the converging 
margins of the " main lobes." More usually it has a con- 
stricted petiole-like base, from which the lobes of the bifid 
apex branch out more or less in the lateral direction, 
making the process as a whole roughly Y-shaped in some 
cases, T-shaped in others. The petiole of a Y-shaped 
process is mostly long and narrow, that of a T-shaped much 
more transverse (compare Fig. 7 with Fig. 11). Round 
these two types, the Y-shaped (ctementaria) , and the 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART II. (JULY) 12 



164 Rev. F. D. Morice on the 6th $ ventral segment 

T-shaped (niorawitzi), most of the " processes " I have 
figured seem to group themselves. And it will be found 
that with each type of process a corresponding type of 
main lobes is associated — the apical margins of the latter 
running somewhat parallel to the lobes of the process, 
so that with a " Y-shaped process " they converge very 
obliquely or diagonally, embracing a great triangular gap 
in which lies the process ; while with a " T-shaped pro- 
cess " they run nearly or quite transversely, there is no 
deep triangular gap, but the process stands out clearly 
and boldly beyond the lobes. Also in the latter case 
the lobes have sharp lateral corners, generally armed with 
an actual spine or tooth, though occasionally this is too 
much deflexed to be conspicuous in the ventral view of 
the segment. In segments of the c&mentaria type, on the 
contrary, the lobes are untoothed, their apices are rounded 
or subtruncate. (In such a case as Fig. 15 the process is 
no doubt somewhat Y-shaped, but I should class the 
segment as a whole under the other type, that otmorawitzi, 
because the petiole of the process is wider than it ever is 
in the cmmentaria type, the lobes of the process are, after 
all, more transversely divergent, the apical margins also of 
the main lobes running on the whole rather transversely 
than diagonally, and terminating in an acute angle armed 
with a distinct though deflexed tooth.) 

In the longitudinal sulcus, or narrow slit which separates 
the two main lobes, another tooth-like object usually shows 
itself, which, however, seems to be really only a pencil of 
excessively stout and spine-like hairs. This, in segments 
of the a&mentaria type, seems to be generally ill-developed 
or even absent. 

The pilosity of the main lobes may differ greatly even 
in closely related species (cf. Figs. 11 and 13). As to the 
process, its apical lobes are generally densely clothed 
externally with excessively fine hairs, varying in length 
and direction according to the species. Seldom (Figs. 2, 
3, 4) the process is practically naked. In one case (Fig. 
1) it is naked as a whole, but armed with two strong 
bristly pencils before the apex, quite unlike anything to be 
seen in any of the other species. 

A comparison of the characters presented by this 
segment in different species of the Group seems to me to 
furnish rather important evidence as to the precise degree 
of affinity in which certain of these probably stand to 



in 17 Osmia-species of the adunca-GVowj.?. 165 

others. Still I. do not mean that I would propose to classify 
the Group according to these characters only. 

We may now proceed to consider my Figures of this 
segment in the several species examined by me. In each 
case, after describing the segment, 1 shall say what I con- 
sider the species possessing it to be, and where necessary, 
shall give reasons for my belief, and mention other specific 
characters of the insects under consideration. 

I shall then add a separate note on the synonymy of four 
especially puzzling species, and lastly give Diagnoses of 
four other species of which I have been unable to find 
descriptions, so that I am obliged to treat them as " new." 

Fig. 1. The main lobes are rather angular laterally at 
the apex, but unspined ; their apical margins run only a 
little obliquely : the tooth-like hair pencil in the groove 
which separates them is conspicuous. 

The basal part of the process is not petiole-like, but very 
wide and almost rectangular. Before its apex are a pair 
(near together) of conspicuous tubercles each emitting a. 
strong pencil of erect long hairs. The apex itself run's out 
suddenly into a sort of long narrow spine, which laterally 
(Fig. ]a) is seen to be much deflexed. 

This species is, I believe, universally accepted as the 
true adicnca, Latr. 

It is characterized by its black calcaria, shining some- 
what naked dorsal segments, the form of its antennas, etc., 
and also in the $ (a character as yet, I believe, unnoticed), 
by the production of the last ventral segment at its apex 
into a triangular, somewhat reflexed, spine. 

I have examined specimens from all parts between 
Algeria and the Sea of Marmora, which completely agree 
in the characters given above, and with the descriptions of 
all authors consulted by me. 

Fig. 2. The main lobes have rounded apices and their 
margins run diagonally. Central hair pencil hardly 
developed, and pilosity altogether short and thin. 

The process is nearly triangular, with no tubercles or 
pencils as in adunca. Its apex is drawn out gradually into 
a spine ; first deflexed, then again reflexed and a little 
dilated (Fig. 2a). 

The specimens before me are some of those I took in 
Syria and Asia Minor in the spring of 1889, which have 
been described by Friese (Entom. Nachricht.) under the 
name lysholmi. 



166 Rev. F. D. Morice on the &h $ ventral segment 

Fig. 22 shows its moniliforin and almost clavate antenna, 
which would alone distinguish it from any other species of 
the group. 

Fig. 3. The apices of the main lobes are rather narrowly 
but not angularly truncated, their apical (rather straight) 
margins run more obliquely than in adnnca. Central hair 
pencil distinct. 

The arcuate apical margin of the process is incised in 
the centre (therefore bilobed). Between the lobes (before 
this incision) rises a strong double longitudinal carina, 
which laterally (Fig. 3a) shows as a procumbent compressed 
tooth. The base of the process is quite unconstricted, 
filling the whole space between the main lobes. 

This is a very fine large insect, like a colossal adunca 
(length fully 16 mm.). I took one specimen in Algeria, 
and Mr. Saunders has another, probably from the Ionian 
islands, taken long ago by Sir S. S. Saunders. It seems to 
be undescribed, and I propose to call it manicata. 

The antennae are formed much as in adttnca, but it has 
pale hind calcaria, the base of the median " area cordi- 
formis " with long clear striae, and the front tarsi very 
densely fimbriated with long white hairs (manicata). 

The metapleurae are more shining and less closely 
punctured than in adttnca. The apex of the 6th dorsal 
segment is very strongly crenate (even erosed) with a large 
central emargination. The 5th ventral is more shining, 
with a larger puncturation (sparser on the disk), its apical 
margin widely though gently sinuated inwards. 

Of the rlagellum, joints 3 — 5 are evidently wider than 
long, 6 — 8 quadrate, 9 — 11 longer than wide; 3 — 7 gibbose 
behind, 11 — 12 concave behind, convex in front (cf. Figs. 
23, 23a). 

The pilosity of the face, breast, and legs is whitish, 
the rest bright fulvous, as are also the apical fasciae of 
the abdominal dorsal segments. 

Fig. 4. The main lobes have rounded apices, their 
margins subarcuate and diagonally converging. The 
central hair-pencil conspicuous. 

The process is usually simple in form ; it is nearly 
hairless, its base unconstricted, its apical margin arcuate 
and hardly emarginate in the centre (scarcely bilobate). 
There is no definite tooth-like carina as in Fig. 3a, but a 
slight wide central (longitudinal) elevation before the apex. 
Perez has described this species as morawitzi, Gerst, and 



in 17 Osmia-species of the adunca- Group. 1G7 

his description is quoted in full by Schmiedeknecht. But 
it can hardly be the morawitzii of Ducke ; and I have 
reason to think that the true morawitzi, Gerst. (= loti 
Moraw.) is yet another species. 

See on these points the note appended at the end of 
this paper, and my figures of the antennae (<J) in the 
species there discussed. The latter I have drawn each 
in several points of view (1) from in front — the 'widest 
aspect ; (2) from above — the narroivest ; (3) from behind — 
to display as fully as possible the convexities of the 
separate joints. The present species is represented in 
Figs. 24, etc.* 

This insect — moraioitzi, Perez, as I shall call it for the 
present — I have taken freely in Algeria and occasionally 
in South France (never further east !). It frequents 
Echium, which loti (teste, Morawitz) does not. 

To the characters given by Perez the following may 
be added. 

Intermediate and hind femora in both sexes acutely 
spined at their apices (Fig. 19). The character is unusual, 
and striking (when not concealed by the tibia). <J Hind 
metatarsus unusually elongate, measuring quite 4 of the 
tibia (in adunca less than -f). ^ Last ventral segment 
produced at the apex as in adunca, but into a narrower 
spine, rather linear than triangular, and not (as in adunca) 
red but black. (I must own that I cannot follow Perez 
in his description of the last dorsal segment which seems 
to me less and not more impressed transversely than that 
of adunca.) 

The calcaria vary strangely in colour. They may be 
quite pale or almost as black as in adunca ! 

Fig. 5. Apices of the main lobes sharply angular, but 
a little deflexed which gives them a truncate look, their 
slightly convex margins run rather obliquely. 

The process has a distinctly constricted petiole-like base; 
at the apex it is divided by a triangular incision into two 
slightly pilose reniform lobes which widen gradually from 
apex to base. 

This is one of the " types " of Friese's pici taken by me 
in Syria, and described by him in Ent. Nachricht. As 

* Although I have taken extreme care in placing the antenna} as 
horizontally as possible, some joints are inevitably foreshortened 
differently in different aspects. So their comparative lengths cannot 
be reckoned with precision from these figures. 



168 Rev. F. D. Mo rice on the 6th $ ventral segment 

he has fully described its external characters, I will only 
add a figure of the antenna (Fig. 25) to show its curious 
dilatations and hook-like apex. 

Fig. 6. Main lobes rounded with rather widely truncated 
apices, and densely hairy (yet with hardly any definite 
central pencil). Their margins, as also those of the two 
next species, run very diagonally, embracing an almost 
equilaterally triangular space in which lies the basal 
portion of the process, nearly filling it. 

The process has a distinct narrow petiole, from which 
proceed two gradually widening pilose plume-like lobes, 
their outer margins running parallel to the sides of the 
triangular gap above mentioned, and almost touching 
them ; their inner margins are separated by a long narrow 
and linear gap till near the apex, where the lobes are 
rounded off and the gap between them widens. The 
greatest width of the lobes (a little before their apices) 
measures about § of their greatest length. 

The species is common in the Mediterranean regions : 
I have taken it in France, Italy, Switzerland, Austria 
and Algeria. Ducke calls it spinolm, Schenck. ; but as 
he does not consider it to be the spinolm of Lepelletier, 
and as it is generally admitted to be the ctementaria of 
Gerstsecker, under which name it has frequently been 
referred to by well-known writers, I prefer to follow 
Schmiedeknecht and call it emmentaria, Gerst. The insect 
being well known, I will here only mention that in the 
$ the apical ventral segment is not, as in adunca and 
moraivitzi, Perez, produced spinosely at the apex. 

Fig. 7. The main lobes differ from those of cmmcntciria 
in being hardly truncate but almost angled (roundly how- 
ever) at their apices. 

The process is very like that of emmentaona, but does 
not so nearly fill the triangular gap containing it. The 
lobes are much narrower (quite three times as long as 
broad), they spring from a longer petiole (which removes 
their inferior margins from the main lobes, while in 
csementaria these almost touch each other), they widen 
comparatively little towards their apices, so that the 
division between them is wider and more triangular, 
giving them the appearance of being more divergent. 

This species I take to be Zepclleticri, Perez. It com- 
pletely suits his description (5th ventral segment "trisinue," 
comparatively simple antennae, etc.). I have taken it 



in 17 Osmia-species of the adunca- 6rro?^. 169 

myself only in the Alps. It seems to be a decidedly near 
relation of mmentaria, though easily distinguishable from 
it. (It also has $ ventral apex, not spinose !) 

Fig. 8. Differs from Fig. 6 (c&mentaria) chiefly in the 
outline of the main lobes, which are more completely oval, 
their inner margins much more convex, which diminishes 
the triangular gap between them, and seems to thrust 
the process further out towards the apex of the segment. 

The process (except in its situation, as just stated) is 
almost identical with that of ciementaria. 

I have only one specimen of this insect (from Rome) 
and am rather unwilling to make a new species of it, since 
I can only find one substantial external character to dis- 
tinguish it from cxmentaria. That however is a very 
strong one, unless indeed it be an individual malformation, 
viz. the last joint of the antennae is strongly excavated, 
making its tip into a bent narrow spine or hook — much 
as in pici, only the joint is shorter and the hook more 
abrupt. The other joints are simple, and resemble those 
of Ccwnentaria (see Fig. 26). 

Supposing it to be not a monstrosity, but a species of 
which other examples may occur, I propose for it the 
name romana. 

Fig. 9. The apices of the main lobes are acute, and show 
underneath the transparent upper layer of their thickened 
part, distinct sharp lateral teeth or spines (though the 
actual margin, formed by the layer mentioned above, is 
not' spinose but only angulated). The margins run a 
little obliquely, hardly diagonally, less as in the species 
lately described than as in those which are to follow. 

The process also is more of the type which will hereafter 
present itself. It has a wide transverse petiole, more solid 
and somewhat clouded down the middle, from which are 
thrown off, not in an apical or diagonal direction but 
transversely (horizontally in the figure) two shortly pilose 
lobes with a very shallow incision or emargination between 
their apices. The lobes in this case are almost round, 
as wide as long, not elongated as in most of the species. 

My specimens $£ and £$ are all from Palestine or Syria. 
I can find no description of the species, which from the 
rounded fan-like lobes attached to the 6th segment (as 
above stated) I propose to call flabellifera. 

It has a good deal the aspect of lepelletieri, to which 
however it cannot, I think, be really a very near relation. 



170 Rev. F. D. Morice on the 6th J ventral segment 

Perhaps its most striking $ character is in the last dorsal 
segment. This is very broad and somewhat bilobate 
(see Fig. 31), quite unlike any other in this group, to 
which however I am satisfied that it belongs. (For 
other characters see the Diagnoses which follow.) 

Fig. 10. Not unlike the last, but the main lobes with 
more transversely running margins, evidently spinose at 
the apices, only the teeth are deflexed,so that the segment 
must be viewed from in front to see them satisfactorily. 

The process more transverse, its lobes being rather 
narrower and longer, their direction completely transverse. 

This, I believe, is jheringi, Ducke. Herr Alfken gave 
me a pair from Triest, and I have specimens which seem 
identical, which I took in Egypt. It is described in 
Ducke's recently published supplement to Apidae Europeas 
(Genus Osmia). 

Fig. 11. Apices of the main lobes very sharp and 
evidently spinose, their sides before these teeth show a 
very long and conspicuous pilosity (unlike anything yet 
encountered, but usual in the species which are to follow). 

The process with a wide petiole ; the lobes long, narrow 
and pointed, their apical margins gently sinuated, and 
clothed (as are the lobes throughout) with fine, rather 
long, incurved hairs. 

This, I believe, is the true loti $ Moraw. ( = morawitzi, 
Gerst.). See the Note following this paper, where I discuss 
its characters. 

I have only taken two specimens (Petit Saleve near 
Geneva), see Figs. 20, 21, 27. 

Fig. 12. Differs from the last chiefly in the shape of 
the process, whose transverse lobes are more widely 
separated at their bases; they are broader in proportion 
to their length, and their superior or apical margins are 
much more abruptly and deeply sinuated near the apices, 
the corresponding curve in morawitzi being so gentle and 
gradual as to be hardly noticeable. 

The spinose angles, lateral pilosity (a little shorter, 
however,) direction of margin, etc., of the main lobes almost 
exactly as in morawitzi. 

This is difformis, Perez ; but not Ducke's difformis, who 
describes the present species I believe under the name 
moraivitzii, Gerst. (See the Note above mentioned for 
discussion of this question.) For the antennas see Figs. 28, 
28a, 28b. 



iii 17 Osmia-species of the adunca-6rm/^. 171 

Fig. 13. The main lobes shaped like the last, but their 
apical margins, if possible, even straighter, and the lateral 
spinosity still more marked. Their pilosity however is 
very different, being quite short and scanty at the sides. 

The process is most conspicuously "T-shaped," its apical 
margin running quite transversely with almost no sinua- 
tion. It is clothed with intensely fine and regular hairs; 
and the inferior margins of the lobes and the longitudinal 
interval between their bases is marked by a distinct and 
well-defined brown stain on the otherwise vitreous sub- 
stance, which gives the segment a peculiar and seemingly 
constant appearance in all my specimens. 

This is certainly pallicornis, Friese (= difformis, Ducke 
nee Perez. See Note at the end of this paper). 

I figure its very curious $ flagellum in Figs. 29, 29a, 
29b. 

My specimens are from Asia Minor and Syria, Mr. 
Saunders has others from the Ionian Islands. 

Fig. 14. Exceeding like Fig. 11, but the main lobes 
have more convex apical margins, and their lateral teeth 
are even stronger than in difformis. Lateral pilosity (as 
in Fig. 11) well developed. The lobes of the process are 
more widely separated at their bases, and the apical 
margin is decidedly trisinuate (the central sinuation most 
marked). 

This is a ''typical" specimen from Majorca of insularis, 
Schmiedeknecht, given to me by Herr Friese. It is 
evidently a near relation of loti and difformis. 

Fig. 15. Main lobes sharply angled, with deffexed lateral 
teeth (only conspicuous when the segment is viewed from 
its apex). Their apical margins unusually concave, running 
almost in a single continuous curve. 

Process peculiar, the lobes being very parallel-sided 
(almost oblong) ; set very obliquely — so as to embrace 
with their apical margins a large triangular gap (the 
triangle, however, rather right-angled than, as in Figs. 7, 
etc., acute-angled) ; and clothed, especially at their apices 
with long incurving hairs. 

My specimens are from Algeria mostly, but a few (quite 
like the rest) from Jaffa. I believe that they may safely 
be referred to fertoni, Perez, to whose description they 
completely answer. They have not the punctuation 
of his albi-spina which I have seen. The species nests 
in snail-shells. 



172 Rev. F. D. Morice on the 6th $ ventral segment 

Fig. 16. Main lobes with angles spined as in fertoni, but 
the apical margins more convex. 

Lobes of process much shorter, and widened from base to 
apex, so that they are nearly adjacent throughout, and the 
gap between them is inconspicuous — much deeper than 
wide. The pilosity is also shorter. 

I take this species to be vaulogeri, Perez, judging 
however only from the description of that species. It 
is a good deal like jheringi (Fig. 10), but the process is 
certainly not identical. (Its hairs are quite otherwise 
directed.) I have examined two specimens from Algiers. 

Fig. 17. The main lobes differ from any yet examined, 
in that their apices lie in the centre of the segment, the 
margins descending thence (instead of rising or running 
transversely) towards the spined lateral angles. Conse- 
quently they (i. e. the apices) form a pair of acute adjacent 
angles overlapping the base of the process — an easily 
recognizable character ! 

The process is hardly to be distinguished from that of 
morawitzi, but its lobes are a little wider in proportion 
to their length. And, owing to the descending outline of 
the main lobes, it stands out more boldly at the sides. 

I think this species must be undescribed. I took it 
($ $ and $ ¥) a ^ Brum ana near Beirut (Syria) in 1899, and 
propose to call it libanensis. For its external characters, 
see the Diagnosis given below. (For its $ antenna, Fig. 30.) 

The fifth $ ventral segment is decidedly peculiar, but 
whether its singularity has anything to do with that of 
the 6th I cannot venture to say, though I suspect so. 

Below its actual, (centrally incised but otherwise simple,) 
somewhat transparent margin, may be seen a sort of 
secondary inner margin, formed by a thicker darker and 
more solid layer of substance. This " ante-margin," if we 
may so call it, is incised (like the true margin) in the 
centre, and at the corners it is evidently and sharply 
spinose — like the 6th segment. Also, laterally (near the 
base) it emits two oblique pencils of thin long hairs, 
which can be seen projecting on each side, even when the 
abdomen is viewed from above. I have not noticed a 
similar character in any other species. 

Besides the above 17 species, I took near Jerusalem in 
1899 what is evidently yet another (probably undescribed) 
species of the same group, with a curiously triangular 
(almost acuminate) 7th dorsal segment, and a 6th ventral 



in 17 Osmia-species of the adunca-6rro?,6p. 173 

somewhat like that of cmmentaria. But I do not describe 
it, as it is a single specimen, and in poor condition. 

Note on the synonymy of four species. 

It seems to me quite impossible that the difformis of 
Ducke (=pallicornis, Friese) should be identical with 
Perez's difformis. 

In the former, according to Ducke's and Friese's figures 
and also my own specimens (Figs. 29, 29a, and 29b), the 
basal joints of the flagellum are excessively broad as seen 
in front, and the inferior margins of the basal joints form a 
series of sharp serrations, while those of the following 
joints are at least gibbosely dilated. Ducke and Friese 
also describe the apical joint as acute ("zugespitzt "), and 
it is so in several specimens belonging to Mr. Saunders, 
though hardly so (except when showed laterally) in that 
which I have figured (Asia Minor), (Fig. 29). 

Now of his difformis Perez describes the antenna most 
minutely, and the following tabulation will show how 
absolutely it differs from that of Ducke's species — 

Difformis Perez (sec. ipsum). Difformis Perez (sec. Ducke). 

Second joint of flagellum " a peu Second joint at least once and a 

pres aussi large au bout que long." half as wide as long. 

Last joint "once and a half as Last joint quite three times as long 

long as wide, en ovale irregulier." as wide, narrowly conical, tubercu- 

late near base below. (See Ducke's 

Fig-) 

Upper and lower margins of flagel- Lower margin with all the apical 

lum straight " non arrondis comme joints " arrondis " and all the basal 

chez L'O. Morawitzi." sharply serrate. 

Posterior "saillies" of flagellum "Saillie" on joint 2 not more 

most marked on joints 2-4, hardly marked than those on 5-6, which are 

indicated on 5-6, redeveloped on acute and prominent, more so than 

joints following. on any of the joints following. 

Joints 5-6 narrower than those Joints 5-6 as wide or rather wider 

adjoining. than those adjoining. 

Flagellum evidently twice bent Flagellum almost imperceptibly 

"en arriere puis en avant," the first bent between joints 6, 7 and again 

bend occurring " au niveau de " joints between joints 8, 9. (See Ducke's 

5-6. Fig. b.) 

(For a flagellum really answering 
to this description see my Fig. 28a.) 

In every one of these items except the last the two 
sides of the table contradict each other absolutely, and 
even in that their agreement is imperfect. 

Furthermore, Ducke says in a footnote that an "angeb- 
lich typisches" pair of difformis sent by Perez to Friese 
were not difformis and must have been sent as such by 
mistake. He adds that Perez's description (though not 



174 Rev. F. D. Morice on the 6th $ ventral segment 

these " types ") " passt genau auf pallicomis, Friese " : a 
statement, which considering the characters cited above, 
I am quite unable to understand. 

If then Perez's difformis is, as maintained above, not 
identical with pallicornis, what is it ? 

I believe it to be a species not uncommon on the Alps, 
whose antennae (Figs. 28, etc.) correspond in every respect 
to those of difformis as the author describes them, while in 
other characters also it corresponds and especially in the 
somewhat dull and closely punctured fifth ventral segment 
— that of pallicomis being punctured much more sparsely 
and very shining. 

Now this species, I feel certain, is Ducke's moraivitzii. 
Perez's morawitzi it cannot possibly be, if only on account 
of the 5th ventral segment (morawitzi " brillant, ponctu- 
ation espacee !") But Ducke's moraivitzii I believe it is ! 
The antenna he figures under that name resembles those 
of my Swiss specimens, and fits much better with Perez's 
description of difformis than with that by the same author 
of morawitzi. Also in the footnote above cited Ducke says 
that the difformis-tyipes sent to Friese by Perez " sich als 
moraivitzii erwiesen." If difformis, Perez = moraivitzii, 
Ducke nee Perez, that is natural ! And surely it is far 
more likely that Perez and Ducke should differ in their 
idea of morawitzi, than that the former author should have 
mistaken for his own species (difformis) another (morawitzi 
sec. Perez) which he has so carefully distinguished from it 
in his well-known papers on the subject. 

I had not only written thus far, but (as I supposed) had 
completed this paper, when a kind communication from 
Professor Perez entirely confirmed the views above stated. 
He has sent specimens both of difformis and of morawitzi 
as described by himself. Difformis is not pallicornis, but 
is the species of my Figs. 12, 28, etc. and also (I believe) the 
morawitzii of Ducke. Morawitzi is a species to which none 
of Ducke's descriptions correspond, which I have taken 
freely in South France and Algeria, and to which belong 
my Figs. 4, 24, etc. 

This latter species (morawitzi, Perez nee Ducke) we have 
now to consider. Is it, or is it not, the morawitzi of 
Gerstaecker = loti $ Morawitz (nee $ ?) ? 

Gerstaecker not having described but only renamed the 
insect, we are thrown back upon Morawitz's description of 
his loti in Horae Rossic. V, p. 68, in which the $ flagellum is 



in 17 Osmia-species of the adimca- Group. 175 

said to be " in der Geofend des siebenten sdiedes deutlich 
gebogen" and "die vordere Flache ist abgeplattet, die 
hintere aber tritt stark hervor." These, as Perez points 
out, are characters of the present species {morawitzi sec. 
Perez). It has a flagellum bent once (not twice as difformis) 
about the 7th joint, and the joints up to the 10th have 
evident posterior dilatations or "saillies" creating "une serie 
d'echancrures." These " saillies " resemble those of dif- 
formis, but are certainly not quite so strong, and so Perez 
tells us, giving other minute details as to points unnoticed 
by Morawitz. 

So far all seems satisfactory, but — 

(1) Morawitz says that his species instead of visiting 
Echium like adunca, etc., visits " exclusively " Lotus 
corniculatus. 

Now morawitzi, Perez, undoubtedly visits Echium, and 
Perez gives as its plants "Echium and Lotus." 

(2) There exists another species ; differing from Perez's 
but possessing likewise the antennal characters of loti ; 
which (like Morawitz's /o^-types) occurs in Switzerland, 
and which seems to me to correspond even better than 
morawitzi, Perez, to the description of loti. 

Of this species I have two <J $ taken on the Petit Saleve 
near Geneva, while I have only found morawitzi, Perez, in 
South France and Algeria. 

This is the insect to which belong my Figs. 11, 20, 21, 
27, 27a, 27b. 

I think it must be rather rare, as it seems unknown to 
Ducke, and I have seen no specimens of it except my own. 
(There are none in Mr. Saunders's collection, apparently.) 
The % I do not know : and Gerstsecker says that Morawitz 
took no females of his loti, those which he supposed to be 
such being really only csementaria. 

It differs from morawitzi, Perez, which it strongly 
resembles, in several important points. (1) The J 6 th 
ventral segment (Fig. 11) is totally different, almost 
exactly like that of difformis; (2) the femora have not 
spinosely produced apices, as in Perez's species (Fig. 19). 
(Unfortunately Morawitz is silent as to these characters in 
his description of loti.) (3) The antennal joints are rather 
more transverse. (This suits loti.) 

Another, but a trifling, difference is in the colour of the 
antennae. These are more brightly red in the Swiss 
species. So far as it goes, that is in favour of identifying 



176 Rev. F. D. Morice on the 6th $ ventral segment 

it, rather than the Algerian species, with loti Morawitz. 
But it is merely a question of degree. 

On the whole, in spite of the points of agreement 
between loti, Mor., and moraivitzi, Perez, I think that the 
former insect is probably not identical with the latter, but 
rather with my specimens from the Petit Saleve. And 
(pace Gerstsecker) I do not see why it should not keep the 
name of loti, Mor. (I am not at all satisfied as to 
Morawitz's females being really ciementaria, however 
closely to Gerstaecker's eye they may have resembled them.) 

Accordingly in my opinion we have four distinct species, 
as follows — 

1. loti, Mor. ($ ! $ ?) (= morawitzi, Gerst. !). 

2. morawitzi, Perez (nee Gerst. ? nee Ducke !). 

8. difformis, Perez (nee Ducke ! = moraivitzi, Ducke). 
4. pallicornis, Friese ( = difformis Ducke ! nee Perez !) 

I sincerely hope that this note will not be taken as an 
impertinent attack on Heir Ducke's most suggestive and 
valuable work. Although my conclusions differ from his, 
I should never have been in a position to draw any 
conclusions at all about these bewildering species without 
the materials he has collected. And it is certain that his 
book goes far beyond anything yet published towards 
facilitating the study of Osmia for ordinary entomologists. 

Specierum g/iias pro novis habeo diagnoses. 

1. 0. manicata, n. sp. (Figs. 3, 3a, 23, 23a.) 
£ niger ; facie pedibus subtus que pallido-, superne fulvo-pilosus 
abdominis fimbriis stratis apicalibus concoloribus. Exemplaribus 
permagnis aduncse simillimus : differt antennis basi fortius dilatatis, 
articulis intermediis pro latitudine longioribus subquadratis, tarsis 
anticis multo densius fimbriatis, calcaribus posticis pallidis, punctis 
sculp turaque fortioribus, prsecipue autem segmento ventrali sexto 
nee ante apicem bipenicillato nee in spinam deflexam producto, sed 
ante incisuram marginis medii profundam carina alta dentiformi 
instructo. Long. 16 mm. 
$ nobis ignota. 

Habitat. Algeria; Insula Ionise. 

2. 0. romana, n. sp. ? (Figs. 8, 26.) 
£ antennarum articulo ultimo ut in acuticomi etc. paene monstrose 
hamiformi. Ceteroquin vix a csementaria distinguenda, nisi forte 
segmento dorsali sexto acutius bidentato : margine huius medio sat 



in 17 Osmia-species of the adimca- Group. 177 

profnnde inciso ; ventralis sexti lobis incrassatis magis approxiinatis, 
(igitur incisura triquetra angustiore divisis, nee inter se tam magnam 
partem processus apicalis aniplectentibus). 
$ nobis ignota. 

Habitat. Roma. 

3. 0. flabcllifcra, n. sp. (Fig. 9.) 

Species aspectu 0. lepelletieri simillima, corpore paullo nitidiore. 

£ facile dignoscitur segmento dorsali septimo apice lato in medio 
plus minusve inciso (igitur fere bilobato) : ventralis sexti lobis 
praecipuis apicibus acutis et inferne dentiformibus, liiatu inter hos 
multo minus profundo, processu apicali magis exserto lobis fere 
rotundis, breviter subtilissime pilosis, baud oblique sed tranverse 
excurrentibus. 

Antennie maris leniter deplanatte, fere simplices, articulis omnibus 
latitudine longioribus. Segmenti mediani area cordiformis opaca 
basi longitudinalitur striata. Segmentuin dorsale sextum margine 
apicali crenulato, in medio baud excise Ventrale quintum apice 
late leniter emarginato, punctis fere ut in £ lepelletieri. 

9 a lepelletieri .vix distinguenda, nisi forte pilis brevioribus 
minusque densis, dorsum certe abdominis aliquo modo nitidius 
videtur, etiam fimbriis apicalibus baud conspicuis (an in exemplaribus 
meis 2 detritis ?) 

Habitat. Jud^a ; Syria. 

4 0. libanensis, n. sp. (Figs. 17, 30.) 

Aduncee, similis sed minor (long. circ. 8-9 mill.) abdomine fortius 
punctulato, calcaribus pallidis. 

<$ antennis deplanatis, articulis flagelli antice 3, 4, 5 fere aeque latis, 
inde usque ad apicem lenissime sensim angustatis, postice articulis 
2 et 3 inferne fortissime, 4 lenius, ceteris haud vel vix gibbose 
productis. 

Segmento ventrali 5to apicem versus et in medio sat dense 
punctulato, basi utrinque evid enter penicillata (!) margine apicali 
quasi duplici, in medio inciso, lateraliter spinose subtus densato : 
6to, lobis praecipuis singulariter apicibus non ad latera segmenti sed 
in medio sitis, processus basim celantibus — hoc fere omnino ut in 
morawilzi formato, lobis longis angustis transverse excurrentibus. 

$ ab adunca calcaribus pallidis, corpore minore, abdomine fortius 
punctulato, segmento ventrali sexto apice baud spinose producto ; 
a csementaria difformi etc. abdomine brevissime tenuiter piloso 
facillime distinguenda. 

Habitat. Syria (Brumana in Libano). 



Explanation of Figures in Plate VII. 

£ 6th ventral segment, viewed ventrally, in 

Fig. 1. 0. adunca, Pz. (la. apex of do. laterally). 

2. 0. lysholmi, Friese (2a. apex of do. laterally). 

3. 0. manicata, n. sp. (3a. apex of do. laterally). 

4. 0. morawitz, Perez (nee Ducke). 

5. 0. pici, Friese. 

6. 0. c^mentoria, Gerst. 

7. 0. lepelletivri, Perez. 

8. 0. romana, n. sp. 

9. 0. Jiabdlifera, n. sp. 

10. 0. jheringi, Ducke. 

11. 0. loti, Mor. (?). 

12. 0. difformis, Perez (morawitzii, Ducke). 

13. 0. pallicornis, Friese (difformis, Ducke). 

14. 0. insularis, Schmiedekn. 

15. O.fertoni, Perez. 

16. 0. vaulogeri, Perez (probably). 

17. 0. libanensis, n. sp. 

18. 0. adunca, £ femur. 

19. 0. morawitzi, Perez. 

20. 0. loti, $ 7th and 8th ventral segments. 

21. ,, ^ genitalia. 



Explanation of Figures in Plate VIII. 

<$ Antenna of 
Fig. 22. 0. lysholmi. 

23. 0. manicata (in front), 23a (from above). 

24. 0. morawitzii, Perez. 24a, 24b (from behind). 

25. 0. pici. 

26. 0. romana (apex only). 

27. 0. loti (?) (in front), 27a (from above), 27b (behind). 

28. 0. difformis (in front), 28a (from above), 28b (behind). 

29. 0. pallicornis (in front), 29a (from above), 29b (behind). 

30. 0. libanensis. 

31. 7th dorsal segment in 0. fiabellifera. 



( 179 ) 



VIII. List of the Cetoniidse collected by Messrs. H. E. 
Andrewes and J. R D. Bell in the Bombay 
Presidency of India, with descriptions of the new 
species. By Oliver E. Jan son, F.E.S. 

[Read March 6th, 1901.] 

Although Mr. Andrewes's collection of this family of his 
Coleoptera is not a large one, it includes several species 
that are interesting on account of the doubt that pre- 
viously existed as to their habitat, and three that are new. 
I have given a complete list in preference to merely 
describing the new ones, as I think it is always desirable 
to have a record of authentic localities, and nothing of the 
kind has hitherto been published on the Cetoniidas of this 
part of India. Of the twenty-seven species enumerated 
seven are, as far as is at present known, peculiar to the 
Bombay district, thirteen of the others are also found in 
Mysore, Travancore, and other parts of southern India and 
Ceylon, and four only have a northern range, occurring also 
in central India and Bengal, whilst the remaining three are 
of wide distribution and have a range beyond the limits of 
Continental India and Ceylon. 

I have to thank Mr. Andrewes for the liberal manner in 
which he has allowed me to retain specimens, in several 
instances uniques, for my own collection, and regret that 
the publication of this paper has been so unavoidably 
delayed. 

1. Trigonophorus delesserti, Guer. 

Kanara. 
Taken by Mr. Bell, rarely, on trees in evergreen jungle. 

2. Heterorrhina obesa, Jans. 

Kanara ; Belgaum. 

3. Heterorrhina olivacea, Guer. 

Kanara ; Belgaum. 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901.— PART II. (JULY) 13 



180 Mr. 0. E. Janson's List of the Cetoniidte, 

This rather common S. Indian species is usually very- 
constant in its uniform olive-green colour, from which it 
derives its name ; but amongst those obtained by Mr. 
Andrewes there is an example, which he has kindly 
allowed me to retain for my own collection, of a light 
green colour similar to that of H. 2>w)ictatissima, but 
otherwise quite normal. 

4. Heterorrhina sinuatocollis, Schaum. 

Belgaum. 

A small series of this rather scarce species include 
several of the beautiful deep blue variety, which are rather 
larger than the normal form, and have the exposed portion 
of the meta-coxse, the underside of the meso-sternal 
epimera, and the femora deep red, tinged with purple, 
and the tibiae and tarsi black or piceous. 

5. Heterorrhina elegans, Fab. 

Kanara ; Belgaum. 

6. Diceros cuvera, Newm. 

Kanara. 

7. Clinteria guttifera, Burm. 

Kanara. 

8. Clinteria hilaris, Burm. 

Kanara. 

9. Clinteria tetraspila, Hope. 

Kanara. 

A single specimen only of this scarce species, taken by 
Mr. Bell. 

10. Clinteria belli, n. sp. 

Obscure viridi-seiiea, sub-nitida; thorace 

remote punctato, lateribus albo-marginato ; 

elytris obsolete punctato-striatis, singulo vitta 

magna, apice trilobata, alba; subtus pedibusque 

nigro-tenea nitida. 

Long. 17-18 mm. 

CV\.vOCexvcv WW Obscure brassy-green, head and thorax some- 

* what shining, with or without a coppery tinge, 

underside and legs greenish- or brassy-black, shining. Head 




With Descriptions of the New Species. 181 

convex in the centre, rather strongly punctured, clypeus with the 
margins raised, the apex impressed and emarginate. Thorax re- 
motely punctured on the disk, more coarsely and closely punctured 
towards the sides and apex, basal angles strongly rounded, a 
broad white marginal band on each side. Elytra with somewhat 
indistinct fine punctures arranged in rows, the apex more coarsely 
and irregularly punctured, the apical sutural angles slightly rounded, 
depressed in the centre and with a broad longitudinal white streak 
extending from the base to about one-fourth from the apex where it 
becomes dilated and trilobed. Pygidium coarsely and transversely 
strigose, with a large and somewhat triangular white spot on each 
side. Underside and legs very coarsely punctured, mesosternal 
process large, obliquely divergent and obtuse at the apex, sides of 
the metasternum and abdomen with white spots, anterior tibiae with 
two strong but obtuse lateral teeth. 

Kanara. 

The remarkable markings on the elytra render this a 
most conspicuous species and at once distinguish it from 
all others ; it is evidently allied to C. Utraspila, Hope, but 
is rather larger and of a broader, more depressed and 
quadrate form, and has the thorax more rounded at the 
sides. The two specimens submitted to me by Mr. 
Andrewes, one of which he has allowed me to retain, are 
apparently females, and were taken by Mr. Bell. 



11. Agestrata orichalcea, Lin., var. withilli, Hope. 

Kanara. 

12. Macronota (Ixorida) alboguttata, Parry. 

Kanara. 
Two specimens taken by Mr. Bell, in flowers, in June. 

This species, described by Parry, from an Indian speci- 
men, is stated by him to have been also received from the 
Philippine Islands, and this locality is given as its habitat 
in the Munich Catalogue, there is but little doubt how- 
ever that the closely allied vidua, Wall, propinqua, Mohn., 
or mindanoensis, Mohn., all Philippine species, has been 
mistaken for it, and thus led to this error as to locality. 



182 Mr. 0. E. Janson's List of the Cetoniidte, 

13. T^eniodera sannio, Jans. 

Belgaum; Kanara. 

I described this pretty species from five or six specimens 
received from Travancore all of which prove to be of the 
male sex ; a good series collected by Mr. Bell include both 
the sexes ; the female is very similar to the male but has 
the yellow markings on the thorax rather broader and 
more strongly marked with black punctures, the spot on 
the pygidium is broader and rounder, the abdominal 
yellow spots or stripes are much smaller, the legs are 
rather stouter, with stronger lateral teeth on the anterior 
tibiae ; the abdomen is more convex, and the penultimate 
segment has a fringe of golden hairs. 

14. Glycyphana albopunctata, Fab. 

Kanara ; Belgaum. On flowers, June and July. 

15. Glycyphana versicolor, Fab. 

Dharwar, on roses ; Poona ; Belgaum. June and 
July. 

16. Glycyphana andrewesi, n. sp. 

Kobusta, obscure viridis vel olivacea, supra opaca, subtus nitida ; 
thorace parce punctata, lateribus anguste albo-marginato ; sculello, 
elytris pygidioque albo-notatis. 

Long. 14-15 mm. 

Var. thorace utrinque postice, elytris vitta lata obscure sanguineis. 

Head coarsely and closely punctured at the base, the punctures finer 
and sparser towards the apex, clypeus broad, impressed on each side 
and deeply notched at the apex. Thorax more than one-third 
broader at the base than long, broadly emarginate before the scutel- 
lum, finely and remotely punctured on the disk behind, more coarsely 
punctured at the sides and in front, narrowly margined with white 
at the sides, and in some specimens with a large red basal spot on 
each side. Scutellum broad and triangular, impunctate, with a 
small white spot at the apex. Elytra with some rows of rather 
irregular semi-circular punctures, the discal costae but slightly raised 
behind and becoming obsolete towards the base, five to seven small 
white spots on each disposed as in the allied species, in some speci- 
mens with a broad longitudinal red stripe in the centre. Pygidium 
convex, coarsely and transversely strigose, the striae waved and 



With Descriptions of the Nciv Species. 183 

interrupted in places but not very close together ; four white spots 
in a transverse row near the base. Underside coarsely strigose, with 
sparse hairs and white spots at the sides ; mesosternal process broad, 
a little dilated and rounded at the apex ; abdomen with a double 
row of transverse white spots on each side. Legs short and stout, 
the femora fringed with yellowish hairs, anterior tibiae with two 
lateral teeth, tarsi black. 

Kanara; Belgaum. 

Allied to G. prasina, Hope, but rather larger and more robust 
with the scutellum broader and more obtuse, the clypeus less 
narrowed towards the apex, the whole punctuation of the head 
distinct and well separated (not confluent and forming striae as in 
that species), the punctuation of the thorax is also more sparse and 
not confluent at the sides, the pygidium is more coarsely and much 
less closely strigose and the mesosternal process is flatter, and broader 
at the apex, the upper surface is also devoid of the fine setae which 
are always more or less present in prasina, and the colour is darker. 

Mr. Andrewes took two specimens at Nagargali (Belgaum 
district) in April and May 1887, and received others from 
Mr. Bell who states both the type form and variety to be 
common on flowers in Kanara, in June. 

17. EUMIMIMETICA IRRORATA, Wall. 

Cetonia (?) irrorata, Wall., Trans. Ent. Soc, 3, iv, 

p. 588 (1868). 
Pseudanthracoplwra striatipennis, Kz., D. E. Z., 1898, 

p. 407. 

Belgaum. 

Two specimens, taken by Mr. Andrewes during the rains 
in 1886, 1 find to agree perfectly with this species of which 
I possess the original type specimen from the collection of 
the late Major Perry; this specimen is labelled "Philippine 
Islands" and was described by Wallace as coming from 
that locality, but I have no doubt this is an error now that 
I have identified it as an Indian species. 

It comes in Burmeister's section II. of the genus 
Anoplochilus and is closely allied to terrosa, Gory, for 
which Kraatz has (D. E. Z., 1881, p. 264) proposed a separate 
genus under the name of Eumimimetica ; it also agrees 
quite well with the characters given of his more recently 
created genus Pseudanthracophora, which therefore sinks 



184 Mr. 0. E. Janson's List of the Getoniidx, 

as a synonym and it is perhaps fortunate to be relieved 
of so unwieldy a name. 

18. Anatona sttllata, Newm. 

Kanara; Belgaum. 
Very common in September and October on grass-stems. 

19. Chiloloba Acuta, Wiedm. 

Kanara ; Belgaum. 
Very common in September and October, clinging to 
grass. 

20. Protaetta regalis, Burm. 

Kanara, Mr. Bell. 

21. Prot^etia alboguttata, Vigors. 

Poona; Kanara; Belgaum. 

Very common on flowers and flying about in the 
gardens and fields, and very often taken in the house ; 
in 1887 Mr. Andrewes noticed very few specimens until 
the commencement of the rains (about June 10th) when 
it became at once exceedingly common. 

The series in Mr. Andrewes' collection exhibit remarkable 
variation in size, colour, and in the number and extent of 
the white spots. 

22. Protaetta maculata, Fab. 

Kanara. 

23. PROTAETIA PEREGR1NA, Hbst. 

Kanara; Belgaum. 

24 Anthracophora crucifera, Oliv. 

Kanara; Belgaum. 

Taken in June and July, also in September, at the 
exuding juices of trees, with Heterorrhina olivacea. 

25. Ccenochilus trabecula, Schaum. 
Belgaum. 
A single male specimen taken by Mr. Andrewes during 



With Descriptions of the New Species. 185 

the rains in 1886 and which he has kindly given to me, 
I refer, with but slight hesitation, to this species; it 
agrees fairly well with Westwood's description and figure 
(Thesaurus Entom., p. 44, pi. 13, fig. 10) except that the 
colour is piceous black, the thorax rather broader behind 
and more finely punctured, the abdomen very deeply and 
broadly impressed, the anterior tibiae, show no indication 
whatever of a third tooth and the posterior tibiae are 
strongly dilated on the inner side from the middle to the 
apex, the dilatation commencing abruptly and forming an 
acute angle, and very similar to that shown in Westwood's 
figure (1. c. fig. 3) of C. Irunneus. As the chief of these 
points of difference are evident male characters I infer 
that Schaum's original type specimen, from which West- 
wood's description and figure are taken, is a female 
example, and that the male sex was unknown to either 
of them. 

26. C(ENOCHILUS PYGIDIAL1S, n. sp. 

Elongatus, nigro-piceus, sub-nitidus ; subtus rufo-piceus ; capite 
rugoso-punctato ; thorace sub-rotundato, postice truncate, crebre 
punctate; elytris tri-sulcatis, cribrissime aciculatis, lateribus punc- 
tatis ; pygidio transverse carinato ; tibiis anticis dilatatis, obtuse 
dentatis. 

Long. 16 millim. 

Elongate, piceous black, slightly shining, the pygidium, underside 
and legs reddish piceous and more shining. Head closely covered 
with coarse confluent punctures and with a rather strong transverse 
basal ridge, clypeus widened in front, with the angles rounded and 
the apical margin slightly emarginate and reddish. Thorax strongly 
rounded at the sides, widest just behind the middle, where it is a 
little broader than long, basal margin straight, with the lateral 
angles strongly rounded, very closely punctured and with an im- 
pressed median line extending from near the base to a little beyond 
the middle, a deep transverse fovea on each side at the base. 
Scutellum convex, closely punctured and very acute at the apex. 
Elytra very densely and irregularly aciculate and punctured, the 
base and sides more distinctly punctured, strongly trisulcate on 
the disk and with a deeply impressed line above the lateral sinus, 
rounded at the apex with the sutural angles obtuse. Pygidium 
divided by a very strong transverse ridge in the middle, the upper 
portion very closely and finely aciculate and with a small fovea on 
each side at the base, the lower portion irregularly but not very 



186 Mr. 0. E. JaD son's List of the Cetoniidse, etc. 

closely punctured, a little impressed at the sides and with a slight 
longitudinal central ridge. Underside strigose ; prosternal spine 
large and fringed with yellow-brown hairs ; posterior margin of the 
presternum raised into an acute ridge in the centre; metasternum 
densely strigose and with decumbent yellowish pubescence. Legs 
punctured, femora fringed with short yellowish hairs, anterior tibia? 
dilated towards the apex, a broad subapical tooth and the apex 
obtuse; posterior tibice with deep, coarsely punctured stria?. 

Belgaum. 

This species is evidently allied to C. jaranicus, Westw., 
but has the elytra trisulcate and densely aciculate, 
whereas in that species they are described as having six 
stria? with the interstices rugosely punctured or sub- 
granulated and setose ; from C. apicalis, Westw., it differs 
in having the elytra rounded instead of acuminated at the 
apex ; the form of the pygidium also differs from both 
those species. 

A single specimen, apparently a female, taken by Mr. 
Bell in 1891, has been kindly given to me. 

27. Valgus pyginleus, Gory. 

Belgaum. 

A good series of specimens taken by Mr. Andrewes 
agree with Gory's very brief description and also with 
the points mentioned by Schaum, except that I should 
describe the colour as red-brown or castaneous, rather 
than dull sanguineous-red. It belongs to Burmeister's 
section Oreoderus. 






( 187 ) 



IX. A Classification of a new Family of the Lepidoptera. 
By Sir George F. Hampson, Bart., B.A., F.Z.S., etc. 

[Read May 1st, 1901.] 

Family SABALIAD^E, nov. 

Proboscis absent ; antennae of male with long drooping branches, 
of female with short branches. Forewing with vein 1 a slender, run- 
ning into lb ', \ c absent ; 5 from above angle of discocellulars ; 7, 
8, 9, 10 stalked, 10 from beyond 8 or absent ; 11 from cell, free. 
Hindwing with the frenulum absent, the base of costa lobed ; vein 
1 a to inner margin before tornus ; 1 c absent ; 5 from above angle 
of discocellulars ; 8 free from base, connected with the cell by a bar 
and approximated to 7 beyond the cell ; a precostal vein. 

The family cannot be called Lemoniadse, which is preoccupied in 
the butterflies ; it is closely allied to the Brahmseidse which however 
have the proboscis fully developed and a different facies. 

The genus Lemonia was placed by Dr. Aurivillius in th e 
Striplioropterygidse = Eupterotidse, Iris vii, p. 186 (1894) ; this 
family however has the frenulum present and vein 8 of the hind- 
wing widely separated from 7 beyond the cell. 

Species marked (*) are not in the British Museum. 

Key to the Genera. 

A. Fore tarsi with very large serrate terminal claws . Lemonia. 

B. Fore tarsi with the claws normal. 

(a.) Fore tibiae with curved claw at extremity on 
outer side and long curved claw at extremity 
of the joint of tarsus on inner side .... Sabalia. 

(6.) Fore tibiae and tarsi without claws except the 

terminal claws of tarsi Spiramiopsis. 

Genus Lemonia. 

Type. 
Lemonia, Hiibn. Verz., p. 187 (1827) taraxaci. 

Crateronyx, Dup. Cat. Meth. Lep., p. 77 (1844) . . dnmi. 

Proboscis absent ; palpi porrect not reaching beyond frontal tuft 
and fringed with long hair below ; antennae of male with long drooping 
branches, of female with shorter branches ; fore tibiae and tarsi very 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART II. (JULY) 



188 



Sir G. F. Hampson's Classification of 



much shortened and broad, the first three tarsal joints armed with 
curved spines on outer side and with very long curved serrate claws at 
extremity ; mid and hind tibioe with small terminal pairs of spurs ; 
head, thorax and abdomen clothed with rough hair. Fore wing with 
vein 2 from beyond middle of cell ; 3 from long before angle ; 5 from 
above angle of discocellulars ; 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked, 10 from beyond 
6, or "absent, or 6 from cell ; 11 from cell. Hindwing with the frenu- 
lum absent ; the cell short ; vein 2 from well before angle ; 3 from 
near angle ; 5 from above augle of discocellulars ; 6, 7 shortly stalked 
or from cell ; 8 free from base, connected with subcostal nervure by 
a bar at middle of cell, then approximated to 7 beyond the cell. 

Sect. I. Forewing Avitli vein 10 absent. 

(1) Lemonia saedanapalus, Staud., Stett. Ent. Zeit., 
48, p. 99 (1887) ; Gr.-Grschm. Rom. Mem. iv, 
p. 562, pi. 20, f. 8. C. Asia. 




Lemonia sardanapalus^ $ \. 



Sect. II. Forewing with vein 10 present. 

A. Forewing with postmedial line. 

(a.) Forewing red-brown with the spot at end 

of cell yellow dumi. 

(b.) Forewing pale with the spot at end of cell 
dark, 
(a.) Forewiug with the postmedial line pale, 

the spot at end of cell large .... balcanica. 
(b.) Forewing with the postmedial line dark, 
the spot at end of cell small, 
(a. ) Hindwing with postmedial line . . vaillantina. 
(b.) Hindwing without postmedial line . ballioni. 

B. Forewing without postmedial line. 

(a.) Forewing pale fulvous with black spot at 

end of cell tamxaci. 



A New Family of the Lcpidovtera. 



189 



(b.) Forewing fuscous brown, the veins with 

pale streaks philopalns. 

(2) Lemonia dumi, Linn., Faun. Suec., p. 293 (1761). 

Europe. 

(3) Lemonia balcanica, Herr.-Schaff Schmett., Eur. 

II, p. 109, ff. 26-28 (1844). Armenia. 
Gastropacha bremeri, Kol., Mel. Ent. v, p. 98, 
p]. 18, f. 2 (1846). 




Lemonia dumi, <$ I 



(4) *Lemonia vaillantini, Oberth., Et. Ent. xiii, p. 

28, pi. 6, f. 33 (1890). Algeria. 

(5) Lemonia ballioni, Christ., Hon. Soc. Ent. Ross. 

xxii, p. 310 (1888), id Rom. Mem. v, p. 200, pi. 
10, f. 2. Caucasus. 
*Lemonia ballioni, vsly. 2)onticits, Auriv., Deutsch 
Ent. Zeit. Lep. vii, p. 188 (1894). Armenia. 

(6) Lemonia taraxaci, Esp. Schmett., iii, p. 68, pi. 

8, ff. 6, 7 (1782). C. Europe. 

(7) *Lemonia philopalus, Donz., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 

xi, p. 198, pi. 8, f. 2 (1842) ; Oberth., Et. Ent. 
xiii, p. 28, pi. 6, f. 34 (1890). Barbary. 



Genus SABALIA. 

Type. 
Sabalia, Wlk. xxii, 547 (1865) pica/rina. 

Heteranaphe, E. Sharpe, A.M.N.H. (6) v, p. 442 

(1890) jacsoni. 

Conventia, Weymer, Berl. Ent. Zeit., 1896, p. 88 . . sericaria. 

Proboscis absent ; palpi slight, porrect to just beyond frons ; an- 
tennae of male bipectinate with moderate drooping branches ; head 
and thorax clothed with long rough hair ; fore tibiae short with curved 



190 Sir G. F. Hampson's Classification of 

claw at extremity on outer side ; 1st joint of tarsus with long curved 
claw at extremity on inner side extending to beyond end of 2nd joint ; 
mid and hind tibiae with small terminal pairs of spurs. Forewing 
with vein 3 from well before end of cell ; 5 from above angle of dis- 
cocellulars ; 6 from upper angle ; 7, 8, 9 stalked, 10 absent ; 11 from 
cell. Hind wing with vein 3 from close to angle of cell ; 5 from above 
angle of discocellulars ; 6, 7 from upper angle, the upper part of cell 
short ; 8 free from base approximated to 7 beyond the cell and con- 
nected with the cell by a bar beyond middle. 

A. Head black. 

(a.) Tegulae white picarina. 

(b.) Tegulse black. 

(«.) Patagia with white patches jacsoni. 

(b.) Patagia without white patches .... fulvicincta. 
(a.) Abdomen with dorsal orange bands. 
(6.) Abdomen with the segments slightly 

fringed with orange tippelscirchi. 

B. Head orange sericaria. 

(1) Sabalia picarina, Wlk. xxii, 548 (1865). E. 
Africa. 

(2) *Sabalia jacsoni, E. Sharpe, A.M.N.H. (6) v, p. 
443 (1890). E. Africa. 
(3) Sabalia fulvicincta, n. sp. 

^ Head and thorax black mixed with a few white hairs ; palpi 
with orange hair at extremity ; antennae with the tufts of hair on 
basal joint orange ; femora and tibia? with some orange hair; abdomen 
black with dorsal orange bands and the extremity orange ; broad 
lateral whitish stripes from base to sub terminal segment, the 3rd, 4th, 
5th and 6th segments with sublateral orange tufts of hair at their 
extremities. Forewing black ; a yellowish white streak below base 
of costa ; a triangular patch in cell extending to near its extremity ; 
a triangular patch in submedian interspaces from base to origin of 
vein 2 ; a streak on inner area from near base to middle ; a spot 
beyond the cell intersected by vein 5 ; a small spot below base of 
vein 4 and larger spots below veins 3 and 2 ; a subterminal series of 
seven spots, incurved and the spots elongate towards costa. Hind wing 
yellowish white from base to beyond middle except on costal area ; 
the veins black ; the terminal area black, widest at costa, with sub- 
terminal series of six yellowish spots, incurved and larger towards 
costa, the spot towards tornus linear. 

Expanse 70 millim. 

Hab. Nyasaland, 1 $ type. 






A New Family of the Lcpidopt 



era. 



191 



(4) *Sabalia tippelscirchi, Karsch., Ent. Nachs. 

xxiv, p. 293 (1898). E. Africa. 

(5) *Sabalia sericaria, Weymer, Berl. Ent. Zeit., 

1896, p. 88. E. Africa. 

Genus SPIRAMIOPSIS, nov. 

Proboscis absent : palpi porrect to just beyond frontal tuft and 
fringed with long hair below ; antennae of male with long drooping 
branches, of female with short branches ; head and thorax clothed 
with long hair; eyes overhung by a brush of hair from below base of 



Hi 




Sahcdia picarina, £ \. 

antenna? ; legs normal ; hind tibiae with two pairs of spurs. Fore- 
wing with the apex slightly produced and acute, the termen strongly 
excurved ; the cell short ; vein 3 from well before angle ; 5 from well 
above angle of discocellulars ; 6 from upper angle ; 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked, 
10 from beyond 8 ; 11 from cell. Hind wing with the cell short ; 
vein 3 from near angle ; 5 from near upper angle ; 6, 7 shortly stalked; 
8 free from base, connected with cell by a bar at middle and closely 
approximated to 7 beyond the cell. 



SPIRAMIOPSIS COMMA, n. Sp. 

c Head brownish white ; palpi red-brown above and with red- 
brown hair at base ; thorax red-brown with a white line behind 
tegulae and across patagia ; metathorax with white hair at extremity ; 



192 Sir G. F. Hampson's Classification of Lepidopteva. 

pectus pale oclireous ; the tibiae whitish, fore coxa? in front and inner 
side of fore tibiae rufous ; abdomen dull white above with dark brown 
band at base, the anal tuft and ventral surface tinged with rufous. 
Forewing whitish ; the costal area tinged with ochreous brown and 
irrorated with black ; the basal area red-brown except costa, bounded 
by the oblique whitish antemedial line, the area beyond it tinged with 
red-brown to the oblique fuscous medial line which almost joins the 
antemedial line on inner margin and is interrupted by the large comma- 
shaped discoidal stigma which is red-brown pencilled with olive and 
defined by a strong black line and narrow ochreous line ; the terminal 
half tinged with rufcus ; an oblique whitish slightly sinuous post- 
medial line with series of dark points on its inner side ; an oblique 




. Spimmiopsis comma, £ \. 

rufous striga from apex ; some dark points on cilia. Hindwing 
ochreous the inner margin whitish ; a black discoidal point ; a 
diffused black medial line, rufous at inner margin ; a curved black 
postmedial line rufous at inner margin. Underside of forewing with 
the comma black ; three indistinct minutely waved medial lines and 
a postmedial series of points, the terminal area white on inner half of 
both wings ; hindwing with discoidal point, four waved black lines 
on medial area and a postmedial series of points. 
Expanse 60 millim. 

Hab. C. Colony, Kowie R. (Dr. Becker), 1 $, Grahams- 
town. 

July 10, 19-01. 





( 193 ) 



X. The Carabid genus Pheropsophus : Notes and descrijJ- 
tions of new species. By Gilbert J. Arrow, F.E.S. 

[Read May 1st, 1901.] 

Plate IX. 

The well-known genus Plicr opsonins is in many ways one 
of special interest. One of the three or four genera 
known to have the power of producing a detonation when 
molested, its many species all have the sharply contrasted 
black and orange colouring so commonly prevailing in 
groups possessing special defensive endowments. Although 
it occurs throughout the hot regions of the globe except in 
oceanic islands, the majority of its members are African, 
America and Australasia together having only three or 
four widely-distributed but ill-defined species. The pre- 
dominant Oriental species also have a very wide distribu- 
tion and great range of variation, but the African forms 
(in common with those from India and Arabia) present a 
different condition, appearing to be more or less restricted 
in their range, and although in certain directions variable 
in coloration, presenting specific differentiations which are 
practically constant ; so that, though upon a preliminary 
survey the marking appears to be subject to almost endless 
variation, a minute examination resolves the insects into 
numerous series characterized by apparently insignificant 
but almost invariable differences of coloration which are 
found to be correlated to differences of form and structure. 

The fact is probably that Africa and South- Western 
Asia form the original home of these insects, which 
spreading from thence all over the world, have met with 
new conditions in which forces which had operated against 
their variation and geographical expansion were absent. 
There is perhaps additional evidence of this in the fact 
that many of the species in the former countries are with- 
out wings, or have them in some stage of degeneration, 
while all those found in other regions are active insects 
with well-developed wings. The less deviation of these 
from the normal should imply that they are of more recent 
date, but that the atrophy of the wings indicates no very 
great antiquity is shown by its occurrence in different 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901.— PART III. (SEPT.) 14 



194 Mr. G. J. Arrow on 

sections of the genus and in species nearly related to 
winged forms. 

The excellent Monograph of the Brachynides published 
by Chaudoir in 1876 (Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., torn. 19, p. 16) 
still retains its usefulness, although the number of species 
known to him will probably prove ultimately to be only a 
fraction of those existing. I have therefore considered it 
sufficient, in order to bring our knowledge of the genus 
Phero'pso'plms up to date, to describe the new species known 
to me, and to give a few notes in those cases where 
increased knowledge has rendered Chaudoir's work in- 
adequate. 

For easier identification I shall refer the species de- 
scribed here as new to their systematic position in the 
table given by Chaudoir, designating his sections by the 
name of the first species placed in them by him. 

The British Museum contains five species of this genus 
from Angola, viz. P. guineensis, Chaud., P. basiguttatus, 
Chaud., P. angolensis, Erichs., and two apparently new 
species. The first of these, which belongs to the "fasti- 
giatus " section of Chaudoir, I propose to call 

P. dimidiatus, sp. n. (Plate IX, fig. 8.) 

Testaceus, elytris abdomineque nigris, capite prothoraceque 
equaliter testaceis, immaculatis, hoc angusto, lateribus lsevissime 
sinuatis, antice nonnihil rotundatis, postice valde approximatis, disco 
profunde sulcato ; scutello testaceo ; elytris sat longis, costis valde 
elevatis, nitidis, humeris angulato-rotundatis, lateribus ubiqne leviter 
curvatis, pectore cum pedibus totis testaceis, mesosterno fusco bi- 
punctato. *Long. 15-17 m.m. 

Hob. Angola. 

This closely resembles the S. African P. fastigiahis, L., 
but the thorax is differently shaped, being longer and more 
narrowed behind. The meso- and metasternum in that 
insect are black except in the middle, while in P. dimidi- 
atus they are pale except for an inconspicuous black spot 
on each side opposite the middle coxae. 

A specimen received from Mr. H. S. Gorham was taken 
300 miles from the coast of Angola, and a second from 
Quanga is in Mr. W. L. Distant's collection. 

* The length in this and the succeeding new species is measured 
to the end of the elytral suture. 



The Cardbid genus Pheropsophus. 195 

It is not impossible that this may prove to be Erichson's 
P. arcanus, if that species was described from a discoloured 
specimen ; but it appears to me more probable that that 
species, which Chaudoir failed to identify, is the latter s 
P. guineensis, which agrees better with the characters 
mentioned by Erichson and Gerstacker. Chaudoir was 
probably misled by a wrong habitat, as well as his ignor- 
ance of P. angolensis, Erichs., with which P. arcanus is 
compared, and which belongs not to the section to which 
he has referred it, but to the next. 

P. abbreviatus, sp. n. (Plate IX, fig. 5.) 

Apterus, rufo-testaceus, elytris nigris, immaculatis, abdomine 
fusco ; capite prothoraceque omnino rufo-testaceis, hoc imptinctato, 
angusto, lateribus bisinuatis basi contractis, angulis posticis acutis ; 
elytris brevibus, nigris, opacis, a basi ad post medium regulariter 
arcuate dilatatis, humeris obsoletis, apice oblique truncatis, costis 
paulo angustis ; corpore subtus cum pedibus testaceis ; abdomine 
metasternique lateribus piceis. Long. 16 m.m. 

Hab. Angola (Dr. Welwitsch), Forest country, 2000- 
3000 feet. 

This species belongs to the " obliquatus" section, and 
closely resembles P. bipartitus, Fairm., but is a trifle less 
narrow, the eyes are larger and the thorax longer and more 
sinuated at the sides, its posterior angles being more acute 
than in any species known to me except the S. American 
forms. The elytral costse are also less narrow. 

P. halteri, Chaud., has been announced by Mr. Peringuey 
as a variety of P. fastigiatus, L., upon examination of 
specimens from Rustenburg (Transvaal). Having ex- 
amined a considerable number of Pheropsophi from the 
Transvaal, collected by Mr. W. L. Distant and others, I 
feel satisfied that Mr. Peringuey has not the true P. 
halteri, of which all the specimens known to me are from 
Natal. Although it may very likely occur also in the 
eastern part of the Transvaal, it appears to be represented 
in the western part by P. fastigiatus, which is abundant. 
The specimens I have examined of the latter show hardly 
any variation, and no trace of the narrow black border to 
the thorax characteristic of P. halteri. M. Oberthiir has 
confirmed my opinion as to the specific distinctness of P. 
halteri from a careful examination of the type in his 
collection. 



196 Mr. G. J. Arrow on 

The following is another new species nearly related to 
P. abbreviatits, but of elongate form. 

P. exiguus, sp. n. 

Parvus, angustus, apterus, testaceus, elytris totis, metasterni 
lateribus abdomineque nigris ; capite prothoraceque immaculatis, 
oculis haud prominentibus, prothorace elongato, lateribus antice 
leviter curvatis, parte quarto postico parallelis, disco convexo ; 
scutello testaceo ; elytris a basi ad post medium leviter ampliatis, 
paulo elongatis sed apice valde incurvato-truncatis, humeris fere 
obsoletis, costis fortiter elevatis, quam intervallis latioribus. 

Long. 12 m.m. 

Hob. Congo Feee State, Mpala District. 

This species, one of the smallest of its genus known 
to me and the smallest of the African species, is quite 
unmistakable from its rather peculiar form. Although 
one of the wingless insects with sloping shoulders and 
emarginate extremity to the elytra, the latter are not of 
the short and broad pattern generally distinctive of these 
apterous forms. Both thorax and elytra are long and 
narrow and the elytral costse are very broad and 
prominent. 

Specimens collected by M. Guilleme near the western 
shores of Lake Tanganyika have been kindly presented 
to the Museum by M. Rene Oberthur. 

P. pallidepunctatus, sp. n. 

Apterus, testaceus, prothoracis marginibus antica et postica, 
elytris, mesosterni partibus abdomineque nigris, genubus lasvissime 
fusco-plagiatis, elytris punctis humeralibus et discoidalibus pallide 
fulvis ornatis ; prothorace paulo elongato, antice et postice nigro, 
marginibus nigris medio paulo intrudentibn s, lateribus antice parum 
rotundatis, postice fere parallelis ; elytris brevibus, humeris fere 
obliteratis, lateribus regulariter curvato-ampliatis, postice conjunctim 
arcuate truncatis, macula humerali subrotundata extus epipleuras 
tingente et secunda discoidale punctiforme pallide flavis, margine 
apicali vix perspicue testaceo-tincta, costis angustis. Long. 14 m.m. 

Hal). Portuguese E. Africa, Beira. 

This insect, found by Mr. R. Sheppard and kindly sent 
to me by Mr. G. A. K. Marshall, is sharply separated 
from the species most nearly related to it by the black 



The Carabid genus Pheropsophus. 197 

front and hind borders of the thorax. It must be asso- 
ciated with P. senegalensis, although its markings are of 
a much simpler type and connect it rather with P. dux 
and raffrayi, of Chaudoir. The latter have no humeral 
spot as in the new species, but P. raffrayi resembles it 
also in the pale colour of the elytral decoration. In shape 
and size P. pallidepunctatus is very similar to the next 
species. 

P. gracilis, sp. n, (Plate IX, fig. 6.) 

Apterus, testaceus, capite prothoraceque immaculatis, elytris nigris, 
opacis, puncto humerali acute producto, macula media plus minnsve 
rotundata marginibusque laterali et apicali (ad suturam perspicue 
dilatata) flavis : corpore subtus cum pedibus pallide testaceis, meso- 
sterni latere abdomineque nigris, genubus leviter nigro-maculatis ; 
prothorace paulo elongato, antice parum rotundato, postice valde 
angustato, angulis fere acutis; elytris brevibus, humeris vix evident- 
ibus, lateribus regulariter curvato ampliatis, postice paulo arcuate 
truncatis, costis valde elevatis. Long. 13*5-15 m.m. 

Hah. E. Africa, Lamu I. 

This pretty little beetle is intermediate between the 
species just described and P. senegalensis, Dej., but most 
nearly related to the latter. It has almost exactly the 
size and shape of that insect, but is characterized by a 
rather less development of the yellow pigment. The 
scutellum, which is normally yellow in P. senegalensis; is 
dark in the new species, the humeral spot is narrower and 
more angulated behind, and the median patch is reduced 
to a large disconnected spot of almost regularly rounded 
outline. The apical border is narrow, turning inwards at 
the suture, but with a hardly broken outline, and the 
curvature of the extremity of the elytra is very slight. 
The black upon the knees is another slight differential 
character. 

Pheropsophus nigriventris, Chaud. (P. sansibaricus, Har.), 
is very near this species, but in it the elytral spot is more 
irregular in outline and united to the yellow margin. 

P. livingstoni, sp. n. (Plate IX, fig. 9.) 

P. capensi multo affinis sed scutello testaceo, costis latioribus 
elytrornmque margine distincta apice recte deniarcata. Rufo- 
testaceus, abdomine elytrisque nigris, his macula media angulata 



198 Mr. G. J. Arrow on 

pnncto parvo humerali, margine tenui basali deinde ad scutelli 
apicem, latere externo apiceque conspicuo non ad interstita interrupto 
flavis ; capite, prothorace, scutello pedibusque omnino testaceis, 
humeris evidentibus. Long. 15-17 m.m. 

Hah. Lake Ngami. 

Two specimens in the British Museum were collected 
on the Livingstone Expedition about 1862, and another 
from Lake Ngami is in Mr. Gorham's collection. 

The species is very much like P. capensis, Chaud., but 
easily distinguished from it by the well-defined apical 
margin to the elytra and the greater breadth of the costse. 
The scutellum is yellow, as well as the parts of the elytra 
immediately adjoining it, and the humeral mark is 
closely connected with the lateral margin, whereas in P. 
capensis it is normally completely detached. 

The next species as well as that just described belongs 
to the " africanus " section of Chaudoir. 

P. nyasze, sp. n. 

Testaceus, elytris (lateribus, apice extremo, costarum extremi- 
tatibus, puncto minuto humerali fasciaque media exceptis) segmen- 
torumque abdominalium marginibus nigris ; capite prothoraceque 
omnino testaceis, hoc impunctato, paulo breve, lateribus fere usque ad 
basin leviter rotundatis, hinc parallelis, angulis posticis rectis ; elytris 
paulo angustis, lateribus subparallelis, humeris evidentibus, apice 
parum truncatis, margine laterali, puncto minuto humerali cum hac 
juncto, apice extremo angustissime, costarum extremitatibus fasciaque 
a margine ad costam tertiam attingente intus dilatata testaceis, costis 
validibus. Long. 15-17 m.m. 

Hob. Nyasaland. 

This insect is closely allied to the preceding and P. 
capensis, Chaud., the extremity of the elytra being, as in 
the latter, only very vaguely tinged with yellow. The 
prothorax has a different outline, the sides being more 
gradually curved so that the broadest diameter is not 
much in front of the middle, and the median elytral mark 
is united to the marginal line and more or less club- 
shaped instead of zigzag. The species seems also to be 
allied to P. transvaalensis, Pering., described as having the 
abdomen black with the centre yellowish, and a broad 
discoidal band to the elytra. 



The Car (ibid genus Pheropsophus. 199 

P. marginatus, Dej., seems to be the representative of a 
group of very nearly related species occurring in West Africa, 
which have not all been closely associated by Chaudoir. 
Of several of these I have been able to compare con- 
siderable series, in which the differences although very slight 
are remarkably constant. To enable these to be readily 
separated I have given the chief distinctive characters in 
a tabular form. All these species are approximately alike 
in form, size and elytral marking, and have the yellow 
apical border more or less sharply defined. 

A. Thorax immaculate. 

(a.) Apical border of elytra straight : scut- 

ellum black parallelus, Dej. 

(b.) Apical border of elytra bisinuate : 

scutellum yellow bifasciatus, Chaud. 

(c.) Apical border of elytra incurved : 

scutellum and elytra adjoining yellow Beauvoisi, Dej. 

B. Thorax marked with black. 

(a.) Apical border of elytra bisinuate . . marginatus, Dej. 
(b.) „ „ „ straight: fascia 

narrow. 

1. Head pale, black spotted .... congoensis, Arrow. 

2. Head darker behind, not spotted . . recticollis, Arrow. 

Although Chaudoir has himself regarded his P. bifas- 
ciatus (" bisulcahcs " in Gemminger's Catalogue) as a 
variety of P. parallelus, the differences are quite constant 
in a good series which I have examined, and I therefore 
regard it as specifically distinct. The correctness of the 
identification of P. marginatus, Dej., with Mr. Andrew 
Murray's specimens from Old Calabar (now in the British 
Museum) is confirmed by a specimen from Asaba, in the 
district from which M. Dejean's type is said to have been 
brought. This specimen exactly agrees with Murray's 
examples and with others brought from Old Calabar by 
Miss Kingsley in 1894. The species differs from those 
following, in addition to the characters mentioned in the 
above table, by the black markings upon the pronotum 
which are not definitely limited interiorly and do not 
reach the lateral borders. There is usually an anterior 
mark in the form of a triangle of which the base is not 
broader than the sides. The spot upon the vertex, as in 
the following species, is sometimes quite absent. 



200 Mr. G. J. Arrow on 

P. congoensis, sp. n. (Plate IX, fig. 7.) 

Testaceus, prothoracis marginibus antica et postica nigris, ad latera 
attingentibus et haec saape colorantibus ; elytris nigris, macula 
angulata humerali, fascia angusta multidentata media ad marginem 
externam attingente marginibusque laterali et apicali flavis, margine 
apicali tenui, subtiliter dentato, vix ad suturam ascendente ; corpore 
subtus infuscato, pectoris partibus mediis pedibusque flavis, genubus 
leviter infuscatis ; capite ssepe nigro-punctato, prothorace fere trans- 
verso, lateribus antice rotundato- ampliatis, postice paulo concavis, 
angulis posticis rectis ; elytris fere parallelis, lnuneris evidentibus. 
Long. 14-17 m.m. 

Hab. Upper Congo. 

This species, of which I have examined many examples, 
closely resembles P. marginatns, but the apical border of 
the elytra is very narrow and not sharply limited interiorly 
and the black front and hind borders to the prothorax 
extend right across to the sides and may even tinge the 
extreme lateral margins. 

# 
P. rccticollis, sp. n. 

Prsecedenti valde affinis, capite prothoraceque rufo-testaceis, illo 
ante oculos pallid iore, prothorace antice et postice vage lateribusque 
extremis subtilissime nigro-marginatis, his vix arcuatis^ prothorace 
postice paulo contracto, elytris nigris, macula humerali non angulata, 
fascia angusta media dentata ad marginem externam attingente 
marginibusque laterali et apicali ut in praacedenti flavis ; corpore 
subtus testaceo, mesosterno lateraliter abdomineque plus minusve 
infuscatis, pedibus testaceis, genubus nigro-maculatis. Long. 15 m.m. 

Hab. Upper Congo. 

I have seen four specimens of this species, which may be 
very easily confounded with P. congoensis. The differential 
characters, however, though slight, are numerous and con- 
stant. The head and thorax are of a deeper colour, the 
extent of which is limited anteriorly by a curved line be- 
tween the eyes, and there is no black spot on the vertex. 
The prothorax is longer, less dilated in front and broader 
behind. The elytral fascia is a little less dentate, the 
humeral spot is less pointed behind, there is less black 
on the underside and the knees are more deeply tinged. 

But for the difference of habitat I should regard this as 
probably identical with some of the specimens referred 



The Cardbid genus Pher&psophus. 201 

to P. cinctus, Gory, by Chaudoir, but it seems very unlikely 
that trie insect can range from Senegal to the Upper 
Congo. The species called tenuicostis by Chaudoir will 
require a new name, for I cannot regard that used as 
admissible, P. tenuicostis, Laferte, being by his showing 
synonymous with P. cinches, Gory. I propose for it the 
name lafertei. 

I have seen two specimens of P. marginipennis, Lap., 
which Chaudoir suggested might be a variety of P. 
parcdlelus. It is a quite distinct species with no trace of 
median ornament. The elytra are rather shorter, with 
less elevated costae, and the apical border is sinuated and 
rather vaguely limited. 

P. tristis, sp. n. 

Kufo-testaceus, verticis puncto, prothoracis marginibus antica et 
postica lineaque media nonnunquam interrupta nigris, lateribus 
antice valde arcuate ampliatis, postice contractis, angulis posticis 
rectis ; elytris longis, angustis, obscure nigris, marginibus laterali et 
apicali tenuissime (rarius epipleuris totis suffusis) flavis, humeris 
prominentibus, lateribus parallelis, costis latis, parum elevatis ; corpore 
subtus pedibusque testaceis, epimeris plus minusve abdomineque toto 
infuscatis. Long. 16 m.m. 

Hah. Congo, Stanley Pool. 

Also belonging to Chaudoir's " africanus " section, this 
species is perhaps most allied to P. palmarum, Chaud., of 
which there are examples in our collection from the same 
locality. The head and thorax are almost the same as in 
that species, but the elytra are rather longer and less shin- 
ing, the costae being flatter and broader. The shoulders 
are more prominent and the sides of the elytra more paral- 
lel. The extreme margins alone are yellow, this colour 
being sometimes hardly traceable at the sides and some- 
times covering the whole of the epipleurae. 

I have examined four specimens, of which two are in 
the British Museum and two in Dr. E. A. Heath's 
collection. 

P. arabicus, sp. n. 
Parvus, angustus, testaceus, abdomine elytrisque nigris ; capite 
immaculato, prothoracis marginibus antica et postica nigris, lateribus 
valde bisinuatis, disco medio profunde sulcato ; elytris tenuiter costa- 
tis, lateribus parallelis, humeris evidentibus, singulo elytro macula 
magna subrotundata flava ornato, margine apicali flava, intus hand 



202 Mr. G. J. Arrow on 

distincte demarcata ; corpore subtus cum pedibus testaceis, abdomine 
sternique sutnris nigris, genubus vix infuscatis. Long. 12*5-15 m.m. 

Hab. Akabia, Hadramaut, etc. 

Several specimens were obtained during the late Mr. 
Theodore Bent's explorations, and one was found by Capt. 
Burton. 

This is another species of the "africanus" section closely 
resembling P. hilaris, F., from which it differs most mark- 
edly in the absence of a yellow lateral border to the elytra. 
The median elytral spots are more rounded and do not 
extend to the epipleurse. It has a rather elongate appear- 
ance owing to the attenuated elytra and non-prominent 
eyes, the prothorax being about as broad as it is long. The 
insects described are those mentioned by Mr. Gahan in 
1895 as a variety of P. africanus, to which it has also a 
close resemblance, although differing in many slight char- 
acters. In addition to the absence of the black front and 
hind borders to the prothorax, the elytra of that species are 
distinctly shorter and more truncate and the median yellow 
mark is produced laterally so as at least to touch the 
epipleurse. 

Chaudoir has regarded as a variety of P. hilaris, F., the 
insect described by Dejean as P. sobrinus, and which has 
been since redescribed by M. Maindron as P. desbordesi, for 
what reason I do not know, unless he considers it to have 
been wrongly identified by Chaudoir. Dejean's insect is 
described as having a humeral spot, whereas there seems 
to be normally no trace of this in the species under con- 
sideration. It seems likely, however, that the type of P. 
sobrinus may be a somewhat abnormal specimen, for there 
are examples in our collection in which a minute vestige 
of yellow is traceable on the shoulder. P. hilaris is a vari- 
able insect, the black borders of the prothorax having a 
tendency to widen until they cover the whole disc, while in 
such highly coloured specimens a large black spot appears 
upon the head. It is therefore not at all impossible, although 
I have seen no truly intermediate forms, that P. sobrinus, 
in which the prothorax is wholly pale, is a variety of it. 
Two specimens of this latter form were brought by Messrs. 
Grant and Forbes from the island of Socotra. 

From the detailed description given by Chaudoir of his 
P. catoirei, it is apparent to me that he confused more 
than one species. Being misled probably by Dejean's com- 



The Caralrid genus Pheropsophus. 203 

parison of his insect with P. discicollis he assumed that P. 
catoirei was an insect with a similarly bordered thorax, 
whereas the diagnosis refers to it as " immaculate " in 
express contrast to that of P. discicollis. Similarly the 
mention of larger humeral spot, broader apical band and 
pro thorax wider anteriorly all apply to a species of which 
the British Museum contains representatives from Calcutta, 
Madras, Sind, Dacca, etc., but not to Chaudoir's species 
with bordered thorax and black knees, which I propose to 
call P. chaudoiri. This form, of which there are specimens 
in our collection from Nepal, has a small humeral spot and 
narrow apical border. P. lineifrons, Chaud., although closely 
allied and regarded by its author as a variety only, appears 
to me, after a comparison of numerous examples, to be 
specifically distinct. 

P. nigricollis, sp. n. (Plate IX, fig. 2.) 

Kobustus, niger, parum nitidus, capite, linea media excepta, 
pedibus, pectoris medio cum episternis posticis, elytrorum humeris, 
macula magna media apiceque tenuiter testaceis ; a margine clypei 
postica ad collum macula nigra sagittiforme currente ; prothorace 
omnino nigro, paulo elongato, lateribus valde bisinuatis, disco 
convexo, parcissime punctato ; elytris latis, humeris distinctis, deinde 
fere ad apicem dilatantibus, lateribus arcuatis, costis fortibus, macula 
humerali parva rotundata, fascia media lata, a marginibus laterali et 
suturali angustissime separata, apice extremo costarumque extremi- 
tatibus flavis, genubus subtiliter infuscatis. Long. 15-16 m.m. 

Hah. S. India, Bangalore. 

P. nigricollis is a form very close to P. himaculatus, L., 
although according to Chaudoir's classification it should be 
placed in the following section, the mark upon the head 
extending from behind the eyes to the posterior border of 
the clypeus. The head and thorax are distinctly narrower 
than those of P. bimaadatus, and the latter is wholly of a 
pure shining black colour, but the shape and coloration of 
the elytra are almost the same as in that species. I have 
seen exceptional specimens in which there are traces of 
red upon the thorax. 

M. Oberthur has sent me a remarkable variety of P. 
himaculatus in which the elytral band has united with the 
humeral spot and suffused two-thirds of the elytra, only 
the posterior third, the sutural line (slightly expanded 
below the scutellum), and two vestiges below the shoulder 



204 Mr. G. J. Arrow on 

remaining black. As this seems to be a local form, M. 
Oberthltr having received three similar specimens from 
Mt. Kodeicanel, it may be useful to name it var. posticalis. 

Phcropsophus assamensis, Chaud., placed by him just 
before P. bimaculatus, is the West African P. palmarum. 
I have been enabled to examine the type, which only owes 
its description to the mistake as to its locality. 

P. stenoderuSy Chaud., of which I have examined a good 
many specimens in the British Museum and the Hope 
Collection at Oxford, is allied to P. bimaculatus, L., 
although it must be referred to the " maclagascariensis" 
section of Chaudoir. It is intermediate in coloration 
between P. bimaculatus and P. marginalis, but in form is 
nearer to the first, which it resembles also in the absence 
of a yellow lateral margin to the elytra and the less 
irregular median patches (which however are much smaller 
than in that species), while the straight-sided thorax and 
the black mark upon the head are shaped as in the 
second. The humeral spots are large and rounded and 
the apical margin is rather indefinite. 

P. curtus, sp. n. (Plate IX, fig. 3.) 

Haud elongatus, niger, capite linea tenui circum oculos, linea 
transversa frontali, clypei pimctis duobus, prothoracis macula parva 
laterali intra marginem, elytrorum macula parva humerali, fascia 
media angusta dentata ad epipleuras attingente, his plus minusve, 
apice extremo, costarumque extremitatibus, flavis ; corpore subtus, 
capite excepto, infuscato, pedibus cum coxis testaceis, genubus brun- 
neis ; capite brevi, prothorace paulo latiore quam longitudinem, 
lateribus antice modice curvato-ampliato, elytris sat latis, hunieris 
prominentibus, lateribus fere parallelis. Long. 13-15 m.m. 

Hob. S. India, Malabar ; Kanara (Andrewes Coll.). 

This is allied to P. fuscicollis, Dej., but is smaller and 
rather less elongate. It is very similar to that species in 
coloration, but the yellow epi pleurae and the peculiar mark- 
ing of the head easily distinguish it. The latter is black upon 
its upper surface, with the exception of narrow pale rings 
round the eyes meeting in a transverse line behind the 
antennas, two small spots on the clypeus and the greater 
part of the mouth organs. 

I have seen six specimens of the insect. 

P. occipitalis, McLeay, regarded by Chaudoir as belong- 
ing to P.javanus, Dej., and of which the type is in the 



The Carabid genus Pheropsophus. 205 

British Museum, is identical with P. J hiscicollis, Dej. The 
two names were published in the same year and I have 
no means of determining which is entitled to precedence. 

It is interesting to record the occurrence in New Guinea 
of the North Australian Pheropsophus australis, Lap. A 
series of specimens have been received from there by Dr. 
E. A. Hea^i which are identical with one in our collection 
from Port Darwin, on the north coast of Australia. I can- 
not consider this insect, however, as more than a race of 
P. wrticalis, Dej., although the typical form of that species 
may be confined to the more southerly part of Australia. 
The differential characters described are subject to great 
variation ; the median fascia may entirely disappear, the 
'apical border seems never entirely absent, and the form of 
the elytra is inconstant. The name of papuensis has been 
bestowed by McLeay upon a single specimen of this form 
from New Guinea. The author regarded it as distinct 
on account of its elongate thorax, but a glance at a series 
of specimens shows this character to be of no importance, 
the proportions of the thorax in this, as in other species, 
being remarkably variable. 

P. heathi, sp. n. (Plate IX, fig. 1.) 

Kobustus, testaceus, elytris maculis communibus duabus nigris ; 
prothoraee antice lato, lateribus bisinuatis, postice valde contractis, 
angulis posticis rectis ; elytris convexis, apice parum truncatis, an- 
guste costatis, interstitiis lrevibus, disperse granulatis, humeris promi- 
nentibus, maculis humeralibus, media (non interrupta) et apicale 
lateraliter confiuentibus areis duabus magnis nigris includentibus, 
scutello, cum puncto parvo subscutellari, corpore subtus pedibusque 
testaceis. Long. 19 "5 m.m. 

Hob. Bukma, Moulmein. 

The type of this fine species has been presented to the 
Museum by Dr. E. A. Heath, who possesses a second speci- 
men. It is remarkable as showing a greater apparent 
relationship to the American section of the genus than to 
any other. In size and coloration it most resembles the 
variety succinctus of P. mquinoctialis, L., and in a more 
important characteristic, viz. the peculiar surface of the 
elytra, it is totally unlike any other known Old World 
form. The fine longitudinal striation of the elytral inter- 
stices so general throughout the genus is entirely absent, 



206 The Carabid genus Phcropsophus. 

the costss are sharp and little elevated, and the intervals 
are shining and strewn with minute granules. This con- 
dition is only known to occur elsewhere in the South 
American P. rivieri, Dem. (of which I consider P. jlexuosus, 
Chaud., to be only a variety). The coloration of P. heathi 
is almost of the usual type, but with a greater reduction 
than usual of the black pigment, the median orange band 
being continuous and, with the broad apical border, enclos- 
ing an approximately oval black patch, while a more 
irregular patch is formed anteriorly. 

The following Madagascan species should be placed 
with P. emarginatus according to Chaudoir's tabulation, 
but it has a close relationship to P. humeralis (o?nostigma), 
Chaud., from which it differs in not having functional 
wings, with the corresponding conformation of the elytra. 

P. perroti, sp. n. (Plate IX, fig. 4.) 

Apterus, testaceus, macula verticis cordiforme, prothoracis margine 
toto lineaque mediana, elytris (puncto humerali inarginibusque 
externis exceptis), abdomine, pectore partim genubusque nigris ; 
prothoracis lateribus leviter arcuatis ; elytris fere ad apices leviter 
ampliatis, humeris vix perspicuis, apicibus conjunctim curvato- 
truncatis, costis angustis, puncto humerali, limbo (cum illo juncto) 
apiceque flavis, apice distincto, externe lato sed ad suturam attenuate. 

Long. 17 m.m. 

Hab. N. Madagascar, Diego Suarez Bay. 

This insect well illustrates the important divergences 
which in this genus may underlie apparently insignificant 
superficial distinctions. At first sight this species seems 
almost identical with P. humeralis, but in addition to 
the atrophy of the wings there are numerous slight differ- 
ences. The spot on the vertex of the head is not pro- 
duced backwards, the thorax is more widened in front, 
the shoulders are less prominent and the apices of the 
elytra are truncated more sharply and in a uniform curve. 
The dorsal ridges are narrower, and, finally, the antennae 
are longer and stouter. Four specimens have been 
kindly presented to us by M. Rene Oberthur, by whose 
wish I have named it after the collectors, Messrs. E. and B. 
Perrot. 



Explanation of Plate IX. 



Fig. 1. 


Pherojysophus heathi, Arrow. 


2. 


,, nigricollis, Arrow. 


3. 


„ curtus, Arrow. 


4. 


„ perroti, Arrow. 


5. 


„ abbreviatus, Arrow. 


6. 


„ gracilis, Arrow. 


7. 


„ congoensis, Arrow. 


8. 


„ dimidiatus, Arrow. 


9. 


„ livingstoni. Arrow. 



( 209 ) 



XI. A further contribution to our knowledge of African 
Phytophagous Coleoptera. By Martin Jacoby, 
F.E.S. 

[Read May 1st, 1901.] 

Plate X. 

The following is a list of my former publications on 
African Phytophaga : — 

Transactions Entom. Soc. London, 1888. 
Annales Soc. Entomol. de Belgique, 1893. (Species of 
Lema.) 

Novitates Zoologicse, 1894. 
Deutsche Ent. Zeitsch., 1895. 
Transact. Ent. Soc. London, 1895. 
Proceedings Zool. Soc. London, 1897. 

1898. 
„ ^ 1900. 
Ann. and Magaz. Natur. Hist. London, 1898. 

The specimens, the subject of this paper, have been 
received partly from Mr. Guy Marshall at Mashonaland, 
Mr. Cecil Barker at Malvern, Natal, and partly from the 
Belgian Museum ; the insects previously received have 
been described by me in the publications above mentioned. 

The present paper deals with the Crioceridie, Clyfhridse, 
CryptocepJialidw, Chrysomelidte and Eumolpidse. The 
Galerucidm and Halticidm will be the subject of the 
second part. 

Lema sanguinipennis, sp. n. 

Broad and robust, black, thorax dilated anteriorly, finely punctured, 
closely so behind the sulcus, elytra dark reddish with a sutural 
depression below the base, strongly punctate- striate anteriorly, the 
interstices costate at the sides near the apex only. 

Length 8 millim. 

Head with the portion between the eyes strongly raised and 

partly and divided posteriorly, sparingly punctured, eyes deeply 

notched, antennae scarcely extending to the middle of the elytra, 

black, the second and third joint small, equal, twice the length of 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART III. (SEPT.) 15 



210 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

the second one, terminal joints widened, but longer than broad ; 
thorax strongly widened anteriorly, not longer than broad, the sides 
moderately constricted, the anterior angles obtuse, not tuberculiform, 
the surface with an obsolete fovea near the anterior angles, finely 
and irregularly punctured, the base broadly transversely sulcate, 
this portion more strongly and closely punctured than the rest of 
the surface, scutellum black, its apex truncate ; elytra with an 
oblique depression below the base, the punctures large anteriorly 
and within the depression, much finer and more elongate in shape 
posteriorly, below and the legs black, clothed with thin greyish 
pubescence. 

Hob. Natal, Malvern (G. Barker). 

This species, although closely allied to Z.rujipennis, Lac., 
in coloration differs in its much smaller size and in the 
punctuation of the thorax and that of the elytra, the 
former part in L. ruftpennis has a narrow and deep basal 
sulcus and the portion behind it is impunctate, while in 
the present insect the sulcus is broad and shallow, not 
well-defined, and the portion below it is strongly and 
closely punctured, the sculpturing of the elytra is finer 
and closer, almost striate-punctate, and the basal depres- 
sion is wanting in Lacordaire's species. I received two 
specimens from Mr. C. Barker. 

Zona pnbifvons, Jac. 

This species is subject to some variation in regard to 
the colour of the head and that of the legs, in some speci- 
mens the former is reddish, in others black, but the grey 
pubescence is constant, the thorax shows also in each case 
the anterior lateral groove besides the basal sulcus ; speci- 
mens received from Mr. Barker at Malvern have the lower 
portion of the tibise and the tarsi blackish, and Mr. 
Marshall has forwarded specimens from Salisbury which 
have the posterior four femora entirely black, in all other 
respects all the specimens agree. 

Zema ashantiensis, sp. n. 

Black below, above rufous, thorax scarcely constricted at the sides, 
obsoletely sulcate anteriorly, distinctly so posteriorly, finely punctured 
at the middle, elytra sub-foveolate punctate, the interstices strongly 
costate at the apex. 

Length 8-10 millim. 



African Phytophagous Coleoptera. 211 

Head reddish fulvous at the base, the anterior portion black, the 
space between the eyes raised into two tubercles, the eyes deeply 
notched, antennce extending nearly to the middle of the elytra, 
black, robust, the third and the following joints of nearly equal 
length and thickness, the terminal joints shorter ; thorax not broader 
than long, the sides but little constricted at the middle, the anterior 
angles with a small tubercle, the disc with several rows of very fine 
punctures at the middle, the anterior portion with a short transverse 
sulcus at the sides close to the anterior margin and more or less 
distinct, the base with the usual sulcus well marked, scutellum 
truncate at the apex, elytra without any basal depression, sub- 
cylindrical, reddish fulvous, the punctures deep, large and closely 
placed especially so near the apex where they gradually diminish in 
size, the interstices at the same place strongly costate, below and the 
legs black, sparingly pubescent. 

Hah. Ashanti, West Africa. 

Of this species I possess two specimens ; it forms another 
link in the little group of African Zema's to which L. 
armata, Lac, and L. hottentota belong, but differs from all of 
them in the structure of the thorax, the sides of which 
are better described as concave than constricted; the 
surface also is nearly smooth, not transversely plicate, and 
has another short sulcus anteriorly as described above ; 
the elytra show no trace of a basal depression, and the 
antennas and legs are entirely black as well as the under 
side. 

Lema impressicollis, sp. n. 

Black below, above fulvous, thorax transversely subquadrate, 
tuberculate anteriorly, the disc with two deep longitudinal sulci, 
elytra closely and deeply punctate-striate, the interstices at the apex, 
convex. 

Length 5^ millim. 

Head fulvous at the base, the anterior portion black, finely 
pubescent, the space between the eyes raised into two oblong eleva- 
tions, eyes triangularly notched, antennEe nearly extending to the 
middle of the elytra, black, all the joints rather robust, the third 
and fourth equal, rather short ; thorax slightly broader than long, 
strongly constricted at the middle, the anterior angles acutely tuber- 
culiform, the basal sulcus deep, the disc with a deep longitudinal 
groove at each side, extending from the base to the transverse 
sulcus, the space below the latter transversely plicate, the rest of 
the surface impunctate, elytra with very deep and closely placed 



212 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

punctures, which dimmish in size posteriorly, where the interstices 
are also longitudinally costate, below and the legs black, clothed 
with very short yellow pubescence. 

Hab. Del ago a Bay. 

I only know of a single specimen of this species, which 
differs entirely from any other Lema with which I am 
acquainted, in the two longitudinal deep thoracic grooves 
which are not foveiform but elongate and narrow, in 
other respects the species is allied to L. armata, Lac. 

Lema bifoveata, sp. n. 

Below black, above metallic dark greenish, thorax subquadrate, 
closely punctured, the sides feebly constricted, elytra with a deep 
fovea below the base of each, not very deeply punctate-striate, the 
ninth row not interrupted, the base of the tarsi often fulvous. 

Length 4 millim. 

Head remotely punctured, with deep central and lateral grooves, 
the eyes very large, deeply triangularly notched, antennae scarcely 
reaching to the middle of the elytra, black, the basal joints more 
or less fulvous below, the third and fourth equal, terminal joints 
slightly thickened ; thorax as broad as long, very feebly constricted 
at the sides, the anterior angles in shape of a small tubercle, the 
surface closely and strongly punctured except at the middle near 
the anterior margin, the basal portion with a feeble transverse-sulcus 
which extends a little way obliquely upwards at the sides, elytra 
with a deep oblique fovea near the suture below the base, with 
closely placed rather elongate punctures, distinct to the apex and 
larger within the foveae, the interstices only costiform near the apex 
at the sides and impunctate, legs and the tarsi elongate, the base of 
each joint of the latter more or less fulvous. 

Hab. Natal, Jsipango, Malvern (G. Barker). 

One of the smaller-sized species, and well distinguished 
by the closely -punctured thorax and its tuberculate 
anterior angles and by the deep elytral fovea, the entire 
upper surface is greenish aeneous; L. azurea, Lac, is of 
double the size and has only an elytral depression. 

Lema pulchella, Peringuey. 

This seems to me to be a somewhat doubtful species, 
which the author compares with L. chalcoptera and L. 
aenea, Lac, but does not point out the differences; the 



African Phytophagous Colcoptera. 213 

rufous patch at the top of the head is also more or less 
present in L. chalcoptera, and other differences I cannot 
see in the description which is scarcely detailed enough, 
nor is the exact locality of the species given. 

Crioceris transvalensis, sp. n. 

The head, antennae, the breast and abdomen more or less black, 
thorax fulvous, subangulate anteriorly, the disc with deep punctures 
in rows, elytra closely punctate-striate, flavous, the suture black, 
the lateral margins reddish-fulvous. 

Length 6 inillim. 

Of very elongate and narrow shape, the head deeply constricted 
behind the eyes, the neck and the vertex flavous, the space surround- 
ing the eyes black, the latter very prominent and large, labrum 
flavous, antennas very short and robust, black, the lower four joints 
shining, the rest pubescent, transversely widened ; thorax slightly 
broader than long, strongly narrowed at the base, the anterior 
portion forming a round angle before the middle, the disc with a 
row of strong punctures at each side and another near the middle 
forming a semicircle, reddish-fulvous, the anterior and posterior 
margin narrowly flavous, scutellum black ; elytra regularly and 
closely punctate-striate, flavous, the suture narrowly black in shape 
of a longitudinal stripe, the sides with a similar reddish-fulvous 
band, both not quite reaching the apex, below and the base of the 
femora black, the other parts of the legs and the sides of the abdomen 
flavous, tibiae with a blackish stripe at their outer side. 

Rah. Transvaal. 

This Crioceris agrees in structural details entirely with 
C. balyi, Har., likewise from Africa, but the markings of 
the elytra are entirely different and the latter are devoid 
of any transverse bands and their punctuation is more 
regularly and closely arranged. I possess a single specimen 
of this species. 

Poccilomorpha fulvicomis, sp. n. 

Black, the antennae (the basal joints excepted) fulvous, head and 
thorax pubescent, impnnctate, elytra flavous, finely punctured and 
clothed with fulvous hairs. 

Length 7 millim. 

Head broad, the clypeus separated from the face by a transverse 
groove, the antennae extending to the base of the thorax, fulvous, 
the lower four joints black, the fifth and following transversely 



214 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

widened ; thorax one-half broader than long, the sides widened at 
the middle, the surface with a transverse anterior and posterior 
sulcus, black, impunctate and clothed with grey pubescence, scutellum 
black, pubescent ; elytra finely but not closely punctured, flavous, 
the pubescence fulvous, the suture extremely narrowly black, below 
and the legs black, clothed with long white hairs. 

Hal. East Africa. 

A small species of which I possess a single specimen 
without detailed locality and of similar coloration as P. 
senegalensis, Lac, the posterior legs are unfortunately 
wanting, the insect has the antennas of Poecilomorpha and 
the thorax of Leucastra on account of the two sulci, 
although the posterior groove is very narrow, and either 
genus would have been suitable for its reception ; the 
fulvous antennas and the white long pubescence of the 
under side separates the species from P. senegalensis. 

Poecilomorpha bicolor, sp. n. 

Reddish-fulvous, shining, the antenna) and the anterior four legs 
black, thorax strongly angulate near the base, impunctate, elytra 
finely and remotely punctured, with short fulvous pubescence. 

Length 7 inillim. 

Head rather strongly punctured between the eyes, clypeus separated 
by a deep transverse groove, palpi thin, fulvous, antenna) with the 
fifth and the following joints strongly transversely dilated, black, 
the basal joint obscure flavous ; thorax with the sides strongly 
obliquely narrowed anteriorly and strongly angulate at the base with 
a deep transverse groove near the anterior margin and a more obsolete 
one near the base, the disc entirely impunctate and sparingly clothed 
with fulvous pubescence, elytra fulvous and shining, not closely but 
distinctly punctured and sparingly pubescent ; below and the 
posterior femora fulvous, the latter with a black spot at the base, 
tibiae and tarsi blackish, strongly clothed with yellowish hairs. 

Hat. Africa, Niger-Benue Expedit. {Bang-Haas). 

Of this species, which seems allied to P. amalilis, Baly, 
I received a single, apparently female, specimen from Dr. 
Staudinger and Herr Bang-Haas ; the uniform coloration, 
the impunctate thorax and the colour of the legs separate 
the species from any of its allies; in my specimen the 
posterior femora are moderately thickened and do not 
extend to the apex of the abdomen, and their tibiae are 
curved. 



African Phytophagous Goleoptera. 215 

Poeczlomorpha fasciaticollis, sp. n. 

The lower part of the head and the under side and legs black, 
closely pubescent, thorax fulvous with a central longitudinal black 
band, elytra flavous, closely punctured, a spot on the shoulders and 
a transverse band near the apex black. 

Length 12 millim. 

Head fulvous at the vertex, the latter clothed with black erect 
hairs, finely punctured, the lower portion black, closely covered with 
long white hairs, labrum fulvous, antenna? extending to the base of 
the thorax, black, the lower four joints fulvous, the fifth and follow- 
ing joints strongly transversely widened ; thorax one half broader 
than long, the sides strongly rounded and widened at the middle, 
the disc without distinct sulci, fulvous and pubescent like the head, 
the middle with a narrow black band from the apex to the base ; 
scutellum black, elytra slightly narrowed posteriorly, finely punc- 
tured, each puncture provided with a black hair, with a black spot 
on the shoulder and a broad transverse band below the middle, the 
rest of the surface flavous, below and the legs black, the latter and 
the breast thickly clothed with white pubescence, posterior femora 
strongly incrassate and extending beyond the elytra. ( £ ) 

Hah. Mashonaland, Mtoko's (G. Marshall). 

Of this handsome species, Mr. Marshall has obtained 
both sexes, the female not differing from the male except 
in the broader thoracic band and the shorter posterior 
legs. I know of no other described species with similar 
coloration. 

Lcucastea dahomeyensis, sp. n. 

Flavous, pubescent, thorax with a few fine punctures, subangulate 
near the base, elytra more strongly and closely punctured, black 
with stiff fulvous and black hairs. 

Var. Entirely flavous, each elytron with a small black spot near 
the middle. 

Length 8 millim. 

Head sparingly punctured and clothed with single black hairs, 
the clypeus narrowly transverse, flavous like the labrum, apex of the 
mandibles black, antenna? extending beyond the base of the thorax, 
flavous, the terminal six joints thickened but not transverse ; thorax 
nearly twice as broad as long, with an anterior and basal narrow 
sulcus, the sides produced into a rounded angle near the base, the 
disc with single black hairs and a few punctures, elytra remotely but 
more distinctly punctured than the thorax and similarly pubescent ; 



216 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

below and the legs flavous, the posterior femora of the male strongly- 
thickened, the tibiae densely pubescent, the tarsi sometimes infuscate. 

Hal. Dahomey, Porto Novo. 

Of this species, several specimens, both of the typical 
form with black elytra and of the variety, were sent to me 
by M. Clavareau. I have not the least doubt that both 
represent the same species, the more so as both were 
obtained at the same locality, and as there is not the 
slightest difference in structural details. The species 
resembles somewhat L. bimacidata, Jac, from Mashona- 
land, but the latter is larger, the antennae and the legs are 
black and the elytral spots are placed lower. All the 
species of this genus described by Prof. Westwood differ 
either in coloration or structurally. 

Clythva lacordairei, sp. n. 

Elongate and parallel, black, head strongly rugose, thorax trans- 
verse, rufous, strongly and remotely punctured, elytra fulvous, 
strongly punctured in closely approached rows, a spot on the 
shoulders, another larger one near the scutellum and a short trans- 
verse band near the apex, black, tibiae and tarsi fulvous. 

Length 6 millim. 

Head black, sparingly clothed with extremely short silvery hairs, 
strongly rugosely punctured the punctures partly confluent, eyes 
large, the clypeus separated by an obsolete transverse depression, its 
anterior margin concave-emarginate, antennas short, black, the second 
and third joint fulvous, the fourth and following joints strongly 
transverse ; thorax transversely convex, twice as broad as long, the 
sides very feebly rounded, the surface very strongly and remotely 
punctured, scutellum broadly triangular, black, elytra strongly 
punctured in closely approached very irregular rows, very feebly 
lobed below the shoulders, pale fulvous, a small spot on the 
shoulders, a larger round one near the scutellum and a short, 
slightly curved band near the apex, abbreviated at the sides, black, 
below densely clothed with silvery pubescence, black, the tibiaa and 
tarsi fulvous, robust and the latter broad. 

Hal. Mashon aland, Headlands (G. Marshall). 

The rugose head and its black colour, the strong and 
remote punctuation of the thorax, and the position of the 
elytral spots will distinguish this species. 



African Phytophagous Coleqptera. 217 

Miopristis varipes, sp. n. 

Below black, above testaceous, thorax strongly rugose, with two 
large black spots, elytra extremely closely and irregularly punctured, 
each with a small spot on the shoulders, one below it and another 
below the middle near the lateral margins, black. 

Mas. The anterior legs very elongate, the femora dentate near the 
apex, preceded by shorter teeth, the tibiee long and curved, mucronate, 
the tarsi elongate. 

Var. The elytra with only one spot at the shoulders. 

Length 6 millim. 

Head broad, finely rugose, the upper portion black, the lower 
flavous, with an obsolete longitudinal central depression, antennae 
extending below the thorax, black, the lower four joints flavous, the 
second and third very small, the fourth elongate and widened, the 
rest strongly transverse and triangularly dilated, the eyes broadly 
emarginate at the lower portion, thorax about one half broader than 
long, the sides feebly rounded, the posterior angles distinct, the disc 
rather swollen at each side, coarsely rugose and confluently punc- 
tured, pale fulvous with a large black patch at each side not extending 
to the apical margin, scutellum narrow, raised, black and shining, 
elytra less strongly punctured than the thorax, the punctures ex- 
tremely closely and irregularly placed, testaceous, the shoulders with 
a black spot, followed immediately by another smaller one near the 
margins and another one lower down in the same line, legs flavous, 
the anterior femora and their tibise more or less black above. 

Hah. Cape Colony, Witenhage (G. Barker). 

Amongst the many nearly similarly coloured species of 
this genus, described by Lacordaire and others, I cannot 
find one with which to identify the present insect. I 
would have referred it to M. quadraticollis, Lac, which is 
of entirely similar colour, but cannot do so on account of 
the distinctly transverse thorax of the species before me 
and the almost rugosely punctured elytra. I received 
three specimens from Mr. Barker, and another is contained 
in the Belgian Museum collection. These are all males, 
the female is unknown to me. In only one of the speci- 
mens are the three elytral spots distinct, in all the others 
there is only the humeral one present. M. natalensis, 
Jac, is certainly very closely allied, but the thorax in that 
insect is remotely punctured, the elytral punctuation is 
extremely fine and close, and the anterior legs are entirely 
black. 



218 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

Miopristis hirta, sp. n. 

Below black, pubescent, legs fulvous, thorax finely pubescent, 
black, the anterior margin fulvous, elytra finely, closely and semi- 
regularly punctured, testaceous, clothed with very short silvery 
pubescence. 

Mas. The anterior legs very elongate, their femora strongly 
incrassate. 

Length 5| millim. 

Narrow and elongate, the head finely rugose and pubescent be- 
tween the eyes, the upper portion black, the clypeus and labrum 
fulvous, clypeus triangularly emarginate at the anterior margin, 
antennae black, the lower three joints fulvous, the second and third 
joint very small, the fourth and following joints triangularly dilated ; 
thorax about one half broader than long, narrowed anteriorly, the 
sides feebly rounded, the posterior angles obtuse, the surface im- 
punctate, black, shining, sparingly clothed with grey pubescence, 
the anterior margin more broadly and the lateral ones very narrowly 
fulvous, scutellum triangular, pointed, black ; elytra very finely and 
closely punctured in irregular rows, furnished with very short silvery 
pubescence, testaceous ; below black, strongly pubescent, legs fulvous, 
the anterior femora of the male strongly dilated, finely serrate at 
their lower margin, the tibiae long, mucronate at the apex, the first 
joint of the tarsi elongate, as long as the following joints together, 
the last joints more or less fuscous. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (G. Marshall). 

This is an interesting little species on account of the 
pubescence of the upper surface, which is not found in any 
other of the genus. Mr. Marshall has forwarded two 
specimens, both males. 

Miopristis melanocephalns, sp. n. 

$ Black, the head rugose, thorax fulvous, impunctate, elytra 
testaceous ; extremely finely and closely punctured, legs flavous, the 
anterior femora dilated, black at the apex, the tarsi black. 

Length 7 millim. 

Head finely and closely rugose between the eyes, the vertex 
sparingly punctured, each puncture furnished with a whitish hair, 
clypeus triangularly emarginate, labrum fulvous, antennae extending 
to the base of the thorax, black, the apex of the basal joint and the 
following two joints fulvous, the fifth and the following one strongly 
triangularly dilated ; thorax more than twice as . broad as long, the 



African Phytophagous Colcoptera. 219 

sides strongly rounded, the angles distinct but not strongly marked, 
the disc smooth and impunctate, with the exception of a few deep 
punctures at the middle of the anterior margin, scutellum black ; the 
elytra narrower at the base than the thorax, pale testaceous, finely 
and closely punctured ; below black, the femora fulvous, partly 
black below, the anterior ones strongly thickened and elongate, their 
inner surface rugose, the lower margin with a row of small teeth, the 
anterior tibiae strongly curved, black and rugose, the apex with a 
long spur, the tarsi black, the first joint of the anterior ones as long 
as the following joints together. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Dunbrody (Rev. O'NeU). 

Quite distinct from M. varipes by the black and rugose 
head, the smooth thorax and finely punctured elytra ; the 
same differences and the unspotted thorax and fulvous 
legs separate the species from M. natalensis, Jac. I 
received a single male specimen from the Rev. O'Neil. 

Diapromorpha bomaensis, sp. n. 

Black, head closely, thorax remotely but strongly punctured, 
shining, elytra regularly punctate-striate anteriorly, more irregu- 
larly so posteriorly, flavous, with a broad transverse black band 
below the middle, the shoulders with a small black spot. 

Length 5 millim. 

Head black, closely punctured at the middle, shining, with a small 
central fovea, clypeus nearly impunctate, its anterior margin tri- 
angularly emarginate, eyes nearly entire, large, antenna black, the 
second and the following two joints fulvous ; thorax rather more 
than twice as broad as long, the sides straight, the anterior margin 
concave, the disc irregularly but rather strongly and remotely 
punctured, the punctures more closely placed at the sides and near 
the base, with very small punctures between the larger ones, scutellum 
triangular, black, with a few minute punctures ; elytra rather feebly 
lobed below the shoulders, strongly punctate-striate, the stria3 much 
more closely placed and more irregularly so from the middle down- 
wards, flavous, the black band broad, placed immediately below the 
middle, its anterior and posterior margin concave, leaving the apex 
in shape of a round spot and the anterior portion of the flavous 
ground colour \ below and the legs black, clothed with grey pubescence. 

Hal. Congo, Boma. 

I received two specimens of this species from M. 



220 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

Clavareau at Brussels; it belongs to the small-sized in- 
sects of this genus and is not a very typical form, but the 
elytra are distinctly although not strongly lobed at the 
base, the pygidium is not covered by them and the legs 
are short and stout ; the elytral pattern and the black 
thorax will easily distinguish the species. 

Diapromorjpha tigrina, sp. n. 

Bluish-black below, densely clothed with silvery pubescence, above 
flavous, the antennas, tibice and tarsi fulvous, thorax with two broad 
longitudinal bands, remotely punctured, elytra closely and semi- 
regularly punctate, flavous, the extreme apex reddish fulvous, each 
elytron with three transverse black bands. 

Length 8-9 millim. 

Head flat, entirely covered with short, grey pubescence, antennae 
half the length of the thorax, fulvous ; thorax narrowed in front, the 
sides straight, the surface finely, irregularly and remotely punctured, 
the flavous portion impunctate, confined to the sides (narrowly at 
the base, broadly at the anterior angles) and to a thin medial stripe, 
which divides the black portion nearly to the base, scutellum black, 
impunctate, its apex truncate, elytra more strongly punctured than 
the thorax, the punctures semi-regularly arranged in rows, with 
three oblique black bands, the first placed below the base, the second 
below the middle and the third near the apex, the latter being 
reddish fulvous in colour. 

Hah. Luitpoldkette, Oriental Africa (Belgian Mus. 
and my collection). 

Three or four very nearly similarly marked species are 
known from Africa of which D. zebra, Lac, and I), tettentis, 
Gerst., are the more closely allied forms ; the two specimens 
before me are exactly similar, and seem to me to differ 
from the following species thus: — In D. zebra the legs are 
entirely black and the reddish spot at the apex of the 
elytra is wanting, this is also the case in D. argentata, Fab., 
and D. tcttensis ; in the latter species the elytra are also 
much more strongly punctured and the legs are black ; D. 
hemorrhagica, Gerst., has similar fulvous elytral apex but 
only two black bands instead of three ; the female of the 
present insect is larger and has the usual fovea at the last 
abdominal segment. 

Diapromorpha terminata, sp. n. 
Black, thorax pubescent, strongly punctured, fulvous with a 



African Phytophagous Coleoptera. 221 

central black band, elytra remotely punctate-striate, greenish 
testaceous, narrowly margined with black, the extreme apex yellowish- 
red. 

Length 5-6 millim . 

Head coarsely punctured and pubescent, black, the vertex divided 
by a deep central longitudinal groove, the space between the 
eyes more deeply punctured, epistome separated from the face by a 
fovea, its anterior edge nearly straight, labrum black, antennae very 
short, black, the fourth and following joints strongly transverse ; 
thorax about one half broader than long, the sides not much deflexed, 
the lateral margins nearly straight, the posterior angles obliquely 
rounded, the median lobe rather strongly produced, the surface 
crowded with deep and smaller punctures and clothed with grey 
pubescence, reddish-fulvous with a broad, medially nearly interrupted 
black band at the middle (in the female only indicated anteriorly), 
scutellum rather broad, rugosely punctured and pubescent ; elytra 
somewhat flattened, the lateral lobes below the shoulders short and 
distinct at the base only, the punctures black and arranged in 
distant rows, the punctures themselves likewise distantly placed, the 
ground colour a pale greenish testaceous, all the margins narrowly 
black, the basal one ending in a black spot in front of the shoulders, 
the latter faintly but the apex of each elytron bright yellowish-red, 
below and the legs black, closely covered with white pubescence, the 
abdomen closely and strongly punctured. 

Hob. Mashonaland, Salisbury (G. Marshall). 

Of this interesting little species Mr. Marshall has sent 
an apparently male and female specimen, the latter only 
differing in being larger and having a broader head and 
shorter mandibles, the anterior tarsi in the male are also 
rather more slender ; the species is of entirely different 
coloration than any other Diapromorpha or Peploptera, and 
differs further from most in the pubescent thorax, although 
agreeing in the elytral lobe and uncovered pygidium. 

Peploptera fuhitarsis, Jac. 

This species is identical with P. zambesiana, Pering. 
(Trans. S. A. Phil. Soc. 1886), as pointed out to me by 
Mr. Marshall, who compared my species with that of Mr. 
Peringuey. I unfortunately overlooked this author's paper, 
so my name for the species cannot stand. 

Peploptera humeralis, Jac. (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1897). 
It is quite possible that this species is identical with 



222 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

P. dbyssinica, Lefev. (Revue et Mag. Zool. 1877), but the 
author described the species from a female specimen and 
gives the colour of the tarsi as rufous, while they are 
black in P. humeralis. I have also received a specimen 
from Mashonaland from Mr. Marshall which I must refer 
to this species, as it agrees in nearly everything and in the 
shape of the penis ; this latter is of robust shape, widened 
at the apex, the opening of the latter large, its lower edge 
produced into a point and furnished with long bristle-like 
hairs, the upper margin of the cavity triangularly produced, 
truncate at the middle. 

Peploptera curvilinc-a, sp. n. 

Black, the basal joints of the antennae and the apex of the tibite 
more or less fulvous, thorax reddish-fulvous with a broad central 
black band, finely and sparingly punctured, elytra flavous, strongly 
and regularly punctate-striate, a sutural, medially constricted band 
and another at the lateral margin, curved inwards at the apex, black. 

Length 6 millim. 

Head black, shining, the vertex swollen, the space between the 
eyes strongly rugose-punctate, separated from the vertex by a depres- 
sion, eyes elongate, slightly notched, palpi black, their basal joint 
fulvous, antennae black, the lower three joints fulvous, thorax twice 
as broad as long, narrowed anteriorly, the sides nearly straight, the 
median lobe slight, the surface very sparingly and minutely punctured, 
reddish-fulvous, with a broad, posteriorly strongly widened black 
central band, the disc with a distinct transverse short groove near the 
base at each side, scutellum black, triangular ; elytra with regular and 
deep rows of punctures, flavous, the posterior portion narrowly 
margined with black, the sutural band widened posteriorly and not 
extending to the base or apex, the lateral ones widened at the 
shoulders, often in shape of an elongate spot, its apex curved towards 
the suture, nearly touching the sutural band, below clothed with 
silvery pubescence. 

Hah. Natal, Malvern (C. Barker). 

Again closely allied to P. dorsata and P. trilineata, 
Lac, but differing in the single broad central band of the 
thorax, the distinct lateral groove of the latter, the shape 
of the sutural and lateral bands of the elytra and the 
partly fulvous tibiae; nine specimens received from Mr. 
Barker all exactly agree in this respect, the sexes were 
taken " in coitu "; the penis is short and broad, the upper 



African Phytophagous Coleoptera. 223 

edge broadly truncate, the lower one produced triangularly, 
the apical cavity partly occupied by a very convex or curved 
ball-like projection. 

Pcploptera barkeri, sp. n. 

Black, the head impubescent, thorax scarcely perceptibly punc- 
tured, fulvous, with a central black band and two lateral spots, 
elytra strongly and regularly punctate-striate, flavous, a sutural 
band, a humeral spot and another lateral band, slightly curved 
at the apex and abbreviated near the latter, as well as the legs black. 

Length 4-5 millim. 

One of the smallest species of the genus, which might easily be 
mistaken for a small variety of the preceding one but certainly 
distinct on account of the totally differently structured penis ; 
the head is not pubescent as in P. curvilinea, strongly punctured in 
front of the eyes only, not rugose ; the clypeus is broad and with a 
few punctures only, the antennae are black with the second and 
third joint fulvous, thorax very minutely and irregularly punctured, 
fulvous, the middle with a broad black band strongly constricted 
anteriorly, the sides with a small black spot and a distinct transverse 
depression, the median lobe is margined with black and has a row 
of punctures as is generally the case, scutellum black, triangular 
and impunctate, elytra with a transverse depression below the 
base, strongly and regularly punctate-striate, the apex nearly im- 
punctate, narrowly margined with black, the sutural band widened 
posteriorly and not extending to the base nor apex, the marginal one 
commencing below the shoulders and reaching as far as the sutural 
band, its apex curved inwards, the shoulders with a subquadrate 
black spot. 

Hah. Natal, Malvern (C. Barker)) also Dunbrody, 
Cape Colony {Rev. O'JSfeil). 

The pattern of the elytra in this species is identical with 
that of many others, but the very small size, sculpturing 
of the head, and principally the structure of the penis will 
at once distinguish it ; this latter organ is of very com- 
plicated structure, short and stout, the upper surface 
deeply channelled with the sides in shape of acute 
ridges which join in front in shape of a deflexed tri- 
angular apex ; the lower margin of the penis is produced 
into a triangular point, 'deeply hollowed out above, 
between this upper and lower margin are two spoon- 
shaped projections, one at each side, which partly fill up 



224 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

the frontal cavity. It will be seen by this that the ex- 
amination of the male organ is absolutely necessary in 
separating these very closely allied forms, and as Lacordaire 
has never done this it is almost impossible to recognize 
with certainty many of his species or to know to which of 
them his varieties belong. 

Peploptera irregularis, sp. n. 

Black, the basal joints of the antennae fulvous, thorax finely punc- 
tate, reddish-fulvous with three longitudinal black bands, elytra flavous, 
irregularly and closely punctured, a sutural anteriorly interrupted 
stripe and a more narrow lateral one, black, the four posterior tibiee 
more or less flavous. 

Var. The lateral stripe only distinct at the middle, the shoulders 
with a black spot. 

Length 7-10 millim. 

Head depressed, black, rugosely punctured throughout, finely 
pubescent at the sides, the anterior edge of the clypeus but little 
emarginate, antennae short, not extending to the middle of the 
thorax, black, the lower four joints fulvous, the fifth and following 
joints transverse ; thorax scarcely twice as broad as long, the sides 
rounded before the middle, straight at the base, the anterior 
margin only half the width of that of the posterior one, the surface 
sparingly and very finely punctured, reddish-fulvous, with a 
central and two lateral longitudinal black bands, which are fre- 
quently interrupted anteriorly, the middle one pointed, the others 
placed at some distance from the lateral margins and blunt at their 
ends, scutellum short and triangular, black ; elytra with the lateral 
lobes strongly produced, rather finely and very closely punctured, 
the punctures placed in very closely approached and irregular rows, 
flavous, with a sutural and lateral black band, not extending to the 
base nor the apex ; below closely covered with white silky pubes- 
cence, black, the posterior four tibiae more or less flavous at their 
apex. 

Hah. Natal, Malvern (C. Barker) ; also Transvaal. 

I cannot identify this species with any of those described 
by Lacordaire or since, but would have placed it with P. 
dorsata to which at all events it is closely allied, the 
irregular and close punctuation of the elytra however 
differs entirely from that of the last-named insect, 
Lacordaire especially speaking of 10 more or less distinct 
vows of punctures and an impunctate thorax ; there are a 



African Phytophagous Coleoptera. 225 

dozen specimens* before me which only vary in the shape 
and size of the elytral bands, these being sometimes very 
narrow and the lateral ones often interrupted, in all the 
specimens the posterior four tibiae are entirely or partly 
fulvous ; the male differs in having very broad anterior 
tarsi. There will be no difficulty in separating this species 
from most of its allies which have but one or two amongst 
them in which the elytra are nearly similarly sculptured but 
differing again in the markings and that of the thorax ; 
the penis also differs from those of the allied forms but is 
somewhat similar to that of P. marshalli, it is short and 
robust, the lower edge of the widely-opened cavity is pro- 
duced into a long and rather pointed projection and is 
fringed with long hairs, the upper portion of the cavity is 
but slightly and bluntly produced, the sides of the cavity 
are occupied by another pointed and long lamina or pro- 
jection between which a long, curved bristle springs ; the 
two male specimens which I have examined show no 
difference whatever in this respect. It will be seen there- 
fore that the species is doubtless distinct from the others 
described here. 



Pejploptera marshalli, sp. n. 

Black, the head rugose, thorax fulvous with a central black band, 
elytra flavous, moderately strongly and regularly punctate-striate, 
a sutural and a narrower lateral stripe abbreviated posteriorly and 
connected by a transverse band near the apex and a spot on the 
shoulders black. 

Length 7 millim. 

Head black, longitudinally strigose at the middle, antennae not 
extending to the base of the thorax, black, the third and fourth 
joint fulvous, the fifth and following ones strongly transverse ; 
thorax about one half broader than long, the sides feebly rounded 
and obliquely narrowed in front, the disc with a few minute punc- 
tures and a slight transverse groove at each side near the base, 
fulvous, the middle with a longitudinal black band which is suddenly 
and angulately widened from the middle to the base, the latter witk 
some stronger punctures at the margin, scutellum triangular, black ; 
elytra with strongly developed post humeral lobes, regularly and 
not very deeply punctate-striate, tiavous, with a broad sutural and 
a narrow marginal black band, not extending to the base and con- 
nected near the apex by another transverse fascia which narrows 
towards the lateral margins, the apex of the elytra nearly im- 

TKANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART III. (SEPT.) 16 



226 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

punctate and narrowly margined with black ; below densely clothed 
with silvery pubescence. 

Hah. Mashon ALAND, Salisbury (G. Marshall). 

In spite of great resemblance to several other species of 
similar colorations, the present one is evidently quite dis- 
tinct as proved by the structure of the male organ ; this 
latter is short and cylindrical, abruptly truncate at the apex, 
the deflexed portion is perpendicular and provided with a 
strong central ridge, while the sides are concave or hollowed, 
the lower edge ends into an acute triangular point. In 
distinguishing this species, the size of the insect, the 
regular punctate-striate elytra and the structure of the 
penis will assist in its determination. 

^theomo?yha cjjldoniala, sp. n. 

Elongate and parallel, pale fulvous, apical joints of the antennas 
fuscous, clypeus subquadrately emarginate, head and thorax impunc- 
tate, elytra extremely minutely and sparingly punctured, the breast 
fuscous ; elytra feebly lobed below the shoulders. 

Var. Below entirely fulvous. 

Length 4-5 millim. 

Head fulvous, shining, with a deep fovea between the eyes, the 
space between them with a few very minute punctures, eyes large, 
distinctly notched below, the epistome deeply and subquadrately 
emarginate, the sides of the emargination dentiform, labrum flavous, 
antennas extending to the base of the thorax, fulvous, the apical 
joints more or less fuscous, the third and fourth joint equal, short, 
the fifth and following strongly triangularly dilated ; thorax about 
one half broader than long, subquadrate, the sides nearly straight, 
the median lobe scarcely marked, the surface with a narrow trans- 
verse sulcus near the anterior and posterior margin, entirely im- 
punctate, very shining, the extreme base accompanied by a few 
irregularly placed punctures, somewhat obliquely depressed in front 
of the scutellum, the latter smooth, truncate at the apex ; elytra 
subcylindrical, extremely finely punctured when seen under a strong 
lens, the punctures somewhat arranged in rows, the sides below the 
shoulders feebly but distinctly lobed ; below and the legs fulvous, 
the breast black, clothed with whitish pubescence, anterior legs 
somewhat elongate, robust, the tarsi broad. 

Rah. Cape Colony, Dunbrody (Bev. GNeil); Natal, 
Estcourt. 



African Phytophagous Coleoptera. 227 

This species cannot be mistaken for any of those 
described by Lacordaire from South Africa, on account 
of the deeply emarginate epistome in connection with 
the scarcely perceptibly elytral punctuation ; their lobed 
epipleurse will separate the species from any similarly 
coloured Gynandrophthalma, and the subquadrate thorax 
which has all the angles distinct from Diapromorpha. 



Barybama humcralis, sp. n. 

Black, the basal joints of the antennae flavous, thorax fulvous with 
some piceous spots, impunctate, elytra finely and closely punctured, 
flavous, the shoulders with a small black spot, the suture posteriorly 
extremely narrowly black. 

Mas. Thorax strongly transverse, broader than the elytra, the 
anterior legs elongate, the femora strongly incrassate, the tibiae 
mucronate, the first joint of the tarsi slender. 

Fern. Thorax not wider than the elytra, strongly punctured 
anteriorly, legs and tarsi scarcely elongate. 

Length 3 millim. 

Mas. Head strongly and closely punctured, black, shining, the 
anterior margin of the epistome nearly straight, mandibles large, 
more or less fulvous, antennae black, the lower four joints flavous, 
the fifth and following joints transverse, triangularly widened ; 
thorax twice as broad as long, the sides strongly rounded, the posterior 
angles obsolete, the surface impunctate, with the exception of a 
small number of punctures at the middle of the anterior margin, 
the disc pale fulvous, with six more or less distinct elongate piceous 
spots, placed transversely, scutellum pointed, black, elytra finely 
punctured in closely approached very irregular rows, the extreme 
apex nearly impunctate, the posterior portion of the suture extremely 
narrowly and a spot on the shoulders black, below and the legs black. 

Hob. Natal, Malvern (C. Barker). 

This little species, of which I received both sexes from 
Mr. Barker, agrees in everything with the other ones 
described by Lacordaire as regards structural characters, 
but is of small size, and differs in the black shoulder 
spot and similar coloured posterior portion of the suture ; 
the female might easily be mistaken for another species 
since the thorax is remotely but strongly punctured, but 
both sexes were taken by Mr. Barker " in cop." 



228 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

Barybwna lurida, Lac. 

Fern. Fulvous, the terminal joints of the antennae black, the head 
and thorax impunctate, elytra finely and closely punctured, with a 
round spot at the base and another near the apex black. 

Length 5-6 millini. 

Of this species Lacordaire only knew the male sex. 
Through the kindness of Mr. Barker I have now received 
both sexes taken " in copula " at Malvern, Natal, and am 
enabled to give the above description of the female which, 
unlike the male, has two black spots on each elytron ; the 
thorax is also shorter, more transversely shaped, and the 
sides are more strongly narrowed anteriorly ; the anterior 
legs are as usual much shorter, and the femora much less 
thickened ; the head like that of the male may either be 
black or fulvous as well as the legs. There are several 
other smaller species of different genera of Clythridte of 
similar coloration found in Africa, but the present one 
remains distinct on account of the slender antennas, the 
shape of the thorax and the short tarsi. 

Gamptolenes brevitarsis, sp. n. 

Black, the head, thorax and the under side finely pubescent, thorax 
scarcely punctured, the anterior and lateral margins fulvous, elytra 
opaque, finely and closely punctured, fulvous, a spot on the shoulders, 
another before the middle near the suture and a transverse band 
below the middle black. 

Var. Elytra without any spots. 

Mas. Mandibles large and robust, curved at the apex, the anterior 
legs moderately elongate, the tarsi short and subtriangular. 

Length 8 millim. 

Head broad, clothed with fine yellow pubescence, the epistome 
depressed, its apex truncate, pubescent, labrum fulvous, mandibles 
deeply sulcate and pointed, the eyes emarginate, the sides below 
subquadrately produced, antennae not extending to the base of the 
thorax, black, the lower three joints fulvous, the fourth joint 
elongate, triangularly widened, the following strongly transversely 
serrate, thorax twice as broad as long, the sides rounded, with a 
narrow margin, the posterior margin straight at the sides, strongly 
produced at the middle, the surface sparingly impressed with a few 
minute punctures, black at the basal portion and finely pubescent, 
the anterior part smooth, shining and fulvous, this colour extending 
to the sides, broadly anteriorly, narrow near the base, scutellum 



African Phytophagous Coleoptcra. 229 

broad, finely rugose ; elytra very finely and rather closely punctured, 
fulvous, opaque, the shoulders with a black spot, another spot is 
placed below the scutellum near the suture and a narrow transverse 
black band below the middle not extending to either margin, the an- 
terior legs in the male elongate, the femora robust, the tibioe slightly 
curved and dilated at the apex, not mucronate at the latter part, the 
first joint of the anterior tarsi only slightly longer than the second, 
triangularly dilated and comparatively short. 

Hab. Malvekn, South Africa {G. Barker). 

Of this species I have received four male specimens 
but no females from Mr. Barker ; there is no described 
species to my knowledge which may be referred to this 
insect, and which I have placed in Gamptolenes on account 
of the pubescent head and thorax; the large mandibles 
and the short tarsi will help to separate the species from 
any of its allies. 

Tituloea leflvrei, sp. n. 

Black, the labrum fulvous, thorax strongly transverse, fulvous, 
impunctate, elytra strongly and closely punctured, flavous or fulvous, 
a spot on the shoulders (sometimes obsolete), two, placed transversely 
before and two others below the middle, black. 

Length 9 millim. 

Elongate and parallel, the head black, the vertex smooth, the space 
between the eyes longitudinally rugose, labrum fulvous, antennse 
black, the fourth and following joints very strongly transversely 
serrate ; thorax rather more than twice as broad as long, the sides 
and the posterior angles strongly rounded, the median lobe broadly 
produced, very narrowly marginate, the disc entirely impunctate, 
fulvous, rather paler anteriorly, scutellum black, rather long and 
pointed, impunctate, elytra strongly punctured in closely approached, 
irregular rows, each with an obscure spot on the humeral callus and 
four others placed obliquely and transversely before and below the 
middle, black, of these, the lower two spots are nearly united in 
shape of a band in one specimen ; below and the legs black, the 
anterior legs elongate, the first joint of their tarsi scarcely as long as 
the following two joints together. 

Hah. Kabambake, Africa (Collect. Belgian Mus. and 
my own). 

Closely allied in its system of coloration to T. sanzibarica, 
Lefev., but in that species the thorax has two black bands 



230 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

and the elytra are very minutely punctured ; the two 
specimens before me seem to belong to the female sex 
only. 

Gyriodera mblsevicollis, sp. n. 

Below and the head black, thorax strongly transverse, nearly 
impunctate, fulvous, elytra strongly and closely punctured, fulvous, 
a spot on the shoulders, and two others placed transversely below 
the middle, black ; tibiae and tarsi flavous. 

Mas. Mandibles robust, the anterior legs eloDgate as well as the 
first joint of their tarsi. 

Fern. Smaller, thorax less strongly transverse, the anterior legs 
less elongate. 

Length J 7, ? 6 millim. 

Short and robust, the head finely and closely punctured at the 
vertex, transversely grooved between the eyes, the space between the 
latter closely rugose, the clypeus shining, sparingly punctured, its 
anterior margin concave, mandibles robust, antennae nearly extending 
to the base of the thorax, black, the lower three joints fulvous, the 
fourth and the following joints strongly transverse ; thorax more 
than twice as broad as long, the sides obliquely narrowed anteriorly, 
strongly rounded near the base and widened at the same place, the 
basal margin nearly straight, the median lobe scarcely produced, and 
narrowly black, the disc swollen at the middle, obsoletely grooved 
at each side near the anterior and posterior margin, the sides with 
some very fine punctures, the anterior margin with a more strongly 
punctured slight depression at the middle, the rest of the surface 
impunctate ; scutellum elongate, raised and pointed, black ; elytra 
not more than twice as broad as long, slightly narrowed posteriorly, 
strongly and closely punctured in irregular rows, the interstices 
finely wrinkled and very minutely punctured, fulvous, a round spot 
on the shoulders, a very small spot near the scutellum (absent in 
the female) and two others directly below the middle, black, below 
and the femora black, the tibiae and tarsi fulvous, the latter robust, 
the anterior first joint as long as the following joints together. 

Hob. Natal, Malvern (G. Bar Jeer). 

Gyriodera seems to me to be the only genus for the 
reception of this species on account of the swollen disc of 
the thorax, the comparatively short elytra, and the non- 
mucronate tibiae ; the sculpturing of the thorax differs 
from that of the other species of this genus in not being 
rugose; for the convenience of determination Gyriodera 
is, I think, rightly separated from Titubcea by Lacordaire, 






African Phytophagous Coleoptera. 231 

in which latter genus species are placed, having more 
elongate tibiae and tarsi as well as elytra. 



Gynandropldhalma triplagiata, sp. n. 

Fulvous, the breast and abdomen black, head finely punctured, 
thorax impunctate, elytra very finely punctured in closely approached 
rows, a spot on the shoulders and two larger ones, placed transversely 
below the middle, black. 

Length 5|-6 millim. 

Head with three deep but small fovese between the eyes, punctured 
in front of the latter and at the vertex, fulvous, shining, the clypeus 
nearly impunctate, transverse, its anterior margin nearly straight, 
labrum testaceous, antenna with the lower five joints and the outer 
margins of the following three, fulvous, the rest black, the fifth to the 
eleventh joint triangularly dilated ; thorax about twice and a half 
broader than long, scarcely narrowed anteriorly, the sides rounded, the 
disc smooth and impunctate with the exception of some few punctures 
at the middle near the anterior margin, scutellum black, its apex 
strongly raised, the base depressed and sparingly punctured ; elytra 
extremely finely and closely punctured in indistinct rows, pale 
fulvous with an elongate black spot on the shoulders and two others 
(the inner one the largest and oblong) placed transversely below the 
middle ; under side black (the thorax excepted) densely clothed with 
white pubescence, legs entirely fulvous, tarsi rather slender. 

Hob. Mashonaland, Salisbury {G. Marshall). 

Mr. Marshall sent two exactly similar specimens, only 
varying in size, of this very distinct species, which seems 
allied to G. foveiceps, Lac, in regard to coloration, but that 
species is only 3 millim. in length and has a black and 
rugose head. 

Gynandrophthalma piclurata, sp. n. 

Below piceous, the tibice and tarsi (sometimes flavous) and the 
head black, thorax sparingly punctured, fulvous with two large black 
spots, elytra strongly and very closely semipunctate-striate, flavous, 
a transversa band near the base and another near the apex connected 
by a subsutural stripe, black. 

Var. Thorax with four spots placed transversely. 

Length 3 millim. 

Of narrow and parallel shape, the head black, strongly but re- 
motely punctured between the eyes, the vertex smooth and shining, 



232 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

the clypeus triangularly emarginate, labrum black, the antennae very 
short, piceous, the lower two joints obscure fulvous ; thorax more 
than twice as broad as long, the lateral margins rounded, the median 
lobe very slightly produced, the disc very sparingly and deeply 
punctured, the punctures irregularly placed, fulvous, a large irregular 
patch at each side and a small spot at the middle, black ; sen tell um 
black; elytra strongly punctured in closely approached irregular 
rows, distinct nearly to the apex, flavous with a longitudinal short 
subsutural black stripe which is connected anteriorly and posteriorly 
by a short transverse band not extending to either margins nor to the 
base and apex, the hind margin of the posterior band is concave ; 
below and the legs blackish, closely covered with grey pubescence, 
the tibiae and tarsi more or less fulvous. 

Hob. Cape Colony, Dunbrody {Rev. (J Neil). 

Differing from anv of its African allies in the strong and 
semi-regular punctuation of the elytra in connection with 
the markings of the latter which resemble an I. In the 
variety the thorax has two larger and two smaller spots 
placed transversely. 

GynandropMhalma capensis, sp. n. 

Below black, finely pubescent, the legs fulvous, above testaceous, 
the head black, thorax nearly impunctate with a large lateral and a 
small central black mark, elytra finely and closely punctured, each 
elytron with a short black band near the suture, widened at the ends, 
a spot on the shoulder, another near the lateral margin and a /\ 
shaped mark near the apex, black. 

Length 5 millim. 

Head finely rugose near the eyes and in the centre, the vertex 
smooth, black, the clypeus triangularly emarginate, labrum black, 
the palpi fulvous with black apical joint, antennae extending to the 
base of the elytra, black, the lower three joints fulvous, the third very 
elongate ; thorax nearly twice and a half broader than long, the 
lateral margins strongly rounded near the base, slightly narrowed 
anteriorly, the median lobe feebly produced, the surface with a few 
minute punctures, with an obsolete transverse groove near the 
anterior margin, testaceous, shining, the sides with a large black 
transverse patch, the middle with a round spot ; scutellum black, 
broad, its apex truncate, its base with some fine strigce ; elytra closely 
punctured in irregular rows, testaceous, with a short black stripe at 
the middle close to the suture, the ends of which are rather suddenly 
thickened, an elongate spot is placed on the shoulders and a smaller 



African Phytophagoios Coleoptera. 233 

one below the middle at the lateral margins, lastly an angulate 
mark in shape of a a is situated near the apex of each elytron ; below 
black, finely pubescent, the legs fulvous, the tarsi obscure fuscous, 
rather slender. 

Hal. Ca^pe Colony, Dunbrody (Rev. O'Ncil). 

This species almost exactly agrees in the elytral markings 
with G.pidurata, but differs quite in the sculpturing of the 
head, in the additional markings of the elytra, their less 
regularly punctured surface, in the colour of the legs and in 
the general larger size. I received a single, apparently 
male, specimen from the Rev. O'Neil. 

Gynandrophthalma bicolor, Jac. 

Mr. Barker has sent some specimens which I believe 
to be this species, which are much larger in size, probably 
females, and which agree with Lacordaire's G. basipennis 
in every respect ; but one of the specimens has the colora- 
tion of my hicolor, so that I am inclined to believe that the 
latter species is only a variety and the male of that of 
Lacordaire's, which is no doubt subject to great variation. 
The author described his species from a single female 
specimen. 

Gynandrophthalma malverncnsis, sp. n. 

Black, the thorax fulvous, impunctate, the elytra strongly punctured 
in closely approached rows, fulvous, a sutural band, abbreviated and 
widened at the apex, another band near the lateral margin (sometimes 
joined to the sutural one posteriorly) and a spot on the shoulders 
black, femora and tarsi more or less fulvous. 

Var. (a) The black elytral bands united from the middle down- 
wards, the apex fulvous. 

Var. (b) Elytra without the humeral spots, the legs entirely 
fulvous. 

Length 3-4 millim. 

Head black, smooth and shining, impunctate, with a small fovea 
between the eyes, the clypeus not separated from the face, triangularly 
emarginate at the apex, labrum and palpi black, antennae blackish, 
the lower three joints fulvous, terminal joints gradually transversely 
widened, not triangular ; thorax more than twice as broad as long, 
not or scarcely narrowed anteriorly, fulvous, entirely impunctate, 
the median lobe only indicated with a short row of punctures, scutel- 
lum black, impunctate ; elytra with closely approached and strong 



234 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

rows of punctures, the interstices slightly rugose, the suture with a 
broad, posteriorly widened band which is nearly connected at the 
apex with another marginal black short band which extends slightly 
further down than the sutural one, the shoulders with another round 
black spot ; below and the femora black, finely pubescent, the tibiae 
and tarsi fulvous. 

Hab. Natal, Malvern (C. Barker); Dunbrody {Rev. 

O'Neil). 

Well distinguished from any other species of the genus 
by the nearly rugosely punctured elytra and their mark- 
ings ; in the variety a the black bands are united, forming 
a broad subquadrate patch which does not quite extend 
to the apex and is angulately narrowed at the base. 

Cryptocephalus mashonamis, sp. n. 

Black, the basal joints of the antennae fulvous, head with a flavous 
patch, thorax impunctate, black, with three flavous spots, elytra finely 
punctate-striate, black, a transverse spot at the base, the sides 
anteriorly, a spot below the middle and another at the apex, 
flavous. 

Var. Thorax with two spots only, one at each side. 

Length 3 millim. 

Head black, the lower portion finely rugose and opaque, the entire 
upper part occupied by a large subquadrate flavous patch extending 
to each eye and minutely punctured, labrum black, antennae short, 
extending a little beyond the base of the elytra, black, the lower five 
joints fulvous, the basal joint black above, the terminal six thickened ; 
thorax more than twice as broad as long, the sides nearly straight, 
obliquely narrowed anteriorly, the posterior angles moderately pro- 
duced, the surface convex, entirely impunctate, black and very 
shining, the sides with a semi-crescent flavous spot, the middle 
with another one, narrow and lozenge-shaped, not extending to 
either margin, scutellum longer than broad, black, the base with a 
small fovea ; elytra finely and regularly punctate-striate, rather 
opaque, with four flavous spots, one at the base near the scutellum, 
another below the middle near the suture, one at the apex, of trans- 
verse shape and limited by the narrow black apical margin, and the 
fourth, of elongate shape at the sides and extending downwards as 
far as the sutural spot, its inner margin deeply concave at the middle ; 
below and the legs black, the femora strongly thickened, the proster- 
num narrowly elongate, its apex truncate. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury {G. Marshall). 



African Phytophagous Goleoptera. 235 

I must separate this species from C. gorterite, Linn., and 
one or two other similarly marked African forms on account 
of the shape, number and position of the thoracic spots ; 
according to Suifrian, G gorteriie has four yellow spots on 
the thorax and the posterior margin of the latter is deeply 
serrate, of which I can see no trace in the species before 
me ; the spot at the sides of the thorax is also of different 
shape, and there is no trace of a spot at the anterior margin 
of the thorax. The above description applies to a specimen 
in my collection from Africa of which I have no detailed 
locality, the variety I received from Mr. Marshall; it agrees 
in everything with the type but the median yellow spot of 
the thorax is absent. 



Gryptocephalus barker i, sp. n. 

Flavous, the antennae (the basal joints excepted) and the breast 
black, thorax impunctate with four basal and two central black spots, 
elytra finely punctate -striate, the suture, an angulate transverse 
band before, another below the middle, the lateral and apical 
margins (the basal portion excepted) and a spot on the shoulders 
black. 

Length 5 millim. 

Head minutely and closely punctured, flavous, without impressions, 
the clypeus rather defiexed, antennae extending to the middle of the 
elytra, black, the basal five joints flavous, the third and fourth joint 
equal, shorter than the following ones ; thorax strongly widened at 
the middle and narrowed anteriorly, the lateral margins nearly 
straight, the surface very convex, entirely impunctate, bright flavous 
or pale fulvous, with four rather irregularly shaped black spots at the 
base, often connected at the basal margin, and a smaller spot at each 
side at the middle of the disc, scute! lum broadly ovate, black, with a 
smallfovea atthe base ; elytra slightly narrowed posteriorly, very regu- 
larly and finely punctate-striate, the punctures piceous, very closely 
placed, flavous, with two transverse narrow black bands, the first 
placed before the middle, strongly angulate at the sides in a down- 
wards direction and not extending to the lateral margins, the second 
band below the middle, deeply and suddenly constricted near the 
suture and joined to the lateral band which commences at the middle 
of the lateral margins and extends round the apex and upwards along 
the suture to the base, the shoulders also with a black spot ; below 
and the legs flavous, finely pubescent, the breast and the middle 



236 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

of the basal abdominal segments black ; pygidiuni finely rngosely 
punctured, flavous, with a black spot at the apex. 

Hob. Natal, Malvern (C. Barker). 

In the markings of the upper surface, this species, of 
which I received three exactly similar specimens, 
resembles somewhat C. polyspilus, Suff., C. jiustulatits, Fab., 
and G. laciniahts, Suff., but there are many differences to 
distinguish the species from either. C. polyspilios has a 
black thorax and the elytral bands are differently shaped, 
the other two named species have no lateral stripes and 
the markings of the thorax are different; in one speci- 
men the anterior thoracic spots are joined to those of the 
base, the markings of the under side and of the pygidium 
will further assist in the recognition of the species. 

Cryptocepliahbs lividus, sp. n. 

Keddish-fulvous, the terminal joints of the antenna? black, thorax 
dark red with four small black spots, impunctate, scutellum black, 
elytra flavous, finely punctate-striate, the sutural and lateral margins, 
the extreme base, a transverse band near the apex and a spot on the 
shoulders, black. 

Length 7-8 millim. 

Kobust and subcylindrical, the head finely and closely punctured? 
pale fulvous, rather opaque, the eyes broadly emarginate, clypeus and 
labrum paler fulvous, antennae rather robust, black, the lower five 
joints fulvous, the second very small, the third and fourth equal, the 
last six joints widened, elongate subquadrate ; thorax almost sub- 
globularly transverse, the sides feebly rounded, narrowed anteriorly, 
the surface not perceptibly punctured, dark red, with four small 
black spots placed obliquely subquadrate, scutellum black, broad, its 
apex broadly truncate, the base with a small fovea, elytra scarcely 
narrowed posteriorly, rather broadly lobed at the sides below the 
shoulders, flavous, finely and regularly punctate-striate, narrowly 
margined with black, a transverse narrow black band near the apex, 
the extreme base and a spot on the shoulders likewise black, the 
under side and legs fulvous, clothed with short white pubescence ; legs 
robust, the anterior tarsi broad. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (G. Marshall). 

Of this large and handsome species I received two speci- 
mens from Mr, Marshall, who states that the insects were 



African Phytophagous Coleoptera. 237 

found on a species of Eugenia. G. inchosus, Jac., from Togo 
is of nearly similar coloration but has a longer, less trans- 
versely and less swollen thorax, the latter has also three 
black spots placed transversely, and the elytra are nearly 
irregularly punctured ; if the black colour of the elytra in 
the present insect is taken for that of the ground, they may 
be described as having a large flavous patch occupying 
the entire anterior portion and a smaller round flavous 
spot at the apex. 

Cryptocephalus malvemensis, sp. n. 

Black, the basal joints of the antennae and the legs fulvous, thorax 
impunetate, elytra finely punctate-striate, the interstices finely 
wrinkled, black, the sides and the apex broadly flavous, tarsi more 
or less fuscous. 

Length 2|-3 millim. 

Head finely but not very closely punctured, black, the eyes broadly 
emarginate, the lower portion of the face furnished with single white 
hairs, antennas rather long, black, the lower five joints flavous or 
fulvous, the second and third joint shorter than the fourth, of equal 
length, terminal joints slightly dilated ; thorax about one half 
broader than long, the sides moderately rounded, the surface very 
convex and shining, black, the posterior angles rather prominently 
produced, the disc entirely impunetate, scutellum black, its apex 
truncate, elytra parallel, the suture round the scutellum rather 
strongly raised in shape of ridges, the disc finely punctate-striate, 
the punctures of the inner disc closely placed, those near the sides 
more remotely so and deeper, the interstices very minutely trans- 
versely wrinkled, the black discoidal portion bounded at the sides 
and apex by a broad yellow band which widens at the middle below 
the shoulders, below entirely black, the legs fulvous, prosternum 
oblong, longitudinally concave and finely rugose. 

Hob. Natal, Malvern (0. Barker). 

Not unlike our European G. Moraei and closely allied 
to 0. Gurra, Gestro, and of similar coloration, but the basal 
joints of the antennas and the legs fulvous, the thorax 
entirely black, and the elytral punctuation finer than in 
that species. There are three specimens before me. 

Gryptocephahts varioplagiahcs, sp. n. 
Flavous above, the head with one, the thorax with six black spots 



238 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

(the basal ones united in pairs), elytra strongly punctate-striate, 
two spots below the base, one near the apex and an anterior and 
posterior spot at the suture, black, below black, legs fulvous, spotted 
with black. 

Length 5 millim. 

Head rather closely punctured, flavous, the extreme vertex black, 
the base of the antennas with another black spot, labrum and palpi 
fulvous, antennas long and slender, black, the lower five joints flavous, 
the fifth joint much longer than the third or fourth, the terminal 
two joints thinner and more elongate than the intermediate ones ; 
thorax strongly narrowed anteriorly, the sides feebly rounded, the 
surface entirely impunctate, flavous, all the margins narrowly black, 
the base at each side with a transverse band in shape of two connected 
spots, the anterior portion with another slightly oblique black spot 
at each side, scutellum black, its apex rounded ; elytra regularly 
and rather strongly punctate-striate, flavous, the extreme basal, 
sutural and apical margins black, the suture with two black spots, 
one near the middle, the other near the apex, each elytron with three 
other spots, one at the shoulder of rather elongate shape, one near the 
scutellum and the third at the sides, placed slightly higher than the 
posterior sutural spot ; below black, the prosternum, mesosternum, 
the breast near the middle and the first abdominal segment flavous, 
legs fulvous, prosternum produced into an acute point at the posterior 
angles. 

Hob. Mashonaland, Salisbury, Lepasi River (G. 
Marshall). 

The number of the spots and their position on the 
elytra separate this species from any other African Crypto- 
cephalus known at present, and of which I have seen two 
specimens. 

Cryptoccphalus jprtetoriensis, sp. n. 

Below pale fulvous, above flavous, the vertex of the head black, 
thorax with a transverse black band including three flavous spots, 
elytra strongly punctate-striate, black, a transverse sinuate band at 
the base, a spot on the shoulders, two others placed transversely below 
the middle and a spot at the apex, flavous, legs with black stripes. 

Length 4^ millim. 

Head strongly but not closely punctured, flavous, the vertex and 
a spot at the base of the antennas black, the former with a longitudi- 
nal depression, eyes large, broadly emarginate, clypeus thickened, 
flavous, labrum and palpi fulvous, antennas extending to about the 



African Phytophagous Goleoptera. 239 

middle of the elytra, black, the lower five joints fulvous, the third 
and fourth joint equal, twice as long as the third, terminal joints 
slightly thickened but elongate ; thorax rather more than twice as 
broad as long, the sides strongly obliquely narrowed anteriorly, 
nearly straight, the surface very minutely punctured when seen 
under a strong lens, the anterior and lateral margins broadly flavous, 
the basal portion black, in shape of a transverse broad band which 
includes three flavous round spots, a small one at each side and a 
larger one at the middle, scutellum black, its apex rounded, elytra 
regularly punctate- striate, more strongly punctured at the middle 
than at the suture or the sides, the interstices flat and impunctate, 
each elytron with five flavous spots separated by angular black 
bands ; of the flavous markings, an elongate transverse deeply sinuate 
band is placed at the base near the scutellum, a small spot on the 
shoulder, two spots placed immediately and transversely below the 
middle and the fifth at the apex ; if the flavous colour is taken for 
that of the ground, the elytra may be described as having two angu- 
late transverse black bands, one before, the other below the middle 
and connected at the sides by a longitudinal stripe from the shoulders 
downwards, elytral epipleurse flavous ; under side pale fulvous as 
well as the legs, the former finely and closely punctured, the latter 
more or less banded with black, finely pubescent ; base of the pro- 
sternum deeply concave, the angles acutely produced, pale flavous. 

Hah. Pretoria. 

The single specimen which I possess of this species may 
perhaps be best compared with G. Jlavago, Suff., and 
several others belonging to the same group having black 
and flavous elytra ; there is, however, no species amongst 
them in which the thorax is similarly marked or in which 
the elytra have five flavous spots ; the colour of the under 
side and that of the legs also differs. 

Gryptocephalus benuensis, sp. n. 

Fulvous, the apical joints of the antennae black, the thorax scarcely 
perceptibly punctured, with a broad lateral reflexed margin, elytra 
closely and strongly punctate-striate near the suture and at the 
sides, the rest of the disc irregularly punctured. 

Length 6 millim. 

Of entirely fulvous colour, the head finely and rather closely 
punctured, broad, the eyes broadly emarginate, the clypeus separ- 
ated from the face by a semicircular groove, antennae extending just 
beyond the base of the elytra, the lower six joints fulvous, the rest 



240 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

black, the fifth and following joints triangularly flattened ; thorax 
very convex, scarcely twice as broad as long, the sides feebly rounded 
with a pale coloured broadly reflexed margin, the basal margin finely 
serrate and black, the surface with some minute punctures, only 
visible under a strong lens, the scutellum ovate, pale fulvous, elytra 
strongly and closely punctate-striate, the punctures closely placed 
and regularly so near the suture and the lateral margins, the space 
between the sixth and the next row, irregularly punctured ; below 
and the legs fulvous, closely punctured, prosternum widened at the 
base, the latter straight. 

Hah. Niger-Benue Exped. 

This Cryptocephalus is of quite different structure to 
any of its African congeners, and will therefore not be 
difficult of recognition, the reflexed margins of the thorax 
and the partly regular partly irregular elytral punctuation 
are characters rarely to be met with in species of this 
genus. I only know a single specimen which I received 
from Herr Bang-Haas. 

Ach&nops mandibularis, sp. n. 

Below black, the basal joints of the antennas and the legs fulvous, 
head rugosely punctured, black, mandibles large and prominent, 
thorax finely punctured, black, the lateral and anterior margins and 
two spots at the base, flavous, elytra finely punctate-striate, the 
suture,' a narrow transverse band at the base and a broader one near 
the apex, black. 

Length 3 millim. 

Head broad and flat, black, rugosely punctured, the eyes with a 
short and rather feeble emargination, the clypeus with a broad pro- 
jecting sub triangular prolongation at each side, deeply excavated in 
front, the mandibles broad and robust, curved, antennas short, the 
terminal six joints transversely widened, black, the others flavous, 
the third and fourth joint short, equal, thorax about one half broader 
than long, the sides rather strongly rounded and narrowed anteriorly, 
the posterior angles acutely produced, the surface minutely and closely 
punctured throughout, black, the anterior margin narrowly, the 
lateral ones more broadly flavous, the black portion also divided by 
a narrow central flavous line and by two oblique spots of similar 
colour at the base ; elytra rather finely and regularly punctate- 
striate, the interstices likewise finely and sparingly punctured, 
flavous, a narrow sutural and a transverse band at the base not quite 
extending to the latter nor to the lateral margins and another broad 



African Phytophagous Coleoptera. 241 

band near the apex reaching the sides, black ; below black, the legs 
and the prosternum fulvous, the first named robust, the latter longi- 
tudinally sulcate, the sides raised, the base truncate. 

Hah. Natal, Uitenhage (G. Barker). 

Of this interesting little species I received a single 
apparently male specimen from Mr. Barker, the short 
antennas, structure of the eyes and that of the prosternum 
agree best with the genus in which I have placed it. 

Chciriphyle, gen. nov. (Uumolpidse). 

Body oblong, glabrous, eyes entire, antennae filiform, the second 
joint shorter and much thicker than the third, terminal joints thick- 
ened ; thorax transverse, distinctly margined at the sides, the latter 
rounded, scutellum broader than long, elytra irregularly punctured, 
the sides transversely rugose, femora with a minute tooth, the tibiae 
entire, the claws bifid ; prosternum subquadrate, broad, the anterior 
margin of the thoracic episternum concave. 

This genus will enter the group of Cheiriditiz of Lefevre's 
arrangement and has the general appearance of Cheiridea, 
but the lateral margin of the thorax is not serrate and the 
tibiae are not emarginate at the apex ; Gheiridisia, Jac, 
differs in having strongly dentate femora and a pubescent 
upper surface. Stratioderus, Weise, has a serrate thoracic 
margin and emarginate intermediate tibiae. 

Gheiriphyle metallica, sp. n. 

Greenish aeneous, the basal joints of the antennae and the legs flavous 
or fulvous, head and thorax extremely closely punctured, elytra more 
strongly and very closely semiregularly punctured, the interstices at 
the sides transversely rugose. 

Length 5 millim. 

Head closely punctured, the clypeus separated from the face by a 
transverse depression, rugosely punctured, labrum fulvous, antennae 
extending to the middle of the elytra fulvous, the terminal joints 
fuscous (in some specimens, the lower joints are only fulvous at the 
base of each), third and following joints elongate ; thorax nearly twice 
as broad as long, of nearly equal width, the sides not much deflexed, 
the basal margin but slightly produced at the middle, the lateral 
margins strongly rounded, the surface very closely and irregularly 
punctured, the interstices slightly rugose, scutellum transverse, im- 
punctate ; elytra more strongly punctured than the thorax, the 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART III. (SEPT.) 17 



242 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

punctures arranged in very closely approached rows near the suture, 
larger and irregularly placed near the sides, with the interstices at 
that place transversely rugose, below aeneous or greenish, the legs 
flavous. 

Hah. Bahr el Ghazal (Belgian Mus. and my collection). 

The femora are rather strongly incrassate and their 
teeth are extremely small, the rugose interstices of the sides 
of the elytra is further characteristic of this genus and not 
found in the allied genera. 



Himerida clavareaui, sp. n. 

Broadly ovate and convex, aeneous or cupreous, densely spotted with 
white scales, antennae black, thorax and elytra variegated with white 
and fulvous scales and hairs. 

Length 6 millim. 

Head closely covered with white scales, antennae extending to the 
base of the elytra, black, the basal joint clothed with white scales, 
the following five joints short, submoniliform, shining, the terminal 
joints more elongate, thickened, opaque ; thorax transverse, strongly 
narrowed anteriorly, the lateral margins obsolete, the surface closely 
covered with white scales and fulvous hairs, scutellum pentagonal, 
similarly pubescent, elytra cupreous like the rest of the surface, the 
white scales forming numerous small patches and transverse bands, 
the interstices clothed with fulvous bristle-like hairs, below and the 
legs similarly pubescent, the femora dentate, claws bifid. 

Hab. Luitpoldkette, Africa orient. (Belgian Mus. and 
my collection). 

Of this handsome species I received several specimens 
from Mons. Clavareau ; the cupreous ground colour and the 
numerous white elytral spots consisting of scales will dis- 
tinguish the insect at first sight. 

Macctes varicgatus, sp. n. 

Dark seneous, clothed with white pubescence, the antennae, tibiae 
and tarsi fulvous, thorax finely and closely punctured, with three 
bands of whitish hairs, elytra of similar punctuation with transverse 
bands and spots of whitish pubescence, femora dark cupreous the 
anterior and posterior ones strongly dentate. 

Length 5 millim. 

Head finely and rather closely punctured, aeneous or more or less 



African Phytophagous Coleoptera. 243 

cupreous, clothed witli white pubescence, the clypeus deeply tri- 
angularly emarginate, labruni trigonate, smooth, with a few punc- 
tures at the anterior edge, eyes nearly entire, antennae fulvous, the 
terminal joints thickened, the basal one stained with cupreous above, 
third joint one half longer than the second one, thorax about one 
half broader than long, rounded and widened at the middle, the disc 
swollen, obsoletely transversely depressed anteriorly, finely and closely 
punctured with lateral and a central (more or less distinct) bands of 
white hairs, scutellum subpentagonal, pubescent ; elytra wider at the 
base than the thorax, the shoulders angulate, the base with a very 
feeble transverse depression, clothed with rather long white hairs 
which form two more or less distinct transverse or ring-shaped bands 
below the base and a spot near the apex, the latter also strongly 
pubescent, below and the legs likewise clothed with white hairs, the 
anterior and posterior femora strongly dilated and with a strong 
tooth, intermediate tibiae less strongly toothed, tibiae and tarsi fulvous, 
claws bifid. 

Hob. S. Africa, Dunbrody (Bcv. (7 Mil). 

This species seems allied to M. perringucyi, Lefev., but 
differs in the fine and close punctuation of the thorax and 
elytra, in the feeble depression of the latter, and in having 
the entire tibiae and tarsi of fulvous colour. In specimens 
which are not rubbed, the pubescence is dense and obscures 
the sculpture, and the bands or spots formed by the white 
pubescence can only just be made out. I have received five 
specimens from the Rev. O'Neil. 

Macetes ornatipennis, sp. n. 

Below black with aeneous gloss, thorax with elongate punctures, 
black, sparingly pubescent, elytra finely punctate-striate, purplish, 
the sides with a narrow golden cupreous band ; femora scarcely 
visibly toothed. 

Length 4 millim. 

Head rather strongly and moderately closely punctured, black, 
sparingly pubescent, the sides of the clypeus raised, the anterior 
margin semicircularly emarginate, the antennae with the lower six 
joints fulvous, the following three piceous (the last joints wanting); 
thorax twice as broad as long, strongly narrowed anteriorly, the sides 
Forming an obtuse angle near the base, the disc obsoletely transversely 
depressed anteriorly, black, the anterior margin metallic greenish, 
the surface rather remotely impressed with elongate punctures, spar- 
ingly pubescent, scutellum broad, pubescent, blackish, elytra slightly 



244 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

depressed below the base, rather regularly punctate-striate, the punc- 
tures much stronger at the sides, the interstices finely pubescent, 
purplish, the sides occupied by a golden cupreous band from the 
shoulders to the apex, below and the legs nearly black, the anterior 
and posterior femora widened, with a very minute tooth ; prosternum 
broad, claws bifid. 

Hah. Cape. 

I possess a single specimen of this well-marked species 
which agrees with Macetes in everything except the nearly 
unarmed femora, but as this character is often variable I 
have thought it best not to remove the species from the 
genus. 



Nerissus tuberculatus, sp. n. 

Greenish-black below, legs piceous, above greenish, clothed with 
yellowish hairs, thorax finely rugose, the lateral margins denticulate, 
elytra transversely rugose with numerous small black tubercles, 
metallic greenish. 

Length 8 millim. 

Head elongate, greenish -black, finely punctured, clothed with 
yellow hairs, sides of the clypeus raised, its anterior margin straight, 
labrum fulvous, mandibles robust, antennas extending to the middle 
of the elytra, blackish, rather robust, the third joint one half longer 
than the second, terminal joints twice as long as broad, thorax about 
one half broader than long, transversely subquadrate, rather flattened, 
the lateral margins rounded and finely denticulate, the surface closely 
and strongly punctured, clothed with yellow hairs, the ground colour 
greenish, submetallic, scutellum subpentagonal, pubescent, elytra of 
a more decided green colour than the thorax, transversely rugose and 
covered with numerous shining small tubercles, the interstices deeply 
punctured and not very thickly clothed with yellow adpressed pubes- 
cence, and more sparingly with stiff erect black hairs, below nearly 
black, sparingly pubescent, legs piceous, the intermediate and the 
posterior tibias emarginate at the apex, claws bifid. 

Hab. Cameroons. 

The single specimen I possess of this species differs from 
any of its allies in the tuberculate elytra and the not very 
close pubescence, the former are not very highly raised, but 
very distinct, black and shining. 



African Phytophagous Coleoptera. 245 

Nerisms hicoloratus, sp. n. 

Black, head and thorax strongly punctured, clothed with thick 
fulvous pubescence, elytra sculptured like the thorax, the disc clothed 
with fulvous, the sides with white pubescence. 

Length 6 millim. 

Head clothed with long dark yellow pubescence, black, as well as 
the labrum, antennas long and slender, black, terminal joints much 
longer than broad, thorax transversely subquadrate, of the usual 
shape, the sides finely serrate, the surface rather depressed, rugosely 
punctured and of the same kind of pubescence as the head, scutellum 
likewise covered with hairs, elytra sculptured like the thorax, the 
yellow pubescence occupying the greater part of the disc, changing 
from yellow to white at the sides and the apex, below and the breast 
clothed with white hairs. 

Hab. Senegal. 

A typical Nerissus and well distinguished by the differ- 
ently coloured pubescence of the upper surface, one a 
bright dark yellow or pale fulvous, the other white. I 
only know a single specimen contained in my collection. 

Lefivrea semistriata, sp. n. 

Below piceous, above testaceous, thorax transverse, minutely and 
closely punctured, elytra closely and strongly semipunctate-striate 
with three or four smooth longitudinal lines, legs fulvous. 

Length 3|-4 millim. 

Head broad, closely punctured at the anterior portion, the punctures 
partly elongate, the vertex nearly impunctate, clypeus not separated, 
its anterior edge slightly concave, labrum and mandibles fulvous, 
antenna) scarcely extending to the middle of the elytra, fulvous, the 
terminal six joints slightly widened, second joint about one half 
shorter than the third, the latter and the following two joints equal ; 
thorax twice as broad as long, slightly widened at the middle, the 
sides rather strongly rounded, the angles in shape of a small tooth, 
the surface very minutely and closely punctured, the punctures 
shallow and of somewhat oblong shape, scutellum impunctate, elytra 
much more strongly punctured than the thorax, the punctuation 
arranged in closely approached rows but getting obsolete near the 
apex and interrupted by four more or less distinct smooth longi- 
tudinal lines which assume the shape of costoe near the sides ; below 
piceous, legs fulvous, the tibise entire, the first joint of the posterior 
tarsi as long as the following two joints, the third deeply and 



246 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

elongately bilobed, claws appendiculate, the anterior margin of the 
thoracic episternum concave. 

Hob. Masiionaland, Salisbury (G. Marshall). 

Closely allied to L. brunnea, Jac., but larger, the antennas 
shorter, the thorax more finely punctured and the elytra 
with longitudinal narrow smooth spaces which are absent 
in the allied species. I have received three specimens from 
Mr. Marshall. 

Lefivrca thoracica, sp. n. 

Fulvous, glabrous, thorax extremely closely and finely punctured, 
the interstices reticulate, elytra paler and shining, finely punctate- 
striate. 

Length 2 millim. 

Head impressed at the anterior portion with very closely placed 
shallow, round punctures, the interstices of which are reticulate, the 
clypeus not separated, its anterior edge straight, antennae extending 
to about the middle of the elytra, flavous, the second joint about 
a third shorter than the following ones, terminal joints slightly 
thickened, elongate, thorax rather more than twice as broad as long, 
the sides rounded, with a narrow margin, the angles rather obtuse, 
the surface sculptured entirely like that of the head, scutellum 
triangular, impunctate, elytra wider at the base than the thorax, 
paler and more shining, subcylindrical, regularly punctate-striate, 
each elytron with about 14 or 15 rows of punctures, finer but distinct 
to the apex ; below dark fulvous, the legs flavous, femora unarmed, 
tibiae entire, claws appendiculate ; prosternum narrowed between the 
coxae. 

Hob. Mashon ALAND, Salisbury (G. Marshall). 

Smaller than L. brunnea, Jac, from the same locality 
and distinguished by the sculpturing of the head and 
thorax which consists of shallow, round punctures crowded 
together with the interstices finely reticulate. 

Pseudomalegia tibialis, sp. n. 

Black, the tibiae fulvous, above aeneous, the thorax brassy, finely 
alutaceous, elytra more distinctly punctured in extremely closely 
placed rows, finely pubescent, tarsi black, the antennae with the 
second and third joint fulvous. 

Length 2| millim. 



African Phytophagous Coleoptcra. 247 

Head obscure aeneous, not distinctly punctured, the pubescence 
obscuring any sculpturing, the clypeus not separated from the face, 
antenna? extending to about the middle of the elytra, black, the 
second and third joint more or less fulvous, the second thickened, 
shorter than the third, the terminal joints slightly thickened ; thorax 
subcylindrical, the sides rounded at the middle, constricted anteriorly 
and posteriorly, the surface sculptured like that of the head, fur- 
nished with very short golden pubescence ; elytra dark aeneous, closely 
and distinctly punctured, the punctures arranged in very closely 
approached rows and clothed with thin grey pubescence, below and 
the femora blackish, the tibiae entire, fulvous, the tarsi black, claws 
bifid. 

Hab. Cape Colony, Dunbrody (Rev. O'Neil). 

Of this little species I received a single specimen, it 
agrees with the other species of the genus in the entire 
tibiae and general shape but differs in sculpturing and in 
the colour of the legs. 

Mashonania, gen. n. 
Body elongate, pubescent above, eyes entire, antennae filiform, the 
second joint scarcely shorter than the third, thorax transverse, the 
lateral margins distinct, scutellum subpentagonal, elytra irregularly 
punctured, legs slender, the femora moderately thickened, tibiae not 
emarginate at the apex, the claws bifid, prosternum narrow between 
the coxae, the anterior margin of the thoracic episternum concave. 

The affinities of this genus seem to be partly those of 
the Leprotitcs and those of the Pseudocolaspitcs, the shape 
and the general pubescent upper surface agree with the 
first-named group, but the thorax has distinct lateral 
margins ; the entire tibiae and bifid claws agree with the 
Pseudocolaspitcs, but the prosternum is narrow and the 
general appearance of the insect different; this latter 
agrees better with Malegia or Habrophora and Lefewca, 
from the last-named genus, the different shape of the 
thorax and the pubescent upper surface separates the 
genus. 

Mashonania bnmnea, sp. n. 

Pale fulvous above, below black, antennae and legs fulvous, upper 
surface closely covered with silky yellowish hairs, elytra minutely 
and closely punctured. 

Length 3^ millim. 



248 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

Head broad, the clypeus not defined, closely and strongly punc- 
tured, the rest of the surface closely pubescent, apex of the clypeus 
straight, palpi slender, flavous, antennas extending to about the 
middle of the elytra, slender, the basal three joints of nearly equal 
length, the following longer, the terminal ones slightly thickened, 
thorax twice and a half as broad as long, the sides rounded, slightly 
narrowed anteriorly, the basal margin oblique, slightly produced 
at the middle, the surface closely covered with grey pubescence, 
obscuring the sculpturing, scutellum similarly pubescent, elytra not 
wider at the base than the thorax, elongate and rather pointed at the 
apex, finely and closely punctured, the puncturing nearly invisible 
on account of the yellowish-grey pubescence ; the breast and abdomen 
blackish, sparingly covered with hairs. 

Hah. Mashonaland, Salisbury (G. Marshall). 



Mashonania nigrita, sp. n. 

Black, pubescent, the antennas fulvous, the upper joints fuscous, 
thorax transverse, finely coriaceous, clothed with white pubescence, 
elytra finely semipunctate- striate, pubescent like the thorax, femora 
with a tooth. 

Length 3 mil Km. 

Of entirely black colour, the head finely coriaceous, opaque, the 
eyes large, entire, the clypeus not separated from the face, its sides 
raised in shape of a ridge, labrum fulvous, the terminal joints of the 
palpi piceous, antennae slender, the third and fourth joint equal, 
longer than the second, fourth and following joints more elongate, 
not thickened ; thorax twice as broad as long, the sides rounded, the 
angles not produced but distinct, the disc entirely coriaceous or 
finely rugose and clothed like the head with fine white pubescence, 
scutellum subquadrate, pubescent, elytra with closely approached 
rows of fine punctures, opaque, pubescent like the other parts, 
femora rather thickened, with a distinct tooth. 

Hah. Natal, Malvern (ft Barker). 

The single specimen kindly sent by Mr. Barker agrees 
entirely with the other species except in the dentate 
femora, but this character may possibly be peculiar only to 
the male sex as is sometimes the case ; the whole insect 
is of black and opaque coloration with the exception of 
the labrum and the antennae. 



African Phytophagotis Colcoptera. 249 

Rhembastus semibmtnnctis, sp. n. 

Fulvous with oeneous gloss, the antenna? and legs paler, head and 
thorax closely punctured, the latter crowded with round, nearly 
confluent punctures, elytra fulvous with seneous gloss, closely 
punctate-striate, the interstices longitudinally costate, the lateral 
margins dark ameous. 

Length 3 millim. 

Of subelongate shape, fulvous with a slight aeneous gloss, the head 
strongly rugose at the vertex the punctures confluent, the clypeus 
less strongly but very closely punctured, its anterior margin slightly 
concave, eyes surrounded by a narrow sulcus, antennae of moderate 
length, entirely pale fulvous, the second joint quite as long, if not 
longer than the third one, the terminal five joints thickened ; thorax 
more than twice as broad as long, the sides rather strongly rounded 
at the middle, the angles distinct, the surface crowded with deep 
round punctures extending to all the margins, with a faint metallic 
greenish gloss, the lateral margins darker, scutellum impunctate, 
elytra of a more pronounced fulvous colour with a faint metallic 
hue, finely and regularly punctate-striate, the interstices at the sides 
longitudinally costate, the punctures at the same place larger and 
deeper, the lateral margins dark greenish ameous, legs fulvous, 
the femora with a very minute tooth ; the prosternum elongate, 
narrowed at the middle, strongly rugose ; claws deeply bifid. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury (G. Marshall). 

Of this species Mr. Marshall has sent three specimens, 
they differ from any of their allies in the rugosely punc- 
tured head and thorax in connection with the costate 
and semifulvous elytra. Lefevre has described a species, 
Syagrus rugiccps (Descript. new spec. Trans. S. Afric. Philo- 
soph. Soc. 1890), which seems to agree with the present 
insect in colour and sculpturing (to judge from a five-line 
description), but his species is of double the size and of 
different coloration. 

R. puncticollis, Har., seems another closely allied species 
but is described as " cupreo-aeneus," with reddish-piceous 
antennae and legs, and no mention is made of the costate 
lateral interstices of the elytra, nor is a certain deter- 
mination of such closely allied species possible when such 
short and unsatisfactory descriptions are given. 

Rhembastus inermis, sp. n. 
Pale fulvous with a slight seneous gloss, apical joints of the 



250 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

antennae fuscous, thorax closely punctured, elytra strongly punctate- 
striate, the punctures often doubled, the interstices convex, femora 
unarmed. 

Length 4-5 millim. 

Of rather elongate shape, the head finely and not very closely 
punctured, the clypeus not or scarcely separated from the face, 
transverse, similarly punctured as the head, antennae extending to 
the middle of the elytra, fulvous, the terminal four joints fuscous, 
second joint as long as the following ones, basal joint short and 
thick, thorax nearly twice as broad as long, the sides but slightly 
deflexed, feebly rounded, with a narrow margin, the surface slightly 
more strongly punctured than the head, the sides more closely 
so than the disc, the punctures of slightly oblong shape, scutellum 
oblong, impunctate ; elytra subcylindrical, generally of paler 
coloration than the thorax, the punctuation scarcely stronger than 
that of the thorax, arranged in somewhat irregular rows, often 
geminately, the interstices, especially at the sides longitudinally 
costate, the punctuation distinct to the apex ; below rather darker, 
the femora without a tooth, the posterior tibiae deeply emarginate at 
the apex, claws bifid. 

Hah. Zambi (Belgian Mus. and my collection). 

This species agrees in every respect with PJicmhastus 
except in the unarmed femora which even under a strong 
lens show no sign of a tooth, but as this character is not 
always to be depended on it would not be wise to separate 
the insect generically; the female is much larger and 
broader and the upper surface is frequently more aeneous in 
colour than fulvous, but the apex of the elytra is in all the 
specimens before me paler than the rest of the surface ; 
the species is principally distinguished by the irregular 
punctures forming the elytral strise and by the unarmed 
femora, the prosternum is broad but scarcely sulcate at 
the sides. 

Bhembastus mashonanus, sp. n. 

Dark piceous with aeneous lustre, the basal joints of the antennae 
fulvous, head and thorax closely and rather strongly punctured, 
elytra punctured in irregular rows, the punctures often double, 
nearly indistinct near the apex, femora unarmed. 

Length 4 millim. 

Of elongate, subcylindrical shape, the head very closely and 
rather strongly punctured, the punctures confluent at the clypeus, 
the latter not separated from the face, its anterior edge straight, 



African Phytophagous Coleoptera. 251 

obscure fulvous, palpi pale fulvous, eyes not surrounded by a sulcus, 
antennae slender, extending below the middle of the elytra, black, 
the lower three or four joints fulvous, the second joint nearly as long 
as the third, but thicker, the fourth to the seventh joint fulvous at 
the apex, the terminal ones distinctly thicker, thorax transversely 
subquadrate, twice as broad as long, the sides nearly straight, the 
anterior angles slightly prominent, the surface closely impressed 
with deep, round punctures, which extend to all the margins, 
scutellum elongate, impunctate, its apex pointed, elytra strongly and 
irregularly punctate-striate, the punctures frequently double especi- 
ally so anteriorly, the interstices also with some very fine punctures 
but not raised ; below and the legs dark piceous, the tarsi rather 
lighter ; prosternum oblong, distinctly punctured, slightly longi- 
tudinally sulcate at the sides. 

Hah. Mashon ALAND, Salisbury (G. Marshall). 

Colasposoma curvipes, sp. n. 

Dark aeneous, very shining, head and thorax finely and closely 
punctured, elytra as closely but more strongly punctured than the 
thorax, the interstices at the sides finely transversely rugose, anterior 
tibiae curved. 

Mas. Thorax strongly transverse, widened at the sides, elytra with 
a feeble lateral depression, anterior femora dentate, their tibiae 
strongly curved. 

Length 5-6 millim. 

Mas. Head iinely and somewhat closely punctured, with a feeble 
central groove, the clypeus rather obsoletely separated from the face, 
the sutures stained with cupreous, antennae extending below the 
middle of the elytra, black, the lower two or three joints fulvous, 
the basal joint more or less stained with aeneous, thorax about three 
times broader than long, narrowed at the middle, the anterior 
margin strongly concave, the sides strongly rounded, widest at the 
base, the disc convex, finely and closely punctured, the sides finely 
transversely strigose (more distinctly so in the female), scutellum 
twice as broad as long, with a few punctures, elytra rather short, 
feebly depressed below the base, closely and more strongly punctured 
than the thorax, the punctures unevenly arranged in rows near the 
suture, the sides more irregularly punctate and finely transversely 
rugose ; the penis strongly curved, the apex produced into a long 
and pointed end. 

Hal. Ikuta, Africa or. 

Of this distinct species I received several specimens 



252 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

from the Belgian Museum. The insects may perhaps 
best be compared to C. laticolle, Lefev., on account of the 
laterally broadened thorax, but the entire colour is dark 
bronze or aeneous and the sculpturing of the upper surface 
is quite different, the same parts are also very shining and 
not subopaque, the colour of the legs does not differ from 
that of the body and the anterior femora are armed with 
a distinct tooth ; the penis of C. laticolle is not produced 
into a long point but is suddenly constricted at the apex 
into a short tooth. 

Corynodes auripes, sp. n. 

Greenish-blue, head and thorax minutely punctured, very shining, 
elytra subopaque, finely punctured in irregular rather distant rows, 
legs metallic greenish-cupreous, claws appendiculate. 

Length 12 millim. 

Head finely punctured, very convex, the supra ocular sulci very 
broad and deep, impunctate, clypens separated by deep grooves, 
wedge-shaped, closely and not very strongly punctured and finely 
pubescent, labrum greenish, mandibles black, antenna? not extending 
to the middle of the elytra, the lower five joints cupreous, the rest 
dark purplish, very broadly dilated, thorax subcylindrical, rather 
long, the lateral margins straight, the disc very closely and finely 
punctured intermixed with numerous larger punctures, the surface 
of a brassy greenish tint, much more shining than the elytra, the 
latter greenish -blue, with double or treble very irregular rows of fine 
punctures, the interstices aciculate, the breast and the legs metallic 
green, the tibiae and tarsi more or less cupreous, abdomen dark blue, 
closely punctured ; the penis is short End strongly curved, the apex 
strongly rounded and rather suddenly pointed, the upper cavity 
short and broad. 

Hob. Bibi, Bahr el Gazal (Coll. Belgian Mus. and my 
own). 

I know of no African Corynodes of similar coloration in 
connection with the elytral sculpture. 

Corynodes varicolor, sp. n. 

Obscure cupreous, violaceous or blue, the head sparingly punctured, 
the thorax elongate, scarcely perceptibly punctured, elytra rather 
finely, closely and regularly punctured, the punctures more closely 
and irregularly placed near the apex, claws appendiculate. 

Length 10 millim. 



African Phytophagous Goleoptera. 253 

Elongate and nearly parallel, the head very strongly convex at the 
vertex, the latter sparingly punctured, the clypeus bounded at the 
separation from the face above by two deep oblong fovea which are 
divided by a narrow central ridge, antennas extending beyond the 
base of the thorax, the last five joints very strongly widened and 
flattened, black or purplish j thorax conical, elongate, narrowed 
anteriorly, the sides straight, very strongly deflexed, the surface 
extremely minutely and irregularly punctured, very shining ; elytra 
subcylindrical, punctured in closely approached irregular rows ; 
below nearly impunctate, the sides of the thorax extremely finely 
strigose. 

Hob. Dahomey, Porto Novo. 

I must separate this species from any of its African 
congeners on account of the sculpturing of the thorax and 
that of the elytra, which is less closely placed and more 
regular than in G. compressicomis, Fab. This insect is also 
of different coloration, the thorax is shorter and broader, 
and the claws are bifid. G. dejeani, Berth., has a strongly 
punctured thorax and semi-rugose elytra ; there are speci- 
mens of the present insect before me of blue, violet and 
semicupreous colour, in the larger probably female insect, 
the elytral puncturing is very close and fine, and the 
interstices are often finely aciculate. 



Anomomcra, Fairm. (Ann. Fr. 1887). 

I cannot find any differences to separate this genus from 
Ccntroscelis, in which the tibiae are likewise widened into 
a tooth at the apex. Fairmaire compares his genus with 
Gonioctena only, but not with the first-named genus, and 
the dilated posterior femora and the structure of the claws 
are likewise to be found in Centroscelis ; as to the shape of 
the prosternum and the state of the cavities, or the smooth 
or pubescent elytral epipleuraa, the author leaves us in 
ignorance. 

Chrysomela tra?tsvalense, sp. n. 

Dark aeneous, subopaque, the antennas and the under side and 
legs nearly black, thorax finely and sparingly punctured, more 
closely so at the sides, elytra much more strongly and irregularly 
punctate, the space near the lateral margins impunctate. 

Length 6 millim. 



254 Mr. M. Jacoby on 

Head minutely granulate and extremely finely and remotely 
punctured when seen under a very strong lens, the clypeus separated 
by a deep semicircular groove, antennae black, short, the basal joint 
very robust, nearly subquadrate, the second short, the third longer 
than the fourth joint, the terminal five thickened, the apical joint 
ovately pointed ; thorax about twice and a half broader than long, 
the sides nearly straight, slightly rounded and narrowed towards the 
apex, all the angles distinct but not acute, the surface finely and 
remotely punctured, intermixed with some still smaller punctuation, 
the latter more closely placed but scarcely stronger at the sides than 
at the middle, scutellum small ; elytra widened towards the middle, 
very convex, much more strongly punctured than the thorax, the 
punctures irregularly and not closely placed, the suture unaccom- 
panied by an impressed line, the interstices very minutely granulate, 
without smaller punctures, the space near the lateral margins rather 
broadly impunctate, the latter itself accompanied by a row of deep 
punctures ; epipleuree very broad and smooth, impunctate and non- 
pubescent ; prostemum very narrow with a central raised ridge, 
claws simple. 

Hah. Transvaal. 

I find it quite impossible to determine with any degree 
of certainty the unicolorous aeneous species of this genus 
described, or rather diagnosed, by Vogel in his monograph ; 
the differences he points out in his species are so vague 
and unsatisfactory, and apply only partially to any species, 
and all details so necessary are withheld, that it seems to 
me to be better to ignore all those of his species which are 
mentioned in this way. I cannot refer the present insect 
to any of that author's species, since the punctuation of 
the thorax and that of the elytra do not agree, as far as 
I am able to judge ; the ridge of the presternum seems 
another distinguishing character of the present insect, 
which may possibly be Vogel's C. natalensis, although the 
lateral portions of the elytra near the margins are not 
raised as the author gives it. 

Polystida confluens, Gerst. var. marshalli, sp. n. 

Reddish fulvous, the terminal joints of the antennae, the sides of 
the breast and the legs black, thorax variolose-punctate at the .sides 
only, with four small black spots, elytra finely punctate-striate, the 
interstices minutely punctured. 

Var. Thorax without spots. 

Length 8 millim. 



African Phytophagous Coleoptera. 255 

Head with a few minute punctures, the clypeus distinctly separated 
by oblique grooves, palpi black, the last joint scarcely shorter than 
the preceding one, antennae short, extending to the base of the thorax 
only, black, the lower two joints flavous, terminal joints strongly 
transverse ; thorax three times broader than long, the sides straight, 
rounded anteriorly, the anterior margin deeply concave below the 
eyes, nearly straight at the middle, the disc very minutely and rather 
sparingly punctured, variolose -punctate near the lateral margins, of 
a pale brick-red colour, with four round black spots of which two 
small ones are placed at the middle near the base and the others 
rather larger a little higher near the sides, scutellum deep black, 
impunctate, elytra rather finely punctate-striate, the punctures not 
very regularly placed, below coloured like the upper side, the breast 
at the sides and the legs black, claws simple, the anterior coxal 
cavities open. 

Hab. Mashon aland, Salisbury (G. Marshall). 

Mr. Marshall has sent two specimens of this interesting 
variety which he took in company with the normal form. 

Chrysomela salisburiensis, sp. n. 

Metallic aeneous below, the basal joints of the antennas flavous, 
thorax metallic green, the sides with a large cupreous patch, deeply 
depressed and confluently punctured, elytra reddish cupreous, with 
five metallic green narrow bands, the latter limited by rows of fine 
punctures, the interstices impunctate. 

Length 7 millim. 

Hab. Mashonaland, Salisbury ; in swamp (G. Marshall). 

I am obliged to separate this species from C. americana, 
L., to which insect it is otherwise closely allied, for several 
reasons, the sculpturing of the thorax, that of the elytra 
and the structure of the male organ is quite different ; in 
C. americana the lateral margins of the thorax are scarcely 
raised, and the punctures preceding them are well separ- 
ated and distinct ; in the present insect, on the contrary, 
the margins are strongly raised, and preceded by a broad 
and flattened depression, within which the punctures are 
so crowded (in the male insect) as to be almost indistinct ; 
this is not so much the case in the female, but more 
marked also here than in the allied species, the punctua- 
tion of the elytra is not deep and regular, but tine, and 
the rows of punctures are not anything so regularly placed 



256 Mr. M. Jacoby on African Phytophagoios Coleoptera. 

as in C. americana ; lastly, the penis is much more strongly 
curved and broader, but agrees in general structure except 
at the apex, which at the sides is turned downwards into 
a triangular widening near the point. 

Specimens from Abyssinia in my collection are larger, 
but the sculpturing of the thorax and that of the elytra 
are similar, except that the interstices between the narrow 
green bands are finely but distinctly punctured ; whether 
this is again another closely allied form, or only a local 
aberration, the examination of the penis will probably 
decide, but I have only female specimens for examination. 
Lastly, Fair m aire has described a G. interversa from Kili- 
mandjaro, which he says differs from C. americana in the 
reversion of the elytral coloured bands, but his description 
is quite unintelligible in regard to these bands, as he 
speaks of a sutural, a 4th, 5th, and 7th band (meaning, 
I suppose, the narrow purplish stripes which are limited 
by punctures, but of which each elytron only has five). 
I possess a specimen likewise from Kilimandjaro which 
answers partly Fairmaire's description, but as the author 
says nothing of the sculpture of the thorax, or other 
details, his species must remain obscure. My specimen, 
from the same locality, agrees in the main points with 
C. americana, but as it is a female one cannot come to a 
settled conclusion as to its identity. Of C. salisburiensis 
there are three specimens before me which agree very 
nearly in the details pointed out above. 



Explanation of Plate X. 

Fig. 1. Cryptocephalus lividus. 

2 J ,, varioplagiatus. 

3. , , barkeri. 

4. Miopristis hirta. 

5. „ varipes. 

6. „ melanocephalus. 

7. Camptolenes brevitarsis. 

8. Diapromorpha tigrina. 

9. Peploptera curvilinea. 

10. Diapromorpha terminata. 

11. Gyriodera subl&vicollis. 

12. Himerida clavareauL 



( 257 ) 



XII. A Revision of the American Notodontidie, 
By William Schaus, F.Z.S. 

[Read June 5th, 1901.] 

Plates XI and XII. 

In the present revision of American Notodontidte I have 
omitted the Melalophidse as separated by Mr. Dyar, and 
hope on some future occasion to give this sub-group my 
attention. Besides the types in the British Museum and 
at Oxford, I have been able to examine the types figured 
by Felder, those described by Mr. Dognin, and very nearly 
all described by Mr. Herbert Druce. I have not referred to 
Hetcrocampa mariva, Dogn., IT. nea, Druce, and H. volana, 
Druce, which are Noctuidse, and likewise a number of 
species included in the Biologia Centrali-Americana, and 
Kirby's catalogue under the Notodontidie, as they belong 
to other families. The types of a Dumber of Walker's 
species described from the Fry collection are lost, and so 
far as I am able to identify them from the description, 
they belong to other groups. Peroma anomala, Sureta 
tripars, Scmega orcus and Sidana bifascies may all refer to 
species of Hemiceras. Burmeister in his Atlas, PL xxii. 
fig. 2, figures the larva of an Awwrocampa camelinoides — 
A. canovaria, Walk., and fig. 3, A. vomax, which he 
believes to be A. melanostigma , Walk. Walker described 
a Naprepa camelinerdes, and the figure may refer to this 
species, but A. canovaria, Walk., is evidently a species of 
Hydrias, and A. melanostigma a species of Titya, so fig. 3 
no doubt refers to a new species, or it may eventually 
prove to be Naprepa elongate, Schs. I have not always 
given the synonymy of the North American species, as 
they have been so admirably worked out by Professor 
Packard. At Rennes I have examined Guenee's types 
of the genus Hemiceras, and have carefully compared 
specimens of all the species in my collection. I have not 
seen Moschler's types, but his descriptions arc all that 
could be desired. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC, LOND. 1901. — PART III. (SEPT.) 1 S 



258 Mr. W. Schaus's 

Key to the Genera. 
A. Vein 5 on secondaries present. 

a. Inner margin of primaries without tuft of scales. 
a 1 . Areole present. 

a 2 . Vein 5 on primaries from upper angle of cell. 

« 3 . Veins 8-10 stalked Calledema. 

b 3 . Veins 7-8 stalked. 

a\ Apex of primaries truncated Drastoma. 

/A Apex of primaries not truncated . . . Pronerice. 

c 3 . Veins 7- 8 not stalked .• Tagela. 

b 2 . Vein 5 on primaries from below upper angle 
of cell, or from middle of discocellular. 
a 3 . Veins 6 and 7 from upper angle of cell . . Strophocerus. 
Z> 3 . Vein 6 only from upper angle of cell, or from 
areole near cell. 
a 4 . Veins 7-10 stalked. 

a;\ Veins 3 and 4 on secondaries stalked . Antiora. 
6 5 . Veins 3 and 4 on secondaries from a point Anurocampa. 
b\ Veins 8-10 stalked 

cv\ Outer margin of primaries crenulate . Nadata. 
b 5 . Outer margin of primaries not crenulate. 
a 6 . Veins 6 and 7 on secondaries from 

a point Cargida. 

b 6 . Veins 6 and 7 on secondaries stalked. 
a 7 . Palpi with third joint as long as 

second Minara. 

b 7 . Palpi with third joint very short . Nerice. 
c 4 . Veins 7-8 stalked. 

a 5 . Outer margin of primaries oblique. 

a 6 . Anal tuft hairy Nystalea. 

b c \ Anal tuft distinctly bifurcating . . Pentobesa. 
6 5 . Outer margin hardly oblique. , 

a 6 . Vein 8 on secondaries diverging from 

7 at middle of cell Heorta. 

b 6 . Vein 8 on secondaries diverging from 
7 at end of cell. 
a 7 . Veins 3 and 4 on secondaries apart Theroa. 
b 7 . Veins 3 and 4 on secondaries from 

a point Euhyparpax. 

d\ Veins 7-8 not stalked. 
oA Antennae fasciculate. 
a 6 . Primaries crenulate. 
a 7 . Palpi with third joint long. 

a*. Veins 6-7 on secondaries stalked Bardaxima. 



Revision of the American Notodontidm. 259 

6 8 . Veins 6-7 on secondaries not 

stalked Phedosia. 

b 7 . Palpi with third joint short. 
a 8 . No frontal tuft. 

a 9 . Outer margin of primaries not 

angled Mymiotis. 

b 9 . Outer margin of primaries 

angled Ctianopha. 

fe 8 . A high frontal tuft Prodymiotis. 

o 6 . Primaries not crenulate. 

a 7 . Palpi with third joint short. 

a 8 . A long tuft of hairs at base of 

antenna} Lysana. 

b H . A raised tuft on head .... Pseudantiora. 
c 8 . Head without raised tuft. 

a 9 . Veins 3-4 on secondaries stalked Cottobara. 
b 9 . Veins 3-4 on secondaries not 
stalked. 
a 10 . Abdomen with fan .shape 

anal tuft Marthida. 

6 10 . Abdomen without fan shape 
anal tuft. 
a 11 . Fore legs smooth . . . Antiopha. 
b 11 . Fore legs hairy .... Eragisa. 
c 10 . Abdomen with tuft of 

spatulate scales .... Grinodes. 
b 1 . Palpi with third joint long. 

a, 8 . Wings broad Poresta. 

b 8 . Wings narrow. 

a 9 . Head with raised tuft . . . Lepasta. 
b 9 . Head without raised tuft. 

a 10 . Apex of primaries rounded Tachuda. 
6 10 . Apex of primaries acute 

somewhat falcate . . . Contrebia. 
b b . Antennas pectinated to tips. 
a 6 . Veins 3-4 on secondaries apart . . Hyparpax. 
6 6 . Veins 3-4 on secondaries from a 

point Kalkoma. 

c 6 . Antennae pectinated, but not to tips. 
a°. Head with a raised tuft. 

a 1 . Palpi with 3rd joint long . . . Didugua. 
b". Palpi with 3rd joint short . . . Dasylophia. 
b G . Head without a raised tuft. 
a 7 . Veins 7-8 on primaries short. 



260 Mr. W. Scbans's 

a 8 . Vein 8 on secondaries diverging 

from 7 at end of cell .... Farigia. 
b 8 . Vein 8 on secondaries diverging 

from 7 before end of cell . . Pesudodryas. 
b 7 . Veins 7-8 ©n primaries long. 
a 8 . Vein 8 on secondaries close to 7 to 

end of cell Eustema. 

b 8 . Vein 8 on secondaries diverging 
from 7 at middle of cell. 
a 9 . Veins 3 and 4 on secondaries 

apart Tecmessa. 

b Q . Veins 3 and 4 on secondaries 

from a point Psorocampa. 

c 3 . Vein 6 from end or near end of areole. 
a 4 . Veins 7-10 stalked. 

a 5 . Palpi with 3rd joint long Hippia. 

b b . Palpi with 3rd joint short Symmerista. 

6 4 . Veins 7-8 stalked. 
a 5 . Veins 3 and 4 on secondaries close 
together. 

a 6 . Areole long Arhacia. 

b r \ Areole short. 
a 7 . Antennae pectinated to tips . . . Cerura. 
b 7 . Antennae pectinated but not to tips Betola. 
b b . Veins 3 and 4 on secondaries apart. 

a 5 . Wings long and narrow Lirimiris. 

b 6 . Wings short and broad Gopha. 

c 4 . Veins 7 and 8 not stalked. 

a 5 . Wings long and narrow Naduna. 

b 5 . Wings short and broad ...... Pauluma. 

d 3 . Vein 6 from about centre of areole or at 
base of areole when originating beyond cell. 

a 4 . Veins 8-10 stalked Drugera. 

6 4 . Veins 7-8 stalked Hardinyia. 

c 4 . Veins 7 and 8 not stalked. 
a 5 . Antenna? pectinated to tips. 

a G . Areole short Eucerura. 

b 6 . Areole long Salluea. 

b 5 . Antennae pectinated but not to tips. 

a 6 . Fore legs with broad curved tufts . SJcaphita. 
b 6 . Fore legs hairy. 

a 7 . Vein 8 on secondaries close to 7 to 
end or near end of cell. 
<x 8 . Head tufted. 



Revision of the American Notodontidm. 2G1 

a' J . Wings narrow, outer margin 

oblique Dicentria. 

b {) . Wings broader, outer margin 

more rounded Schizura. 

b 8 . Head hairy, no tuft. 

a 9 . Wings short and broad . . . Litodonta. 
b 9 . Wings long and narrow. 
a 10 . Areole originating beyond 

cell PsUacron. 

b 1Q . Areole originating before 
end of cell. 
a 11 . Vein 5 from middle of 

discocellular .... Misogada. 
b 11 . Vein 5 from near upper 

angle of cell .... Notuplusia. 
b 1 . Vein 8 on secondaries diverging 
from 7 at middle of cell. 
a 8 . Apex of secondaries obtuse . . Dognina. 
b 8 . Apex of secondaries rounded. 
a 9 . Costal margin of secondaries 
below not very hairy. 
« 10 . Apex of primaries very 

acute Ichthyosoma. 

b 10 . Apex of primaries not very 

acute Heterocampa. 

b 9 . Costal margin of secondaries 
below with long hairs and 

thick tufts Malocampa. 

"\ Antenna) fasciculate. 
a G . Fascicles long on basal half .... Magava. 
b 6 . Fascicles short on basal half. 
a 7 . Vein 8 close to 7 to end of cell. 
a 8 . Outer margin of primaries 
oblique. 
a 9 . Outer margin crenulate. 

a 10 . Palpi with 3rd joint short . Rhuda. 
b 10 . Palpi with 3rd joint long . Gisara. 
b 9 . Outer margin not crenulate. 
a 10 . Veins 3 and 4 on secondaries 

apart Boriza. 

b 10 . Veins 3 and 4 on secondaries 
from a point. 
a 11 . Costal margin of second- 
aries straight at base. 



262 Mr. W. Schaus's 



a 12 . Apex acute .... Blera. 
b n . Apex rounded . . . Chadisra. 
6 11 . Costal margin of second- 
aries convex on basal 
half. 



a 12 . Abdomen with long 



anal tuft .... Rincodes. 
b 12 . Abdomen without long 

anal tuft .... Talmenia. 
b B . Outer margin of primaries 
rounded. 
a 9 . Outer margin crenulate . . Ophitis. 
b 9 . Outer margin not crenulate. 
a 10 . Legs and palpi very hairy . Meragisa. 
6 10 . Legs and palpi not very 

hairy Phastia. 

b 7 . Vein 8 diverging from 7 at middle 
of cell. 
a 8 . Outer margin of primaries 
angled. 
a 9 . Outer margin concave below 

apex Enxoga. 

b 9 . Outer margin concave below 

vein 6 Goaxis. 

b s . Outer margin of primaries not 
angled. 
d J . Inner angle of primaries much 

rounded Maschaae. 

b 9 . Inner angle of primaries not 

rounded Rifargia. 

b 1 . Areole absent. 

a 2 . Veins 6-10, or 7-10 stalked. 
a 3 . Vein 10 from beyond 7. 

a 4 . Veins 3 and 4 on secondaries close together. 

a 5 . Vein 8 free Afilia. 

fr 5 . Vein 8 connected with 7 at middle of 

cell by a bar Lobeza. 

6 4 . Veins 3 and 4 on secondaries apart. 

a 5 . Palpi long Lusura. 

6 5 . Palpi small Gluphisia. 

6 3 . Vein 10 from before 7. 

a 4 . Vein 6 on primaries at some distance from 
cell. 
a 5 . Veins 3 and 4 on secondaries apart . . Nagidusa. 



Revision of the American Notodontidw. 263 

b 3 . Veins 3 and 4 en secondaries from a 
point. 
a 6 . Antenna? pectinated to tips .... Ellida. 
b 6 . Antennae not pectinated to tips . . Macrurocampa. 
6 4 . Vein 6 on primaries at or close to angle 
of cell. 
ct 5 . Antennae pectinated to tips. 

a 6 . Veins 6-7 on secondaries on long stalk Harpyia. 
6 f5 . Veins 6-7 on secondaries on short stalk Notela. 
b 5 . Antennae not pectinated to tips. 

a G . Long tufts of hairs at base of antennae Euharpyia. 
6°. No tufts of hairs at base of antennae Eimotela. 

b 2 . Veins 6-9 stalked Eunystalea. 

b. Inner margin of primaries with tuft of scales. 
a 1 . Primaries with areole. 

a 2 . Vein 5 from upper angle of cell. 
a 3 . Inner margin excised and deeply lobed. 

a 4 . Outer margin of primaries angled . . . Pontala. 
b\ Outer margin of primaries rounded . . Apela. 
b 3 . Inner margin of primaries rounded . . . Dylomia. 
b 2 . Vein 5 from below angle of cell. 
a 3 . Outer margin crenulate. 

a 4 . Veins 7-8 stalked Naprepa. 

/A Veins 8-10 stalked. 

a 5 . Vein 8 close to 7 to near end of cell . . Lophopteryx. 
b'°. Vein 8 diverging at middle of cell . . Herbertina. 

c 4 . Veins 8-10 not stalked Odontosia. 

b 3 . Outer margin not crenulate Hyperseschra. 

b l . Areole absent. 
a 2 . Veins 6-10 stalked. 

a 6 . Antennae shortly pectinated Notodonta. 

b 3 . Antenna? simple Lophodonta. 

b 2 . Veins 7-10 stalked Plieosia. 

B. Vein 5 on secondaries absent. 

a. Areole present. 

a 1 . Antennae pectinated to tips Goacampa. 

b l . Antennae not pectinated to tips. 

a 2 . Vein 8 diverging from 7 at middle of cell . . Kurtia. 

b 2 . Vein 8 diverging at base of cell Anita 

b. Areole absent. 

a 1 . Veins 3 and 4 on secondaries apart Golax. 

b 1 . Veins 3 and 4 on secondaries from a point. 

a 2 . Antennae of £ pectinated on basal half . . Hemiceras. 

b 2 . Antennae not pectinated. 



264 Mr. W. Schaus's 

a 6 . Antennae nodose at base Hapigia. 

6 3 . Antennae not nodose at base. 

aK Palpi with 3rd joint short . . . Ohliara. 

h*. Palpi with 3rd joint long .... Antsea. 
c 2 . Antennae pectinated to tips. 

a 3 . Inner margin of primaries excised . Pseudhapigia. 

6 3 . Inner margin of primaries straight . Canodia. 



Calledema. 
Calledema, Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 65 (1878). * 

Antennae fasciculate. Palpi porrect, long, especially the second 
joint. Primaries : apex acute, slightly falcate ; outer margin much 
rounded to vein 4, then oblique to inner margin ; vein 5 from upper 
angle of cell ; veins 8-10 stalked. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from 
a point ; 6 and 7 on short stalk. 

Type. C. marmorea, Butl. 
Marmorea, Butl., 1. c. (1878). 
Sodalis, Butl., 1. c, p. Q6, t. 3, f. 7 (1878). 
Plusia, Feld. (Nystalea), Reise Nov., t. xcvii, f. 7 (1874). 
Plusioides, Feld. (Nystalea), 1. c, f. 4 (1874). 
Jocasta, Schs., sp. nov. 

Calledema jocasta, sp. nov. 

Primaries olivaceous-grey, with transverse wavy white striae ; an 
indistinct, geminate, basal reddish line ; a dark line from the costa at 
a third from the base, through the cell and between veins 4 and 5 to 
the outer margin ; this line is reddish-brown on costa, otherwise black ; 
a reddish-brown spot below the median vein at vein 2 ; a large quad- 
rate, reddish-brown spot on costa at two-thirds from the base. Second- 
aries brownish-grey. 

Expanse 41 m.m. 

Hob. Rio Janeiko. 

Drastoma, gen. nov. 

Female. Antennae serrate. Palpi short. Primaries slightly con- 
vex at base of costa ; apex truncated ; outer margin angled between 
veins 5 and 6, then rounded to inner margin ; vein 5 from upper 
angle of cell ; 6 from near end of areole ; veins 7 and 8 stalked ; 10 



Revision of the American Notodontidse. 205 

from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 
7 on short stalk. 

Tvpe. D. dardania, Druce. 
Dardania, Druce (Tifama ?), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(6) xv, p. 49 (1895). Biol. Centr.-Amer. Lep. Het., t. 
xci, f. 17. 

Pronerice, gen. no v. 

Palpi extending well beyond head ; first and second joints long ; 
third joint shorter. Primaries long and broad ; costa slightly con- 
vex ; outer margin rounded ; inner margin straight ; vein 5 from 
upper angle of cell ; 6 and 10 from end of areole ;* 7 and 8 on long 
stalk ; areole long and narrow. Secondaries long and broad ; costa 
convex ; veins 3 and 4 from lower angle, 6 and 7 from upper angle 
of cell. 

Type. P. disjuncta, Dognin. 
Disjuncta, Dogn. (Nerice), Le Naturaliste, p. 85 (1892) ; 
Lep. de Loja, p. 90, t. 9, f. 8. 

Tagela, gen. nov. 

Antennas fasciculate. Palpi upturned ; second joint long ; third 
joint one-third as long as second. Legs smooth. Primaries long 
and broad ; the costa nearly straight ; the outer margin slightly 
rounded ; veins 3 and 4 well apart ; 5 from upper angle of cell ; 6 
from near end of areole ; 7 and 8 from a point ; 10 from before end 
of areole. Secondaries : costal margin straight ; outer margin and 
anal angle rounded ; veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 on short 
stalk ; 8 diverging from 7 at one-third of the length of the cell from 
the base. 

Type. T. deniata, Schs. 
Dentata, Schs. (Symmerista), P. Z. S., 1892, p. 335, T. 
xi, f. 1. 

Strophocerus. 

Strophocerus, Moschl., Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges., xxxii, p. 344 

(1883). 

Female antennae fasciculate ; a long tuft of hairs at base of antennae. 
Palpi long • second joint curved ; third joint not half so long as second. 
Legs thin and long. Primaries broad : apex acute, subfalcate ; outer 
margin rounded ; inner angle oblique ; vein 5 from above middle of 
discocellular ; 6 and 7 from upper angle of cell ; 8 from end of areole ; 



266 Mr. W. Schaus's 

9 absent ; 10 stalked with 8. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4, also 6 and 
7 from a point. 

Type. S. floccifcrus, Moschl. 
Flocciferus, Moschl, 1. c, p. 345 (1883), t. 18, f. 35. 

I am unacquainted with this species, and am inclined to 
doubt its belonging to the Notodontidse. 

Antiora. 
Antiora, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. vii, p. 1769 (1856). 

Antennae pectinated. Primaries : veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 5 
from centre of discocellular ; 6 from upper angle of cell ; 7-10 stalked 
from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4, also 6 and 7 stalked ; 
5 from near upper angle of cell. 

Type. A. subfidva, Walk. 
Subfulva, Walk., 1. c. (1856) = Drymonia ochromixta, H. S. 
Ausser.-Europ. Schmett., i, f. 495 (1856). 

Anurocampa. 

Amtrocampa, H. S., Ausser.-Europ. Schmett., i, p. 11 
(1854). 

Antennae pectinated to tips. Palpi hairy, conical, hardly extending 
beyond frons. Primaries : vein 5 from just above middle of disco- 
cellular ; 6 from upper angle of cell ; 7-10 stalked ; areole usually 
short. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 on short 
stalk. 

Type. A. mi?igens, H. S. 
Mingens, H. S., 1. c, fT. 83, 84. Larva figured by Bur- 
meister. Lep. Rep. Arg. Atlas, PI. xxii, f. 1. 

Nadata. 
Nadata, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. v, p. 1062 (1855). 

Antennae pectinated to tips. Palpi short. Thorax with a high 
crest. Primaries : outer margin crenulate ; vein 5 from centre of 
discocellular ; 6 from areole near upper angle of cell ; 8 and 10 
stalked. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 
stalked. 

Type of genus. N. gibbosa, Sm. and Abb. 
Gibbosa, Sm. and Abb. (Phalaena), Lep. Georg., 11, t. 82 
(1797). 



Revision of the American Notodontidsa. 267 

Cargida, gen. nov. 

Antennae pectinated in male, serrate in female. Palpi porrect, 
hairy ; third joint short. Primaries : vein 5 from middle of disco- 
cellular ; 6 from upper angle of cell ; 7 from end of areole ; 8-10 
stalked. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 from a 
point. 

Type. Cargida pyrrha, Druce. 

Byrrha, Druce (Heterocampa ?), Biol. Centr.-Amer. Het., 
p. 459, t. xci, ff. 4, 5 (1898). 

MlNARA. 

Minam, Walk., Cat Lep. Het., B. M. vii, p. 1711 (1856). 

Antennce pectinated to tips in male, simple in female. Palpi 
hairy, porrect, extending just beyond frons ; third joint half as long 
as second. Primaries broad ; vein 5 from centre of discocellular ; 6 
from upper angle of cell ; areole long ; 8 and 10 on short stalk. 
Secondaries ; veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. M. histrionica, H. S. 
Histrionica, H. S. (Notodonta), Ausser.-Europ. Schmett., 
i, f. 382 (1855) = Pardalina, Walk. (Minara), 1. c, 
p. 1712 (1856). 

Nerice. 

Nerice, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. v, p. 1076 (1855). 

Antennae pectinated to tips. Palpi : third joint very short. 
Primaries : vein 5 from centre of discocellular ; 6 from areole, 
usually near upper angle ; areole long ; 8 and 10 stalked. 
Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. iV. Bidentata, Walk. 
Bidentata, Walk., 1. c., p. 1076 (1855). 

Nystalea. 

Nystalea, Guen., Spec. Gen. Lep. No-ct., ii, p. 122 (1852). 
Cyrrhesta, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xi, p. 633 (1857). 

Antenna? fasciculate. Palpi extending a little beyond frons ; 
second joint very hairy, smooth ; third joint very small. Head 
with raised tufts. Wings long and narrow. Primaries : the outer 
margin slightly rounded, oblique, somewhat crenulate ; vein 5 from 
above middle of discocellular ; 6 from areole near cell, usually ; 



268 Mr. W. Schaus's 

areole long, narrow, originating from before end of cell j 7 and 8 
more or less stalked. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 
and 7 usually stalked ; 8 close to 7 to near end of cell. 

Type. N. ebalea, Cr. 
Ebalea, Cr. (Noctua) Pap. Exot., iv, t. 310, C. (1781) = 

Conchy/era, Guen. (Nystalea), 1. c, p. 122, t. 9, f. 2 

(1852). 
Nyseus, Cr. (Noctua) Pap. Exot., i, t. 75, E. (1775) = Nyseus 

(Cyrrhesta), Walk., 1. c, p. C33 = Guttiylena, Walk. 

(Nystalea), 1. c, xi, p. 635 (1857). 
Swpcrciliosa, Guen., 1. c, p. 123 (1852). 
Zinciplcna, Walk., 1. c, xi, p. 635 (1857) = Cucullia, Feld. 

"Reise, Nov., t. xcvii, f. 6 (1874). 
Inelwans, Walk., 1. c., xi, p. 636 (1857). 
Idonea, Walk., 1. c, xv, p. 1743 (1858). 
Virgula, Feld., 1. c, xcviii, f. 3 (1874). 
Squamosa, Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 26. 
Nigritorquata, Dogn., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 1900, p. 436. 
Drucci, Schs., Nom. Nov. = N. sabella, Druce $ (nee £ ), 

Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het,, ii, t, 92, f. 6. 
Marmorea, Schs., sp. nov. 
Pkcmvpes, Schs., sp. nov. 



Nystalea marmorea, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax dark grey. Abdomen light greyish-brown above, 
yellowish below. Primaries dark greyish-brown, streaked with 
black ; the inner and outer lines indistinct ; a subterminal dentate 
light brown line, followed by an irregular line of small velvety 
brown spots edged with lighter brown ; a terminal row of dark spots 
extending on to the fringe ; at the apex, inner angle, and from the 
middle of costa, through discal spot, large white spaces on which the 
lines are more clearly defined ; the discal spot large, fine, linear, 
brown. Secondaries with tlie basal half semi-hyaline white, the 
outer half smoky black ; the fringe whitish. 

Expanse 50 m.m. 

Hob. Tkinidad, B. W. I. 

Nystalea plumipcs, sp. nov. 

Head and collar brown, thorax grey. Abdomen brown above, 
testaceous at base and underneath. Primaries grey speckled with 
reddish-brown scales, and shaded with light green ; wavy basal, 



Revision of the American Notodontidm. 269 

median and outer brown lines, the last followed by a broad brown 
and dark grey shade ; a subterminal velvety black line ; a terminal 
blackish line, the latter much less distinct ; a row of velvety black 
points in the cell, and one point beyond it on the subcostal. Second- 
aries brown, whitish at the base ; the fringe testaceous. 
Expanse 42 m.m. 

Hob. Alto A, Venezuela. 

Pentobesa, gen. nov. 

Antenme fasciculate. Palpi : second joint long ; third joint short. 
Head tufted posteriorly. Anal segment with long scales, bifid in 
male. Wings long and narrow. Primaries : the outer margin 
slightly oblique ; vein 5 from middle of discocellular ; 6 from upper 
angle of cell ; 7 and 8 stalked ; 10 from end of areole. Secondaries : 
veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 close to 7 to near end of 
cell, then diverging slightly. 

Type. Pentobesa xylinoidcs, Walk. 
Xylinoidcs, Walk. (Edema), Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xxxv, 

p. 1931 (1866) = Pinna, Druce (Symmerista), Biol. 

Centr. Amer. Lep. Het., i, p. 239, t. xxv, fig. 9 (1887). 
Valta, Schs., sp. nov. 

Pentobesa valta, sp. nov. 

Head and collar brownish • patagiee white inwardly bordered with 
buff. Primaries buff thinly irrorated with black scales, and shaded 
with brown above the median vein and vein 5, also below the 
submedian vein ; a subterminal row of intervenal black points, 
outwardly shaded with grey ; a distinct black discal point. Second- 
aries white ; a terminal smoky line ; fringe white. 

Expanse 40 m.m. 

Hob. Colombia. 

Allied to P. xylinoidcs, Walk. 

Heorta. 
Heorta, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xv, p. 1664 (1858). 

Female. Antenna) simple. Palpi porrect, not extending beyond 
frons • third joint minute. Legs not very hairy. Primaries : apex 
acute ; outer margin broad, rounded, very slightly oblique ; vein 5 
from middle of discocellular ; 6 from areole near angle ; 7 and 8 



270 Mr. W. Schaus's 

stalked ; 10 from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from a 
point ; 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 diverging from 7 at middle of cell. 

Type. H. roseoalba, Walk. 
Boseoalha, Walk., 1. c, p. 1665 (1858). 

Thcroa, gen. no v. 

Female. Antennae simple. Palpi short, hairy, not extending 
beyond frons. Legs hairy. Primaries broad ; the outer margin 
rounded, the inner angle rounded ; vein 6 from areole near cell ; 
7 and 8 usually on short stalk. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 apart ; 
6 and 7 stalked, 8 diverging from 7 at end of cell. 

Type. T. zcthus, Druce. 
Zethus, Druce (Dasylophia), Biol. Centr. Arner. Lep. Het., 
ii, p. 454, t. xc, f. 11 (1898). 

EUHYPAKPAX. 

Euhyijarpax, Beut., Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., v, p. 19 
(1893). 

Antenna? pectinated but not to tips. Palpi very short. Legs 
pilose. Primaries : costa slightly concave about the middle ; apex 
acute ; outer margin slightly rounded ; inner angle obliquely 
rounded ; vein 5 from about middle of discocellular ; 6 from upper 
angle of cell ; 7 and 8 stalked from areole, which is short ; 10 from 
end of areole. Secondaries : outer margin oblique ; veins 3 and 4 
from a point ; 6 and 7 on short stalk ; 8 close to 7 to near end 
of cell. 

Type. Eahyparpax rosea, Beut. 
Rosea, Beut., 1. c. 

Bardaxima. 

Bardaxima, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xiv, p. 1349 

(1858). 
Gozarta, Walk., Char. Lep. Het., p. 18 (1869). 

Antenna? fasciculate. Palpi: third joint long. Primaries: outer 
margin crenulate ; vein 5 from centre of discocellular ; 6 from upper 
angle of cell ; areole long ; 7 and 8 from end of areole ; 10 from 
before end. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 
stalked. 

Type. B. longara, Stoll. 



Revision of the American Notodontidw. 271 

Longara, Stoll., Pap. Exot. Sup., t, 18, f. 3, F., G. (1701) 
= Lucilinea, Walk. (Bardaxima), 1. c, p. 1349 
(1858) = Demea, Druce (Nystalea?), Ann. and Mag. 
Nat. Hist. (6), xv, p. 50 (1895), Biol. Centr.-Amer. Lep. 
Het., t. xcii, f. 12 = Fulgurif era. Walk. (Gozarta), 
Char. Lep. Het., p. 18 (1869). 

Marcida, Feld., Reise Nov., t. 98, f. 2 (1874). 

Perses, Druce (Heterocampa), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 
v, p. 516 (1900). 

Denier a f Schs., sp. no v. 



Bardaxima demera, sp. no v. 

Head and collar reddish-brown ; thorax dark grey. Abdomen 
brown above, testacous below. Primaries grey, shaded with brown 
along the costa, and beyond the outer lines ; the lines wavy, 
irregular ; basal and inner lines geminate, dark grey ; a short dark 
transverse median line in the cell, followed on subcostal by a small 
greyish annular spot ; a fine black line surmounting a velvety black 
spot at the end of the cell ; below the end of the cell ; a dark grey 
patch : an oblique dark wavy line beyond the cell, joining the 
outer line near the inner margin ; the outer line geminate, 
wavy, outwardly spotted with black ; and followed by a series 
of irregular black spots; a subterminal lunular black line, and 
a terminal wavy black line ; an apical spot, whitish towards the base 
and outwardly reddish-brown, enclosing a velvety black spot ; 
fringe brown, spotted with grey. Secondaries brown, fringe paler. 

Expanse 60 m.m. 

Hob. Demerara. 

Phedosia. 

Phedosia, Moschl., Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xxvii, p. 691 
(1878). 

Antenna? fasciculate, almost as long as primaries. Palpi long, 
thickly covered with short hairs ; third joint long. Anal tuft. Legs 
very hairy ; tarsi partly hairy. Primaries : outer margin convex, 
slightly crenulate ; inner angle rounded ; vein 5 much nearer 6 than 
4 ; 7, 8, 10 from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4, also 6 
and 7 from a point. 

Type of Genus. P. turbida, Moschl. 
Turbida, Moschl., 1. c. (1878), t. x, f. 49. 



272 Mr. W. Schaus's 

Elymiotis. 

Elymiotis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xi, p. 609 (1857). 
Cicynna, Walk., 1. c, xiii, p. 1104 (1857). 

Antennae fasciculate. Palpi : second joint very hairy ; third joint 
short ; extending beyond frons. Primaries : outer margin crenulate ; 
vein 5 from above centre of discocellular ; 6 from upper angle of 
cell ; 7 and 8 from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from 
a point, 6 and 7 from a point or short stalk. 

Type. E. notodontoides, Walk. 
Notodontoidcs. Walk., 1. c, xi, p. 609 (1857) = Sericea, 

Walk. (Cicynna), 1. c, xiii, p. 1105 (18 57) = Phale- 

roides, Walk. (Nystalea), 1. c, xxxiii, p. 760 (1865). 
Attenuata, Walk. (Nystalea), 1. c., xv, p. 1743 (1858) = 

Ancora,¥eld. (Nystalea), Reise Nov., t. 97, f . 8 (1874); 

<j> = Pwrpurascens, Butl. (Amphipyra), Trans. Ent. 

Soc. 1879, p. 37. 
Longicornis, Feld. (Nystalea), 1. c, t. 97, f. 5 (1874). 
Audax, Druce (Edema), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) vii, 

p. 76 (1901). 
Alata, Druce (Edema), P. Z. S., 1890, p. 510; Biol. Centr. 

Amer. Lep. Het., ii, t. 90, f. 12. I have not examined 

this species, but its similarity to Audax, Dr., leads me 

to suppose it belongs here. 
Alector, Druce (Heterocampa), Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het., 

i, p. 238, t. 25, f. 7 (1887). 

I place this species temporarily in the genus Elymiotis. 
The type is a female and has lost its antennae. The 
margins are crenulate ; vein 6 from upper angle of cell ; 7, 
8, 10 from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 
are apart ; 6 and 7 on short stalk ; 8 close to 7 to end of 
cell. 

Ctianopha, gen. nov. 

$ . Antennas fasciculate. Palpi extending beyond frons ; second 
joint long, third short. Collar tufted. Primaries broad ; outer 
margin slightly crenulate and angled at vein 3 ; vein 6 from upper 
angle of cell ; 7, 8, and 10 from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 
3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 close to 7 to near end of 
cell. 

Type. C. argyria, Butl. 
Argyria, Butl. (Tiauspa), Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1879, 
p. 36. 



Revision of the American Notodontidze. 273 

Proelymiotis, gen. nov. 

Antennae fasciculate. Palpi porrect, second joint long. Head 
with high crest. Tibiae hairy. Wings broader than in Nystalea. 
Primaries : outer margin crenulate ; veins 3 and 4 apart ; 5 from 
just above centre of discocellular ; 6 from upper angle of cell ; 7, 8> 
10 from areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 
on short stalk. 

Type. P. tequipars, Walk. 

JEqitipars, Walk. (Nystalea), Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xv, p. 
1742 (1858) = Se7ninivea, Walk. (Heteroeampa), Char. 
Lep. Het., p. 17, n. 28 (1869) = Divisa, Moschl. (Ny- 
stalea), Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xxxii, p. 343, t. 18, 
f. 32 (1883). 

Xylophasioides, Butl. (Etobesa), Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud., 
1878, p. 68. 

Arpia, Schs., sp. nov. 

Proelymiotis arpia, sp. nov. 

Primaries : outer two-thirds of costal and inner margins pale buff, 
otherwise violaceous-brown, with paler intervenal longitudinal lines 
towards the outer margin ; a whitish subterminal spot between veins 
3 and 4 ; traces of a buff, lunular, outer line between veins 2 and 5 ; 
a thick dark streak below the median vein on the basal half. 
Secondaries brown ; the fringe buff. 

Expanse 40 m.m. 

Hab. Rio Janeiro, Brazil. 

Lysana. 

Lysana, Moschl., Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xxxii, p. 
347 (1883). 

9 . Antennae serrate-fasciculate ; a long tuft of hair at base of 
antenna. Palpi upturned, extending above head ; second joint long 
third joint very short. Fore legs very hairy. Primaries broad ; 
apex not acute ; costal margin before apex slightly depressed ; outer 
margin rounded ; vein 5 from above middle of discocellular ; 6 from 
areole ; 7, 8, 10 from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 on 
short stalk ; 6 and 7 on longer stalk ; 8 diverging from near base of 
cell. 

Type. Lysana plexa, Moschl. 
Plexa, Moschl., 1. c, p. 348 (1883), t. 18, f. 36. 
Plusiana, Schs., sp. nov. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 11)01. — PART III. (SEPT.) 19 



274 Mr. W. Schaus's 

Lysana (?) phcsiana. 

Head and thorax lilacine-grey mottled with reddish-brown. Ab- 
domen grey ; a brown dorsal patch at base. Primaries lilacine-grey 
mottled with light olivaceous-brown ; a light brown shade near base 
of costa and cell ; an oblique white line from submedian vein at one- 
fourth from base to end of cell followed by a dark and cupreous 
brown space ; an oblique white line on inner margin at one-third 
from base to submedian vein followed by some cupreous-brown ; a 
blackish streak from cell to near outer margin between veins 4 and 
5 ; the outer margin brownish above vein 3, with reddish and 
cupreous shadings and an oblique white streak between veins 4 and 
5 ; fringe mottled light and dark grey. Secondaries : brown in the 
$ ; the basal two- thirds white in the J", the outer margin brown ; 
some reddish-brown mottlings above anal angle crossed by a white 
line. 

Expanse g 25 m.m. ; 9 31 m.m. 

Hob. Aroa, Venezuela. 

Differs from Moschler's description of Lysana in having 
smooth legs. 

PSEUDANTIORA. 

Pseudantiora, Kirby, Cat. Lep. Het., vol. i, p. 566. 
Antiora, Moschl., Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xxxii, p. 346 
(1883). 
Antennas fasciculate. Palpi ascending ; second joint twice as long 
as third. Head with tuft. Primaries : outer margin broad, rounded ; 
vein 5 from above centre of discocellular ; 6 from areole near cell ; 
7, 8, 10 from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from a 
point or short stalk ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. P. conlingata, Moschl. 
Cmtingata, Moschl. (Antiora). 1. c, p. 347, t. 18, f. 35 
(1883). 

COTTOBARA. 

Cottobara, Walk., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1862, p. 95. 

9 . Antennas finely fasciculate. Palpi ascending, thickly scaled ; 
third joint minute. Primaries : vein 5 from above middle of dis- 
cocellular ; 6 from areole near cell ; 7, 8, 10 from end of areole. 
Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 stalked ; 6 and 7 on longer stalk ; 8 very 
close to 7 to end of cell. 

Type. G. concinna. 
Concinna, Walk., 1. c. 



Revision of the American Notodoniidie. 275 

Marthula. 
Marthula, Walk, Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. ix, p. 164 (1856). 

Antennaa fasciculate. Palpi hairy, smooth ; third joint small. 
Long anal tuft, usually fan-shape. Primaries : outer margin straight, 
rounded below vein 4 ; vein 5 from just above middle of disco- 
cellular ; 6 from upper angle of cell ; 7, 8 and 10 from end of areole. 
Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. M. qnadrata, Walk. 
Qnadrata, Walk., 1. c, p. 164 (1856), t. xi, f. 2. 
Multifascia, Walk. (Xanthia), 1. c, x, p. 466 (1856) = 

Nora, Schs. (Marthula), P. Z. S., 1892, p. 341. 
Pleione, Schs. (Marthula), P. Z. S, 1892, p. 341. 

Antiopha, gen. no v. 

Male antennae very long, serrate with long tufts of hairs. Palpi 
upturned ; third joint very minute. Thorax hairy below. Legs 
smooth. Primaries short and broad, convex at apex and middle of. 
outer margin ; areole long ; vein 6 from near angle of cell ; 7, 8 and 
10 from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 
6 and 7 on short stalk. 

Type. A. multilinea. 
Multilinea, Schs, sp. nov, t. xi, f . 3 $ . 
Collaris, Schs, sp. nov. 

Antiopha multilinea, sp. nov. 

Body brown above, below greyish ; the collar somewhat reddish. 
Primaries dark lilacine and grey; the veins and intervenal streaks 
dark reddish-brown ; a few minute yellow specks about apex, on 
median and submedian veins ; a terminal row of small yellow spots 
inwardly shaded with reddish-brown. Secondaries brown, paler at 
the base and with the fringe white. 

Expanse 32 m.m. 

Hah. Rio Janeieo ; Castro, Brazil. 

Antiopha collar is, sp. nov. 

Palpi, head and collar dark velvety-brown. Patagiae fawn-colour. 
Primaries whitish along inner margin and to vein 4, speckled with 
reddish-brown ; otherwise heavily shaded with reddish-brown, 
showing traces of an inner and outer pale line more heavily shaded 



276 Mr. W. Schaus's 

with brown on either side ; some terminal, lunular, brown spots 
on pale portion of wing. Secondaries whitish, outwardly shaded 
with reddish-brown. 
Expanse 38 m.m. 

Hob. Castro, Parana. 

Eragisa. 
Uragisa, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xv, p. 1656 (1858). 

Antennae fasciculate. Palpi ascending, thickly scaled ; third joint 
minute. Fore legs very hairy. Primaries : outer margin rounded ; 
vein 5 from about middle of discocellular ; 6 from upper angle of 
cell ; 7, 8, 10 from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from 
lower angle of cell ; 6 and 7 on short stalk ; 8 diverging from 7 at 
middle of cell ; base below thickly scaled. 

Type. E. lanifera, Walk. 
Lanifera, Walk., 1. c, 1657 (1858). 

Crinodes. 

Crinodes, H. S. Ausser.-Europ. Schmett., i, p. 11 (1855). 
Astylis, Boisd., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xv, p. 94 (1872). 

Antennae fasciculate. Palpi not extending beyond frons, thickly 
scaled, smooth ; third joint short. Head with small conical tuft. 
High thoracic tuft. Anal tuft of spatulate scales. Primaries : vein 
5 from middle of discocellular ; 6 from upper angle of cell ; 7, 8, 10 
from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 slightly apart ; 6 
and 7 stalked. 

Type. C. bellatrix, Stoll. 
Bellatrix, Stoll., Pap. Exot., iv, t. 305, E. (1781). 
Besclcei, Hiibn. (Crino), Samml. Ex. Schmett., ii. (1824) = 

Abscondens, Druce (nee Walker), Biol. Centr. Amer., 

ii, t. xcii, f. 7. 
Dissimilis, Grote (Crino), Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., iii, p. 183 

(1870). 
Ritsemm, Butl., Ann. Nat. Hist. (5) ii, p. 172 (1878). 
G-uatemalena, Druce, Biol Centr. Amer. Lep. Het., i, p. 246, 

t. 25, f. 2 (1887). 
Striolata, Schs., sp. nov. 
Nebulosa, Schs., sp. nov. 



Revision of the American Notodontidx. 277 

Crinodes striolata. 

Head and thorax violaceous-brown. Body pale brown. Primaries 
brown irrorated with dark velvety striae, especially in the median 
space and beyond the cell ; the median space on inner margin 
nearly black ; the base and basal third of costa lighter brown, 
limited by a light brown line outwardly oblique from inner margin 
near the base to subcostal vein, where it forms two long dentations 
on costal margin to near the middle of wing ; these dentations 
made more distinct by a blackish line ; a dark transverse discal 
streak ; a faint dark shade representing the outer line ; the outer 
margin shaded with violaceous-grey ; subterminal dark points 
most conspicuous above vein 5 ; a terminal dark line ; fringe basally 
light brown, outwardly dark brown. Secondaries lighter brown ; 
a broad subterminal darker shade. 

Expanse 76 m.m. 

Hah. Pernambuco, Brazil. 

Crinodes nelulosa. 

Head dark grey. Thorax posteriorly dark velvety-brown ; the 
patagiae and collar grey. Abdomen ochreous dorsally ; some greyish 
hairs at base and laterally ; anal tuft brown. Primaries dark grey ; 
a discal streak preceded by some lighter grey scales ; some paler 
grey scales at base and along inner margin ; a darker shade beyond 
the cell, divided by the outer line, which is broad, light grey, slightly 
curved inwardly below vein 6 ; a terminal lunular pale grey line. 
Secondaries pale brown at base shading to dark brown on outer 
margin ; some grey scales at anal angle ; fringe buff above vein 3, 
dark grey below it. 
Expanse 59 m.m. 

Hah, Tucuman. 

Poresta, gen. nov. 

Antennae fasciculate. Palpi porrect, nearly smooth ; third joint 
long. A large frontal tuft. Primaries broad ; costal margin straight ; 
apex acute ; outer margin straight, well rounded at inner angle ; 
vein 6 from areole near cell ; 7, 8, 10 from end of areole. Second- 
aries : outer margin rounded, slightly obtuse towards anal angle ; 
veins 3 and 4 from lower angle of cell ; 6 and 7 on short stalk. 

Type. P. lanassa, Druce. 
Lanassa, Druce (Edema), P. Z. S., 1890, p. 509; Biol. Centr. 

Amer. Lep. Het., ii, t. xc, f. 9. 
Thermesia, Feld. (Nystalea), Reise Nov., t. xcvii, f. 9 (1874). 



278 Mr. W. Schaus's 



Lepasta. 



Zepasta, Moschl., Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xxv ii, p. 694 
(1877). 
Antennae fasciculate. Palpi long ; second joint extending beyond 
frons ; third joint almost as long as second. Head with raised tuft. 
Primaries : vein 5 from centre of discocellular ; 6 from upper angle 
of cell ; 7, 8, 10 from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 
from a point ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type of genus. Z. bractea, Feld. 

Bractea, Feld. (Nystalea), Reise Nov., t. xcvii, f. 3 (1874). 

Grammodes, Feld. (Nystalea), 1. c, f. 1. 

Conspicua, Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 71. 

Mixta, Moschl., 1. c, xxxii, p. 349, t. 18, f. 37 (1883). 

Lignistriata, Schs., sp. no v. 

Calophasioides, Kaye (Nystalea), Trans. Ent. Soc. 1901, p. 
137, pi. v. f. 2. In this species vein 6 is from areole 
near angle of cell; it may be the same as Mixta, 
Moschl. 

Lepasta lignistriata, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax dark brown. Abdomen light brown. Primaries 
greyish speckled with brown, especially along the costa, making it 
much darker ; numerous darker streaks between the veins ; a terminal 
row of black points ; a black and grey spot on costa near base ; 4 
small white spots on costa towards apex. Secondaries reddish-brown, 
paler towards base. 

Expanse 33 m.m. 

Hob. Rio Janeiro. 

Taclmda, gen. nov. 

Antennae fasciculate. Palpi hairy upturned, third joint small. 
Legs hairy, the spines on hind tibia rather prominent. Primaries 
long, narrow, almost as broad at base as at outer margin, the latter 
margin slightly convex ; the inner margin hairy at the base ; veins 
3 and 4 well apart; 6 from just beyond upper angle; a short 
accessory cell, with 7, 8, 10 from its extremity, 9 stalked with 8. 
Secondaries with 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 on short stalk. 

Type. T. albosigma, Druce. 
Albosigma, Druce (Lochmaeus), Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. 
Het., i, p. 236 (1887) ; ii, T. 90, f. 17. 



Revision of the American Notodontidze. 279 

This species is widely spread and varies considerably ; 
Brazilian and Trinidad specimens are usually paler with 
the markings more defined. 

CONTREBIA. 
Contrcbia, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M., ix, p. 134 (1856). 

Antennae fasciculate. Palpi porrect, third joint long. Primaries 
long ; apex acute, slightly falcate ; vein 5 from above centre of 
discocellular ; 6 from upper angle of cell ; 7 and 8 from end of 
areole ; 10 from just before end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 
and 4, also 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. C. extrema, Walk. 
Extrema, Walk., 1. c. (1856). 

Hyparpax. 

Hyparpax, Htibn., Samml. Exot. Schmett., ii. (1824). 
Sangata, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xx, p. 265 (1860). 

Antennae pectinated to tips. Palpi : third joint short. Primaries : 
vein 5 from centre of discocellular ; 6 from areole usually near upper 
angle of cell ; 7, 8, 10 from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 
and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. H. aurora, Sm. and Abb. 

Aurora, Sm. and Abb. (Phalsena), Lep. Georg., ii, t. 87 
(1797) = Rosea, Walk. (Sangata), 1, c, xx, p. 265 
(1860) = Venusta, Walk. (Dryocampa), 1. c, xxxii, 
p. 574 (1865). 

Perophoroides, Strecker (Cosmia), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phil. (1876), p. 152 = Aurostriata, Graef. (Hypar- 
pax), Ent. Amer., iv, p. 58 (1888). 

Venus, Neum., Can. Ent., xxiv, p. 226 (1892). 

Kalhoma, gen. no v. 

Antennae with short pectinations to tips. Palpi porrect ; third 
joint smooth. Legs thinly haired. Primaries long ; apex and outer 
margin well rounded ; areole long, very narrow ; vein 5 from above 
middle of discocellular ; 6 from areole near cell ; 7, 8, 10 from end 
of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 
stalked. 

Type. Kalhoma alba, Druce, 



280 Mr. W. Schaus's 

Alba, Druce (Symmerista), Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het., 

ii, p. 460, t. xci, f. 3 (1898). 
Pylaon, Druce (Heterocampa (?)), I.e., ii, p. 459, t. xci, 

f. i (1898). I have not examined this species, and 

place it here with doubt. 

DlDUGUA. 

Didugua, Druce, Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het., i, p. 483 

(1891). 

Antennae pectinated, but not to tips. Palpi very long ; third joint 
almost as long as second, smooth. Head with high crest. Primaries : 
outer margin broad, rounded ; vein 5 from above centre of dis- 
cocellular ; 6 from upper angle of cell ; 7, 8, 10 from end of areole. 
Secondaries : 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. D. argcntilinea, Druce. 
Argentilinea, Druce. 1. c, 483, t. xl, f. 13 (1891). 
Leona, Druce (Heterocampa ?), 1. c, ii, p. 459, t. xci, f. 6 
(1898). 

Dasylophia. 

Dasylophia, Packard, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 362 

(1864). 

Antennae pectinated but not to tips. Palpi : third joint short. 
Head with tuft. Primaries : vein 5 from about the centre of dis- 
cocellular ; 6 from upper angle of cell or from areole close to cell ; 
7, 8, 10 from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 close 
together ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. D. angnina, Sm. and Abb. 
Angnina, Sm. and Abb. (Phahena), Lep. Georg., ii, t. 84 

(1797), = Cncullifera, H. S. (Drymonia), Ausser.- 

Europ., Schmett., i, f. 381 (1855) = Punctata, Walk. 

(Heterocampa), Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xxxii, p. 420 = 

Carta, Walk. (Edema), Char. Lep. Het., p. 17 (1869). 
Thyatiroides, Walk. (Heterocampa), Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 

1862, p. 79 = Interna, Pack. (Dasylophia), 1. c, p. 

363 (1864) = Tripartita, Walk. (Heterocampa), Cat. 

Lep. Het., B. M. xxxii, p. 419 (1865) = Signata, 

Walk. (Xylina), 1. c, xxxiii, p. 121 (1865). 
Xylinata, Walk. (Nystalea), 1. c, xxxiii, p. 759 (1865) = 

Pytliia, Druce (Notodonta?), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 

(6) xiii, p. 356 (1894) ; Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het., 

ii, t. 90, f. 7. 



Revision of the American Notodontidte. 281 

Terrena, Schs. (Oedemasia), P. Z. S., 1892, p. 331 = 

Dares, Druce (Notodonta), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

(6), xiii, p. 356 (1894) ; Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het. 

ii, t. 90, f. 6. 
Lignicolor, Moschl. (Dasylophia ?), Verb. Zool.-bot. Ges., 

Wien, xxvii, p. G87, t. 10, f. 46 (1877) = Exusta, Batl. 

(Tifama), Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud., 1878, p. 68, t. 3, f. 10. 
Maxtla, Schs. (Oedemasia), 1. c, p. 331. 
Guarana, Schs. (Oedemasia), 1. c, p. 331. 
Inca, Schs. (Oedemasia,) 1. c, p. 332. 
Seriata, Druce (Oedemasia), 1. c, i, p. 235, t. 20, f. 1 (1887) 

= Melanopa, Barnes, Can. Ent., 1901, p. 54. 
Lupia, Druce (Heterocampa), 1. c, i, p. 238 (1887). 
Poecila, Feld. (Nycterotis), Reise Nov., t. 97, f. 20 (1874) 

= Fulgens, Druce (Symmerista), Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist. (7), v,vii, p. 75 (1901). 
Mocosa, Dogn. (Oedemasia), Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xxxix, p. 

107 (1895). 
Saturata, Barnes, Can. Ent., 1901, p. 53. 
Lucia, Schs., sp. nov. 
Abbreviata, Schs., sp. nov. 
Jaliscana, Schs., sp. nov. 
Grenadensis, Schs., sp nov. 
Franzina, Schs., sp. nov. 

Dasylophia hccia, sp. nov. 

<$ . Antennae deeply pectinated for fths of length. Body fawn- 
colour. Primaries fawn-colour ; some darker shadings and black 
specks along costa, inner margin, and outer portion of veins ; a 
terminal row of blackish dashes preceded by some similar dark 
brown marks ; an indistinct outer line, marked and followed by 
brown spots near the inner margin. Secondaries white with a 
terminal brown shade. 

$ . Greyer, the patagise nearly white, inwardly edged with brown 
and with a black line ; a large oval white spot at base below median 
vein ; the markings otherwise a little more denned than in the male. 
Secondaries as in the £ . 

Expanse £ 34 m.m. ; $ 47 m.m. 

Hob. St. Lucia, B. W. I. 

Dasylophia abbreviata, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax greyish fawn-colour ; the posterior tufts on 
thorax violaceous-brown. Primaries fawn-colour, thickly shaded 



282 Mr. W. Schaus's 

with brown and olivaceous-green ; a distinct inner and outer wavy 
white line ; the inner margin darkest ; a cluster of black scales on 
outer margin above vein 2, and a darker shade between veins 3 and 
4 ; a black spot in the cell. Secondaries yellowish white in the $ , 
brown in the 9 with a transverse paler median shade. The wings 
are proportionately shorter and broader than in the other species of 
Dasylophia. 

Expanse £ 32 man. ; $ 40 m.m. 

Hob. Castro, Parana. 

Dasylophia jaliscana, sp. nov. 

£ . Antennae pectinated to near tips. Head dark grey ; thorax 
dorsally almost black. Primaries grey speckled with white, the veins 
black ; a black transverse line at end of cell ; two geminate black 
transverse lines filled in with paler grey ; the inner line almost 
straight from costa to median at vein 2, then curved in to submedian 
and then outwardly oblique to inner margin ; the outer line slightly 
wavy and nearly straight from costa to anal angle ; a subterminal 
irregular brownish shade, followed by black spots between veins 2-4, 
and a terminal black line ; fringe pale with central greyish shade. 
The 9 has the basal and outer portion of wing shaded with reddish- 
brown, and the outer geminate line is of the same colour. Second- 
aries in both sexes whitish at the base, brownish on the outer half 
with a terminal dark line and paler fringe. 

Expanse £ 31 m.m.; $ 33 m.m. 

Hah. Guadalajara, Mexico. 

Dasylophia grenadensis, sp. nov. 

$ . Palpi and head fawn-colour, thorax and abdomen slightly 
darker. Primaries dark fawn-colour, the outer portion of the veins 
streaked and speckled with black, and long dark streaks between 
veins 4-6 ; a small dark streak and spot in the cell, followed by a 
dark reddish-brown shade not quite reaching the inner margin ; a 
broad terminal dark shade not extending above vein 7 ; a terminal 
row of dark spots between the veins, most distinct at apex. Second- 
aries smoky, the base and disc whitish, the veins black. 

Expanse 45 m.m. 

Hah. Grenada, B. W. I. 

Dasylophia franzina, sp. nov. 

Body light brown ; a transverse black line on collar ; a black 
line on patagise towards dorsum. Primaries light brown ; the 



Revision of the American Notodontidm. 283 

costa and a shade above submedian from base to anal angle violaceous- 
grey ; some blackish specks along subcostal and terminal veins ; 
a dark brown shade near base below the submedian ; an interrupted 
dark brown streak in the cell, and an oblique brown shade from 
cell to outer line above submedian ; the outer line is broad, whitish, 
and shaded on either side with patches of dark brown scales ; 
some terminal whitish dashes between veins 4 and 7 ; fringe brown 
spotted with black at tips of veins. Secondaries brown the fringe 
fawn-colour. 

Expanse 45 m.m. 

Hah. Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

Farigia, gen. nov. 

Antenna? pectinated on basal two-thirds. Palpi extending beyond 
frons, hairy ; third joint minute. Primaries; outer margin rounded, 
oblique ; vein 5 from middle of discocellular ; . 6 from upper angle 
of cell ; areole very long and narrow ; 7 and 8 from end of areole ; 
10 from before end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 
and 7 stalked ; 8 diverging from 7 at end of cell. 

Type. F. sagana, Druce. 
Sagana, Druce (Heterocampa), Ann and Mag. Nat. Hist. 

(6) xiii, p. 357 (1894) ; Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het. 

ii, t. 90, f. 23. 
Montana, Druce (Heterocampa), 1. c, ii, p. 457, t. 90, f. 19 

(1898). 
Gamarra, Dogn. (Heterocampa), Le Naturaliste, 1890, 

p. 128 ; Lep. de Loja, p. 5G, pi. 5, f. 5. 
Mina, Druce (Heterocampa), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 

v, p. 515 (1900). 
Pallida, Schs. (Lophodonta ?), P. Z. S., 1894, p. 242. 
Musara, Schs., sp. nov. 
Vecina, Schs., sp. nov. 
Hydriana, Schs., sp. nov. 

Farigia mwsara, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax light grey. Abdomen light reddish-brown. 
Primaries grey, shaded with brown on the outer and inner margins, 
and tinged with pink in the disk ; a fine angular brown line at the 
base ; the inner line geminate, interrupted, and very irregular, 
dark brown filled in with light greenish scales ; the outer line 
better defined and forming a more regular curve, geminate, blackish,' 
filled in with greenish-yellow scales ; this line is outwardly broadly 



284 Mr. W. Schaus's 

shaded with green, except between veins 4 to 6 ; an angular terminal 
dark line. Fringe brown spotted with fawn-colour : secondaries 
brown. 

Expanse 42 m.m. 

Hah. Castro, Parana. 

Farigia vecina, sp. no v. 

Head and thorax mottled grey and brown hairs. Alj^omen brown. 
Primaries dark brown speckled with greyish ; the basal third of the 
costa and the apex broadly more greyish ; the inner line dark brown, 
indistinct, more or less shaded with green scales ; outer line very 
dark brown, intercepted by the veins and forming a large outward 
curve, shaded on either side with green scales ; the outer margin 
speckled with green ; a subterminal angular dark line. Secondaries 
brown ; the fringe partly greyish. 

Expanse 9 48 m.m. 

Hob. Orizaba, Mexico. 

Farigia hydriana, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax mottled dark brown and grey. Abdomen 
reddish-brown, darkest subdorsally. Primaries greyish-brown, 
darkest on the inner margin ; at the base of the costa some light 
green scales ; a brown discal spot ; between the median and 
submedian veins a dark brown shade from the base to the subter- 
minal line, which is wavy and also dark brown. Secondaries brown ; 
the fringe partly grey. 

Expanse £ 39 m.m. ; 9 47 m.m. 

Hob. Jalap A, Mexico ; Aroa, Venezuela. 

PSEUDODRYAS. 

Pscudodryas, Moschl., Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xxvii, p. 
685 (1878). 

Female antennae pectinated on basal two-thirds. Palpi upturned, 
hairy ; the third joint small. Primaries narrow ; apex rounded ; 
outer margin rounded, oblique ; vein 5 from above middle of disco- 
cellular ; 6 from areole, nearer cell ; areole long and narrow ; 7, 8, 10 
from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 close together ; 6 and 
7 on short stalk ; 8 close to 7 on basal third of cell. 

Type. P. olivacea, Moschl. 
Olivacea, Moschl., 1. c, p. 685, t. x, f. 43 (1878). 



Revision of the American Notodontidx. 285 

Eustema, gen. nov. 

Antennae pectinated for four-fifths of their length. Palpi porrect, 
short. Legs moderately hairy. Wings long, fairly broad. Primaries : 
veins 3 and 4 apart ; 5 from above middle of discocellular ; 6 from 
upper angle of cell ; 7, 8, 10 from end of areole. Secondaries : 
vein 8 close to 7 to end of cell ; 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 
7 stalked. 

Type. Eustema dam, Druce. 
Dara, Druce (Stilpnotia ?), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 
xiii, p. 355 (1894); Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het., ii 
(Notodonta), p. 463, t. xcii, f. 1. 

Tecmessa. 

Tecmessa, Burm., Desc. Rep. Arg., v, p. 504 (1882). 

Antennas with short basal pectinations in the male, serrate in the 
female. Palpi short, hairy, not extending beyond frons. Tibia 
with long hairs ; tarsi smooth. Primaries fairly broad ; the costal 
and inner margins straight ; the outer margin rounded ; vein 6 from 
upper angle of cell ; 7, 8, 10 from end of long areole. Secondaries 
broad ; the costal margin rounded ; veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 
stalked. 

Type of Genus. T. annulipes, Berg. 
Annulipes,~Berg. (Thosea), Ann. Soc. Arg., v, p. 186 (1878) 
= Phyllis, Druce (Cerura), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(7) v, p. 517 (1900). 
Elegans, Schs., sp. nov., t. xi, f. 4. 

Tecmessa elegans, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax white, posteriorly on the latter a large black 
spot. Abdomen grey above, white below. Primaries dull greyish- 
white ; basal and inner fine geminate black transverse lines, angled 
at margins and forming two outward curves between ; a fine gemi- 
nate outer line, irregular and forming inward curves between the 
veins, preceded and followed on the costa by some black markings, 
and followed at the inner angle by a large black spot ; some smaller 
subterminal black spots. Secondaries white, with a broad terminal 
smoky band and a large blackish spot at the anal angle ; fringe 
white. 

Expanse 42 m.m. 

Hah. Castro, Parana. 



286 Mr. W. Schaus's 

Psorocampa, gen. no v. 

Antennae pectinated for two-thirds of their length, then finely ser- 
rate to tips. Palpi porrect, hardly extending beyond head ; third 
joint very minute. Legs hairy. Primaries broad, the costa straight, 
outer margin slightly rounded, inner margin bulging somewhat to- 
wards base ; vein 5 from above middle of discocellular j vein 6 from 
upper angle of cell ; vein 10 anostomosing with 8 to form long areole ; 
vein 7 from end of areole ; 9 stalked with 8. Secondaries with the 
costal and inner margin straight, the outer margin evenly rounded ; 
veins 3 and 4 from lower angle of cell ; 6 and 7 on short stalk. 

Type. P. dcnticulata, Schs. 
Dcnticulata, Schs., sp. nov., t. xi, f. 5. 

Psorocampa dcnticulata, sp. nov. 

Body light grey. Primaries light grey with two transverse dentate 
black lines outwardly shaded with fawn-colour scales ; the inner line 
very oblique from costa to middle of inner margin ; the outer line 
subterminal ; a small black spot on costa beyond cell. Secondaries 
varying from pure white to dark slaty -grey. 

Expanse 45 m.m. 

Rah. CASTRO, Parana. 

Hippia. 

Rippia, Moschl., Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xxvii, p. 693 

(1878). 
Elasmia, Moschl., Abhandl. Senckenb. Ges., xiv, p. 36 

(1886). 
Rarma, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xiii, p. 1105 (1857). 

Antennse fasciculate in the <$ , simple in the 9 • Palpi : third 
joint long. Primaries : costa slightly convex ; apex acute ; outer 
margin broad, rounded ; vein 6 from end of areole ; 7-10 stalked. 
Secondaries broad ; veins 3 and 4, also 6 and 7 from a point or 
slightly stalked. 

Type. Hippia mumetes, Cr. 
Mumetes, Cr. (Tortrix), Pap. Exot. i. t,, 82, A. (1775). 
Pulchra, Butl. (Edema), Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 64, 

t. 3, f. 4. 
Insularis, Grote (Edema), Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad., vi, p. 321 

(1867) = Lignosa, Moschl. (Elasmia), 1. c, fig. 30 



Revision of the American N otodontidze. 287 

(1886) = Mandela, Druce (Edema), Biol. Cent. Amer. 

Lep. Het., i, p. 235, t. 25, fig. 3 (1887). 
Ashtta, Sch. (Edema), P. Z. S., 1894, p. 242 = Aniea, Druce 

(Edema), Biol. Cent. Amer. Lep. Het., p. 455, t. xc, 

fig. 13 (1898). 
Matheis, Sch. (Edema), P. Z. S., 1892, p. 332. 
Vittipalpis, Walk. (Harma), Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xiii, p. 

1106 (1857). 

This is possibly the same as H. insularis, Grote, and 
synonyms ; it is very similar, but greyer in tone. If iden- 
ical Vittipalpis would have priority. 

Talae, Berg. (Hyboma), An. Soc. Arg., v, p. 184 (1878), 
probably belongs to this genus; the species is un- 
known to me. Harma, the oldest name for the genus 
is preoccupied. 

Fackardi, Morr. (Edema), An. Lye. Nat. Hist., N. Y., xi, 
p. 92 (1875). 

Symmerista. 

Symmerista, Hiibn., Verz. Vek. Schmett., p. 248 (1818). 
Edema, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. v, p. 1028 (1855). 

Male antennae shortly pectinated on basal two-thirds. Palpi : 
second joint extending beyond frons ; third joint short. Primaries 
broad ; vein 5 from above centre of discocellular ; 6 from end of 
areole ; 7-10 stalked. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from a point; 6 
and 7 stalked. 

Type. S. albifrons, Sm. and Abb. 
Albifrons, Sm. and Abb. (Phalsena), Lep. Ins. Georg., ii, t. 

8 (1797) = Albicosta, Htibn. (Noctua), Eur. Schmett. 

Noct.,f. 440 (1H04*?) = Albifrons, Walk. (Edema), ]. c. 

1029 (1855). 
Tlotzin, Schs. (Edema), P. Z. S., 1892, p. 332; Biol. Cent. 

Amer. Lep. Het., ii, t. xc, f. 15. 
Suavis, Barnes (Edema), Can. Ent., 1901, p. 53. 

Arhacia. 

Arhacia, H. S., Ausser.-Europ. Schmett., i, p. 11 (1855). 
Anodonta, H. S., 1. c, p. 78 (1856). 

Male antennae deeply pectinated to near tips ; simple in the female. 
Palpi slight, not extending beyond frons ; second joint long, third 



288 Mr. W. Schaus's 

short. Primaries long, narrow, the inner angle rounded ; vein 5 
from centre of discocellular ; areole long ; 6 from near end of areole ; 
7 and 8 stalked ; 10 from before end of areole. Secondaries : veins 
3 and 4 close together ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. A. comfatsta, H. S. 
Combusta, H. S., 1. a, p. 11, ff. 81, 82 (1854) = Fascis, Schs. 
(Anodonta), Ent. Amer., vi, p. 47 (1890). 

Cerura. 
Centra, Schrank., Fauna Boica, ii, 155 (1802). 

Antennae pectinated to tips. Palpi small. Primaries broad ; vein 
6 from end of areole ; 7 and 8 stalked. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 
from a point ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. C. fitrcitla, Schr., from Europe. 
Scitiscripta, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xxxii, p. 408 

(1865). 
Multiscripta, Riley, Trans. Acad. St. Louis, iii, p. 241 

(1875). 
Occidentalism Lintmer, Rep. Mus. N. Y., xxx, p. 194 

(1878). 
Rarata, Walk., 1. c, xxxii, p. 409 (1865) ; Biol. Centr. Amer. 

Lep. Het., ii, t. 91, f. 7 (1898). 
Platea, Schs. (Dicranura), Ent. Amer., vi, p. 46 (1890). 
Dandon, Druce (Harpyia), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 

xiii, p. 358 (1894); Biol. Cent. Amer. Lep. Het., ii, t. 

91, f. 9. 
Annidifera, Berg. (Harpyia), Ann. Soc. Argent., v, p. 183 

(1878). 
Argynnis, Schs., sp. no v. 
Rivera, Schs., sp. nov. 
Grandis, Schs., sp. nov. 

Centra argynnis, sp. nov. 

Head black, frontal tuft creamy -yellow. Collar white with a dorsal 
transverse black shade. Thorax white ; three large black spots ante- 
riorly, a central black spot, and a black line posteriorly. Abdomen 
black dorsally, otherwise white ; anal tuft white, with a black trans- 
verse line. Primaries silvery white ; sub-basal and basal interrupted 
black lines, followed by a black ring on the inner margin, one in the 
cell, contiguous to another on the costal margin, these black rings 
filled in with greenish-yellow ; a median interrupted black line 



Revision of the American Notodontidx. 289 

followed by a very angular and more heavily marked complete line ; 
two outer angular and irregular black lines somewhat suffused to- 
wards the apex, where there is some greenish-yellow between the 
lines ; a terminal row of black spots. Secondaries and fringe white 
in the g with a black point at the anal angle ; in the $ dark smoky 
grey, with the fringe white spotted with black. 
Expanse q 31 m.m. ; $ 33 m.m. 

Hob. Castro, Parana. 

Centra rivera, sp. nov. 

Allied and very similar to Cerura argynnis, Schaus. Larger and 
the spot on inner margin of primaries containing a black pupil. The 
9 has the secondaries quite black and the fringe greyish ; there are 
also black ventral spots on the abdomen. 

Expanse £ 38 ; $ 40 m.m. 

Hob. Rio Janeiro; Castro, Parana. 
Described from 2 $ $ and 2 $ $ . 

Centra grandis, sp. nov. 

Head black, frontal tuft yellow. Collar black. Thorax creamy- 
white with two black spots posteriorly. Primaries white shaded 
with silky-brown from the cell outwards and also between the 
median and sub median veins ; a large black, basal, costal spot, 
followed by a narrow angular black line slightly interrupted ; a 
large oblique black spot from the costa to median vein, and a smaller 
black spot on the inner margin, these followed by a narrow angular 
interrupted black line ; a very irregular median black line, and two 
outer black lines, the one nearest the margin broadening into black 
patches at the inner angle, below vein 4, and from above vein 
5 to the apex ; a terminal row of elongated black spots. Second- 
aries brown with a terminal row of white spots and two curved black 
marks on the inner margin above the angle. 

Expanse 55 m.m. 

Hab. Peruvian Amazons. 

Betola, gen. nov. 

Antennae p ctinated for two-thirds of their length. Palpi porrect, 
third joint small. A high frontal tuft. Abdomen stout, long ; anal 
tuft long, bifurcate. Primaries broad at the outer margin, slightly 
dentate ; small areole from before end of cell ; 6 from end of areole. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART III. (SEPT.) 20 



290 Mr. W. Schaus's 

7, 8, 9 stalked ; 10 from end of areole ; 3 and 4 from a point. 
Secondaries : veins 6 and 7 stalked ; 3 and 4 from a point ; 8 close 
to 7 to near the end of cell. 

Type. B. aroata, Schs. 
Aroata, Schs.,sp. nov., t. xi, f. 6. 

Betola aroata, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax brown, mottled with green and violaceous scales. 
Primaries violaceous -brown ; a long olive-green spot above the sub- 
median at a third from the base ; a large olive green space from 
below and beyond the cell to the outer margin, this space divided 
by the outer line which is irregular, wavy, pale fawn-colour ; a broad 
white dash on the outer margin between veins 4 and 6 ; some black 
scales at the base of the inner margin, a large cluster in the cell, and 
two small clusters between veins 2 and 3 on the outer margin. The 
shadings are rather mottled and streaky. Secondaries white ; the 
margins narrowly brown ; the fringe white. 

Expanse 45 m.m. 

Hal). Aroa, Venezuela. 

LlRIMIRIS. 

Lirimiris, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xxxii, p. 468 

(1865). 

Antennas pectinated, but not to tips. Palpi not extending beyond 
frons. Primaries long and narrow ; above vein 4, outer margin 
rounded or truncated, below 4 very oblique ; 6 from end of areole ; 
7 and 8 stalked. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 
stalked. 

Type of Genus. L. lignitccta, Walk. 

Lignitecta, Walk, 1. c., p. 469 (1&§5) = Argentifera, Druce, 
(Tif'ama), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) iv, p. 92 
(1889), Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het., ii,t. xci, f. 20. 

Truncata, H. S. (Notodonta), Ausser.-Europ. Schmett.. i, f. 
494 (1856). 

GOPHA. 

Gopha, Walk, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) i, p. 81 (1862). 

Antennae shortly pectinate in the male on basal two-thirds, serrate- 
fasciculate in the female. Palpi extending beyond the frons ; 
second joint long, third short. Primaries broad ; the apex acute ; 



Revision of the American Notodontidze. 291 

outer margin straight ; the inner angle rounded ; vein 5 from above 
middle of discocellular ; 6 from end of areole ; 7 and 8 stalked 
Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type of Genus. G. mixtipennis, Walk. 
Mixtipennis, Walk., 1. c. (1862), t.xi, f. 7. 
Albipuncta, Schs., sp. nov. 



Gopha albipuncta, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax reddish fawn-colour, shaded with brown scales ; 
patagias greyish. Abdomen greyish-brown. Primaries brown mottled 
with grey and green, especially in cell and at apex. A geminate 
wavy inner line, dark brown, nearer the base on inner margin than 
on costa ; a large silvery- white spot at end of cell prolonged on vein 
6 ; a terminal row of greenish spots, inwardly shaded with black. 
Secondaries dark brown, the fringe paler. 

Expanse 34 m.m. 

Hob. Sao Paulo, S. E. Brazil. 



Naduna, gen. nov. 

9 . Antennae simple. Palpi upturned ; third joint small. Legs 
smooth. Abdomen long and slender. Primaries long and narrow ;* 
costa slightly convex ; outer margin convex below apex and oblique 
to inner angle ; veins 3 and 4 near together ; 5 from a little below 
upper angle ; a long narrow accessory cell ; 6 from near its extremity ; 
7, 8, 10 from the end of it. Secondaries with 3 and 4 from a point ; 
6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. N lignca, Scbs. 
Zignea, Schs., sp. nov. t. xi, f. 8. 

Naduna lignea, sp. nov. 

Head and collar light reddish-brown ; thorax darker brown. 
Abdomen dull brown above, whitish underneath. Primaries brown, 
the inner margin and apical half of costa darker ; the basal half of 
costa and median space shaded with greenish-grey ; a pale reddish - 
brown streak from cell to outer margin ; a median geminate brown 
line most distinct where crossing the cell ; a minute white point at 
the end of the cell surmounted by a brown line ; an outer row of 
geminate black points ; a terminal row of black points, and three 
rather larger subterminal black spots near costa, inner angle, and 



292 Mr. W. Schaus's 

middle of outer margin. Secondaries brown, the fringe somewhat 
testaceous. 

Expanse 37 m.m. 

Hob. Sao Paulo, S. E. Brazil. 

Pauluma, gen. nov. 

Antennas pectinated for two-thirds of their length, the pectinations 
inwardly covered with fine white hairs. Palpi upturned, third joint 
small. Legs hairy, especially anterior pair. Body conical hardly 
extending beyond secondaries. Primaries moderately broad ; the 
apex well rounded ; the outer margin oblique ; the inner angle 
slightly rounded : vein 5 from well above middle of discocellular ; a 
long accessory cell ; vein 6 from near the end of it ; 7, 8, 10 from 
end of accessory cell. Secondaries with the angles well rounded ; 
6 and 7 on short stalk, 8 approaching 7 about middle of cell and 
then widely diverging. 

Type. P. mtbila, Schs. 
Nubila, Schs., sp. nov. t. xi, f. 9. 
Minna, Sch., sp. nov. 

Pauluma. mtbila, sp. nov. 

* Head and thorax greyish fawn-colour, the latter violaceous-brown 
posteriorily. Abdomen brown above with a paler subdorsal tuft at 
the base. Primaries creamy fawn-colour ; the inner margin broadly 
violaceous, with a large circular brown line at the base, connected 
with the costa by an oblique brown shade ; apical third of costa 
finely violaceous ; a light brown streak below this portion ; a fine 
terminal brown line ; some pale brown shadings from the base to the 
apex and outer margin ; some fine subapical dark streaks ; an oblique 
dark shade above the inner angle ; the fringe light grey divided by a 
brown line. Secondaries white ; a fine terminal light brown line 
and some dark scales about the anal angle. 
L Expanse 34 m.m. 

Hab. Castro, Parana. 

Pauluma minna, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax mottled fawn-colour and reddish-brown scales. 
Primaries light brown streaked along and below the costa with fawn- 
colour ; a dark fine terminal line, inwardly shaded with fawn- 
colour ; some darker apical shadings, and two dark streaks between 
veins 4-6 : a curved dark brown shade from below cell to centre of 



Revision of the American Notodontidx. 293 

outer margin ; traces of an outer lunular line ; a darker brown 
shade from the base to end of cell. Secondaries white ; the outer 
margin finely dark brown ; the costal and inner margins brownish, 
the latter shading to darker brown at the angle. 
Expanse 30 m.m. 

Hah. Sao Paulo, S. E. Brazil. 

Drugera, gen. nov. 

Antenna? fasciculate. Palpi upturned ; second joint long ; third 
joint short. Fore legs very hairy ; mid and hind tibia tufted. 
Primaries broad ; outer margin rounded ; vein 5 from above middle 
of discocellular ; 6 from areole ; 8-10 stalked. Secondaries : veins 

3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. D. morona, Druce. 
Morona, Diuce (Edema), Biol. Gentr. Amer. Lep. Het, ii, 
p. 455, t. 90, f. 14 (1898). 

Hardingia, gen. nov. 

Antennae with woolly pectinations on basal two-thirds. Palpi 
hairy ; second joint long ; third joint very short. Legs hairy. 
Primaries : outer margin rounded, oblique ; areole from end of cell ; 
vein 5 from above middle of discocellular ; 6 from centre of areole ; 
7 and 8 stalked ; 10 from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 

4 close together ; 6 and 7 on short stalk. 

Type of Genus. H. roberti, Schs. 
Roberti, Schs., sp. nov. t. xi, f. 10. 

Mechanica, Dognin. (Lirimiris), Le Nat., 1892, p. 169, Lep. 
de Loja., pi. 9, f. 18. 

Hardingia roberti, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax greenish -ochreous, streaked with dark hairs. 
Abdomen brown. Primaries ochreous -buff, mottled with grey at base 
ami below vein 2 ; a small grey blotch between veins 3 and 4, and 
a larger similar spot from 4-7 ; a reddish-brown shade at the end of 
the cell ; some black scales at base below the median vein ; traces of 
a wavy, geminate inner and outer black line ; a terminal dark line 
interrupted by the veins ; fringe spotted with grey at veins. 
Secondaries brownish ; a darker terminal line ; a paler transverse 
shade from the costa near apex to the anal angle. 

Expanse 38 m.m. 

Hab, Colombia. 



294 Mr. W. Schaus's 

Eucerura, gen. nov. 

Antennae pectinated to tips. Primaries short, broad ; vein 5 from 
middle of discocellular ; areole small ; 6 from middle of areole ; 
7, 8, 10 from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 apart ; 
6 and 7 on short stalk ; 8 close to 7 to end of cell. 

Type. E. pica, Butl. 
Pica, Butl. (Drymonia), Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (1882), p. 22. 

Salhcca, gen. nov. 

c£. Antenna? pectinated to tips. Palpi: second joint long and 
hairy ; third joint short and smooth. Primaries broad ; outer margin 
rounded ; veins 3 and 4 apart ; 5 from middle of discocellular : 6 
from before centre of areole ; 7, 8, 10 from end of areole. Second- 
aries : veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. S. momma, Schs. 
Momma, Schs., sp. nov., t. xi, f. 11. 
Podrida, Dogn. (Heterocampa), Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xli, 

p. 26 (1897). 
Pistacina, Schs. sp. nov. 
Gramina, Schs., sp. nov. 
Tampa, Schs., sp. nov. 

Salluca momma, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax moss-green. Abdomen brown above, testaceous 
below. Primaries moss-green, darkest at the base, and shaded with 
brown on the inner margin basally ; a basal dark line and streak ; 
the inner line geminate, dark, partly obsolete, filled in with reddish- 
brown ; a dark line at the end of the cell, shaded with reddish- 
brown ; the outer line dark, lunular, geminate, filled in with 
reddish-brown ; some dark subterminal spots shaded with brown, 
the largest one between veins 3 and 4. Secondaries dark grey, with 
some testaceous hairs at the base and on the inner margin and 
traces of a geminate darker line on the costa near the apex and 
at the anal angle. The fringe on both wings light grey with darker 
spots at the veins. 

Expanse 42 m.m. 

Hah. Orizaba, Mexico. 

Salhcca gramina, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax dark green. Abdomen light brown. Primaries 
olive-green, mottled with black, dark brown and white scales, the 



Revision of the American Notodontidse. 295 

dark scales forming indistinct geminate basal, inner, and outer lines ; 
a subterminal row of dark spots, and an interrupted terminal dark 
line. Secondaries blackish -brown. 
Expanse 38 m.m. 

Hab. Orizaba, Mexico. 

Salluca pistacina, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax fawn-colour with some blackish lines on collar 
and patagiae. Abdomen light brown above, creamy underneath. 
Primaries pale green ; a basal white line followed on costa by a 
large brown patch ; a violaceous brown shade below the median at 
end of and just beyond the cell ; a fawn-colour spot in the cell 
partly bordered with black scales ; a fine geminate black outer line, 
indistinct and irregular ; an irregular subterminal row of reddish- 
brown spots partly bordered with black and white scales ; a 
terminal black line ; fringe reddish-brown spotted with black at 
veins. Secondaries smoky-brown, paler at base. 

Expanse 33 m.m. 

Hab. Honduras. 

Salluca tarupa, sp. nov. 

Antennae pectinated to the tips. Head and thorax greenish- 
brown, mottled with darker scales. Primaries dark greenish-brown; 
a large space from cell to apex, white, speckled thickly with light 
brown scales ; a dark line at the end of the cell, outwardly shaded 
with white, inwardly with, brown ; a median, transverse, geminate 
dark line : an outer geminate line filled in with, whitish ; some 
irregular subterminal black shades ; a terminal black line ; the 
veins blackish on the dark portion of the wing. Secondaries smoky- 
brown, whitish at the base ; the apex whitish preceded on the costa 
by a greenish-brown spot bordered by two darker lines ; veins 
terminally darker. 

Expanse 33 m.m. 

Hab. Sao Paulo, S. E. Brazil. 

Skaphita, gen. nov. 

Antenna? pectinated for two-thirds of length, the pectinations 
densely haired. Palpi reaching vertex, hairy ; the third joint 
minute. Fore legs with large bowl-shaped tufts of long hairs. 
Primaries long and narrow ; outer margin very oblique ; vein 5 from 
just above middle of discocellular ; 6 from centre of areole ; 7 and 



296 Mr. W. Schaus's 

8 from end of areole ; 10 from before end of areole. Secondaries 
broad ; costal margin convex ; outer margin rounded ; veins 3 and 4 
apart ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. Sltafhita salona, Druce. 
Salcna, Druce (Phya), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) xiii, 
p. 356 (1894); Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Hot., ii, t. 
xci, f. 13. 

DlCENTRIA. 

Dicentria, H. S., Ausser.-Europ. Schmett., i, p. 11 (1855). 

Oligocentria, H. S., 1. c, p. 11 (1855). 

Janassa, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B.M. v, p. 1101 (1855). 

Xylinodes, Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, 366 (1864). 

Hatima, Walk., 1. c, xxxii, p. 450 (1865). 

Phya, Druce, Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het., i, 242 (1887). 

£ . Antennae pectinated on basal half or two-thirds, simple in 
the $. Palpi barely extending beyond frons ; second joint hairy ; 
third joint minute. Head slightly tufted. Primaries long and 
narrow ; outer margin oblique, crenulate ; vein 5 from above middle 
of discocellular ; 6 from middle of areole ; 7 and 8 from end of 
areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. D. centralis, H. S. 

Centralis, H. S., 1. a, f. 383 (1855). 

Violasccus, H. S. (Oligocentria), 1. c, f. 385 (1855). 

Lignicolor, Walk. (Janassa), 1. c, v, p. 1101 (1855) = 
Virgota, Pack. (Xylinodes), 1. c, p. 367 (1864) = 
Liginqera, Walk. (Exaereta), 1. c, xxxii, p. 423 
(1865). 

Scmimifescens, Walk. (Hatima), 1. c, xxxii, p. 450 (1865) 
= Eximia, Grote (Oedemasia), Bull, U.S. Geol. Surv., 
vi, p. 275 (1881). 

Perangulata, Hy. Edw. (Oedemasia), Papilio, ii, p. 125 
(1882). Of this species I have a $ specimen labelled 
type but not in Mr. Edwards' handwriting. This and 
the preceding species seem to me to be better placed 
in Dicentria than in Schizura, which forms a more 
natural group when containing those species with 
broader and more rounded wings. 

Color adensis, Hy. Edw. (Janassa), Ent. Amer., i, p. 17 
(1885). 

Laciniosa, Hy. Edw. (Janassa), 1. c, p. 129 (1885) = 
Phraortes, Druce (l)icentria), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 



Revision of the American Notodonticlm. 297 

(6), iv, p. 93 (1889) ; Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het, ii, 

p. 463 (Phya), t. xci, ff. 11, 12. 
Beta, Druce (Phya), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, (6), xiii, 

p. 355 (1894); B. C. A., ii, t. xci, f. 15. 
Sabclla, Druce (Nystalea), $ Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 

xiii, p. 359 (1894) ; B. C. A., t. xcii, f. 2, £ The $, 

fig. 6 on same plate is a true Nystalea. 
Psamathe, Schs. (Phya), P. Z. S., 1892, p. 339. 
Peruda, Druce (Blera), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), p. 78, 

(1901). 
Zinita, Schs., sp. nov. 
Disparilis, Schs., sp. nov. 

Dicentric!, linita, sp. nov. 

£. Head and thorax violaceous-brown; the patagioe with hoary- 
scales. Abdomen brown above, testaceous below. Primaries dark 
fawn-colour tinged with lilacine on the costa, greenish on the inner 
margin, and greyish on the outer margin ; somewhat mottled with 
olivaceous scales ; a fine dark brown streak at the base, and a 
darker spot below it on the inner margin ; the inner line geminate, 
lunular, indistinct, brownish especially below the median vein • the 
outer line also geminate, wavy, olivaceous • at the end of the cell a 
velvety black semilunular line, with a short fine black streak 
extending from its centre, and partly filled in with olivaceous, 
beyond which is a paler space to the outer line ; some dark streaks 
at the apex and about the inner angle. Secondaries grey, yellowish 
towards the base and along the inner margin ; a dark spot at the 
angle. ^ • Head and thorax grey, the latter bordered with reddish- 
brown posteriorly. Abdomen light brown. Primaries grey, the 
veins blackish speckled with white and reddish- brown • a fine black 
streak at the base below the median vein, and a velvety black 
lunular line at the end of the cell ; lines hardly visible, forming 
reddish-brown shades • a snbterminal row of reddish-brown streaks 
between the veins, fringe reddish-brown mottled with black and 
white. Secondaries whitish ; the veins dark ; a dark shade at the 
anal angle. 

Expanse <$ 37 m.m.; $ 43 m.m. 

Hah. Jalapa, Mexico. 

Diccntria disparilis, sp. nov. 

<$ . Pale fawn-colour tinged with violaceous along the costa and 
inner margin ; a broad brown shade from the base below the cell 



298 Mr. W. Schaus's 

and a similar shade from the cell to the outer margin between veins 
4 and 5 ; a black point at the end of the cell ; the veins with dark 
brown streaks ; indistinct traces of geminate inner and outer lines ; 
some dark streaks at the apex, and about the inner angle ; a terminal 
row of black points. Secondaries white ; the tips of the veins 
faintly darker. 

9 . Pale violaceous brown, somewhat darker along the inner 
margin ; the costal margin tinged with greenish ; a black point at 
the end of the cell • the transverse lines very wavy and indistinct, 
greenish ; a dark brownish spot at the base of the wings ; a dark 
streak at the apex, and two above the inner angle, the latter 
outwardly shaded with white. Secondaries smoky-brown. 
Expanse $ 33 m.m.; $ 35 m.m. 

Hab. Okizaba, Mexico. 

Dicentria laciniosa, Edw. Larva. 

Length If inches. Head prominent, slightly conical, white with 
black markings. First segment small, then increasing to 6, 7, 8, which 
are large, the 9th and 10th are smaller, and the 11th again larger. 
General ground-colour yellow, with numerous black streaks and 
spots, forming two dark dorsal bands on segments 4-9. On seg. 4 is 
a long bright red subdorsal protuberance, surmounted by two hard 
black points ; on the following four segments and also on the 
11th are two dorsal shorter red protuberances, close together and 
likewise with hard black tips ; just beyond these on all the segments 
is a row of little black tubercles, and two lateral rows of the same, 
but very small ; laterally segments 7, 8, 9 are darker. Abdominal 
legs and laterally above prolegs bright red. Prolegs and anal 
claspers black. Underneath a broad yellow band on segments 4, 5, 
10, 11 and 12. Transforms underground in a rough earthen cocoon. 
Pupa f-|- inch in length, rather long, dark shining brown. Pupal 
state lasts about a month. 

SCHIZURA. 

Schizura, Doubl., Entomol., i, 59 (1841). 

CEdemasia, Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil, iii, 359 (1864). 

Coelodasys, Pack., 1. c, iii, 363 (1864). 

Differs chiefly from Dicentria in the broader wings and 
more rounded outer margins of primaries. 

Type. S. ipomese, Db. 
Ipomse, Db., 1. c, p. 60, f. 8 (1841). 



Revision of the American Notodontid.se. 299 

Goncinna, Sm. and Abb. (Phalsena), Lep. Georg. ii, t. 85 

(1797) type of Oedemasia. 
Unicornis, Sm. and Abb., Lep. Ins. Georg., ii, t. 96 

(1797), type of Coelodasys, Pack. 
Lcptinoidcs, Grote (Coelodasys), Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, 

p. 323 (1864). 
Apicalis, Grote and Rob. (Coelodasys), Proc. Ent. Soc. 

Phil, vi, p. 15 (1886). 
Badia, Pack. (Oedemasia), Proc, Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 361 

(1864). 

For the synonymy of the North American species see 
Packard's Monograph of American Bombycine Moths, 
Part I. The synonomy of Walker's species is correct, 
except in the case of semirufescens (Hatima), which is an 
older name for Eximia, Grote. 

Pegasis, Schs. (Coelodasys), P. Z. S. (1892), p. 331. 

Tizoc, Schs. (Etobesa), 1. c, p. 339. 

Tonac, Schs. (Coelodasys), 1. c, p. 330. 

Debet, Druce (Hatima), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) xiii. 

p. 358 (1894); Biol. Cent. Amer. Lep. Het, ii, p. 454. 

(Dasylophia) t. xc, f. 10. 

LlTODONTA. 
Litodonta, Harv., Can. Ent., viii, pp. 5, 109 (1876). 

Antennse pectinated to near tips. Palpi, short, thin, hairy, not 
extending beyond frons. Primaries broad, short ; vein 5 from middle 
of discocellular ; 6 from middle of areole ; 7, 8, 10 from end of 
areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 close 
to 7 to end of cell. 

Type. L. hydromeli, Harv. 
Hydromeli, Harv., 1. c, p. 5 (1876). 
Nigripuncta, Schs., sp. no v., t. xi, f. 12. 

Litodonta nigripuncta. 

Head fawn-colonr. Thorax violaceous. Abdomen brown. Pri- 
maries : base and outer margin lilacine-grey ; median space dark 
steel-grey, the costa someAvhat paler ; two velvety-black spots at 
base, two at apex and one at inner angle ; a round velvety-black 
spot in cell, preceded by a lilacine-grey shade ; the inner line form- 
ing three curves, reddish-brown, outwardly shaded with paler brown ; 
traces of a reddish median shade above inner margin ; outer line 
inwardly lunular between the veins, brown, shaded with paler 



300 Mr. W. Schaus's 

brown ; the outer margin irrorated with brown, chiefly about the 
veins ; a terminal black wavy line, partly interrupted ; fringe dark 
grey, somewhat paler at base. Secondaries dark brown ; base of fringe 
blackish. Underneath brown ; an indistinct, dark outer line. 
Expanse 31 m.m. 

Hah. Castro, Parana. 

The palpi are slightly more developed than in L. hydro- 
mcli, Harv. 

PSILACRON. 
Psilacron, Feld., Keise Nov., t. 97, f. 22 (1874). 

Antennae pectinated for two- thirds of length. Palpi porrect ; third 
joint short. Primaries broad ; the outer margin oblique ; the areole 
originating well beyond the cell ; vein 5 from middle of disco- 
cellular ; 6 from areole near origin; 7, 8, 10 from end of areole. 
Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. P. luteovirens, Feld. 
Lute ovirens , Feld., 1. c. 

MlSOGADA. 

Misogada, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xxxii, p. 449 (1865). 

Antenna? pectinated to near tips which are setose. Palpi extend- 
ing beyond frons in the male, shorter in the female. Primaries : 
veins 5 from middle of discocellular ; 6 from centre of areole ; 7, 8, 
10 from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 close together ; 

6 and 7 stalked ; 8 close to 7 to near end of cell. 

Type. M. cinerea, Pack. 
Cinerea, Pack. (Lochmseus), Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil, iii, 
p. 372, (1864) = Unicolor, Pack. (Lochmseus), 1. c, 
p. 373 (1864) = Marina, Pack. (Lochmseus), 1. c, p. 
373 (1864) = Sobria, Walk. (Misogada), 1. c, p. 450 
(1865). 

JVotoplusia, gen. nov. 

Antenna? with short hairy pectinations for two-thirds of their 
length. Palpi hairy, reaching vertex. Primaries : costa straight ; 
outer margin slightly oblique : veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 5 from 
close to upper angle of cell ; 6 from middle of areole ; 7, 8 and 10 
from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 

7 stalked. 

Type, N. clara, Cr. 

Clara, Cr., Pap. Exot. iv, t. 311, B. (1782). 



Revision of the American NotAontidw. 301 

Dognina, gen. no v. 

Antenna? pectinated on basal half. Palpi hairy, short, third joint 
very small. Legs hairy. Primaries slightly convex on costa ; outer 
margin rounded and oblique ; anal angle bulged out ; inner margin 
straight ; vein 5 from well above middle of discocellular ; areolelong 
and narrow ; vein 6 from beyond its middle ; 7 and 8 from a point 
at end of areole ; vein 10 from end of areole. Secondaries with the 
costal margin straight, the apex very obtuse, outer margin slightly 
rounded ; veins 3 and 4 from lower angle of cell ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. Dognina veltini, Do-gnin. 
Veltini, Dogn. (Lirimiris), Le Naturaliste, p. 128 (1890), 
Lep. de Loja, pi. 5, f. 6. 

ICHTHYOSOMA. 

Ichthyosoma, Feld., Reise Nov., t. 97, f. 17 (1874). 

Antennae pectinated on basal two-thirds. Palpi not extending 
beyond frons ; third joint minute. Legs hairy. Primaries long 
and narrow ; costal margin convex on outer half ; apex very acute ; 
outer margin very oblique ; veins 3 and 4 apart ; 5 from above 
middle of discocellular ; 6 from middle of areole ; 7, 8, 10 from end 
of areole. Secondaries short and broad ; costal margin convex ; 
outer margin rounded ; veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 from a 
point or on short stalk ; 8 diverging from 7 at middle of cell. 

Type. /. tigniferum, Feld. 
Tigniferum, Feld., 1. c. 
Cassiope, Schs., P. Z. S., 1892, p. 341 = Pkronima, Druce. 

(Notodonta?) Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) i, p. 210 

(1898). 

Heterocampa. 

Heterocampa, Doubl., Ent., 1. c., 55 (1841). 

Lochmteus, Doubl, 1. c., p. 57 (1841). 

Tadana, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. v, p. 990 (1855). 

Cecrita, Walk., 1. c, p. 992 (1855). 

Luca, Walk., Trans. Eat. Soc. Lond. (3) i, p. 256 (18G2). 

Mobesa, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xxxii, p. 471 (18G5). 

Trichotis, Feld., Reise Nov., t. 97, f. 19 (1874). 

Seirodonta, Grote, List. Lep. N. A., p. 19 (1882). 

Antennae pectinated but not to tips. Palpi short, hairy, hardly 
extending beyond frons. Primaries : vein 5 from above middle of 
discocellular ; 6 from middle of areole, which is long ; 7, 8, 10 from 



302 Mr. W. Schaus's 

end of areole. Secondaries : apex rounded ; veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 
and 7 stalked ; 8 diverging from 7 at about middle of cell ; base of 
secondaries below not very hairy. 

Type. H. astarte, Doubl. 
Astarte, Doubl., Ent., i, p. 57, f. 12 = Varia, Walk., 1. c, 

v, p. 1023 (1855) = Menas, Hurr. (Stauropus), Ent. 

Corr., p. 134 (1869). 
Manteo, Doubl. (Lochmseus), Ent, i, p. 58 (1841) = Cincras- 

cens, Walk. (Tad ana), 1. c, v, p. 991 (lSo 5) = Subalbi- 

cans, Grote, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., ii, p. 336 (1863). 
Biundata, Walk., 1. c, v, p. 1025 (1855) = Olivata, Pack. 

(Lochrnseus), Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 371 (1864) = 

Semiplaga, Walk., Can. Nat. and Geol., vi, p. 37 (1861) 

= Viridescens, Walk. (Stauropus), Cat. Lep. Het., 

B. M. xxxii, p. 416 (1865). See also Packard's 

Monograph Bombycine Moths. 
Contract a, Walk. (Sorema), 1. c, v, p. 1065 (1855). 
Externa, Walk. (Leptina ?), 1. c, xv, p. 1643 (1858); this 

is a %, and I am not sure of its position. 
Subguttata, Walk., 1. c, v, p. 1025 (1855). 
Gultivitta, Walk. (Cecrita), 1. c, v, 992 (1855) = Albiplaga, 

Walk. (Cecrita), 1. c, vii, 1748 (1856) = Mucorea, H. S. 

(Drymonia), Ausser. Europ. Schmett., i, f. 514 (1856) 

= Indeterminate^, Walk. (Drymonia), 1. c, xxxii, 413 

(1865). 
Varia, Walk., 1. c, v, 1023 (1855) ; possibly a large $ of 

H. obliqua, Pack. 
Umbrata, Walk., 1. c, v, p. 1023 (1855) ; the specimens 

in the B. M. seem quite distinct from H. pulvcrca, 

G. and R. 
Ligneata, Walk. (Etobesa), 1. c, xxxii, p. 471 (1865) = 

Aconthea, Druce, Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het., ii, 

p. 458, t. 90, f. 24 (1898). 
Herbida, Walk. (Luca), Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) i, p. 256 

(1862). 
Obliqua, Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii, p. 368 (1864). 
Bilincata, Pack. (Cecrita ?) 1. c.,p. 359 (1864); (Seirodonta), 

Grote and Bob., List. Lep. N. A. (1882) = Turbida, 

Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xxxii, 419 (1865) = 

Associata, Walk. (Edema), 1. c, p. 426 (1865). 
Pulverea, G. and K, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 1. c, 185, t. iv, 

f. 32 (1867). 
Cubeina, Grote., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil, v, p. 252, t. iv, f. 7 

(1865). 



Revision of the American Notodontidm. 303 

Belfragei, Grote., Can. Ent., xi, p. 209 (1879). 

Subrotata, Harv., Bull. Buf. Soc, i, p. 263, t. xi, ff. 2, 4 

(1874). 
Picta, Feld. (Trichotis), Reise, Nov., t. 97, f. 19 (1874) = 

Chapmani, Grote, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Survey, 

vi, p. 258 (1891) ; undoubtedly Felder's locality " the 

Amazons" is wrong; the basal lines in Picta are 

slightly straighter than in Chapmani, but it is not 

possible to differentiate the two types. 
Nystalina, Feld. (Hemiceras), 1. c, t. 97, f. 12 (1874). 
Surinamensis, Moschl., Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, xxvii, 

p. 686, t. 10, f. 44 (1877). 
Moschleri, Nom. Nov. = Herbida (preoccupied), Moschl., 

1. c, p. 686, t. 10, f. 45 (1877). 
Stragula, Moschl., 1. c, xxxii, p. 342, t. 18, f. 30 (1883). 
Muscosa, Moschl., 1. c, p. 343, t. 18, f. 31 (1883). 
Cervina, Moschl., Abhandl. Senck. Ges., xiv, p. 35, f. 28 

(1886). 
Lunata, Hy. Edw., Papilio, iv, p. 44 (1884) = Plumosa, Hy. 

Edw. (Lophodonta), Ent. Amer., ii, p. 14 (1886). 
Edwardsi, Druce, Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het., i, p. 237 

(1887) = Muscosa, Hy. Edw. (preoccupied), Papilio, iv, 

p. 79 (1884). 
Dardania, Dmce, 1. c, p. 237, t. xxv, f. 4 (1887). 
Sylla, Druce, 1. c, t. xxv, f. 5 (1887). 
Manethnsa, Druce, 1. c, t. xxv, f. 6 (1887). 
Punctata, Druce, 1. c, p. 238 = Satis, Druce, 1. c, ii, 

p. 457 (1898). 
Splendens, Druce (Rhuda), 1. c, i, p. 247, t. xxv, f. 13 

(1887). 
Remuria, Druce (Cecrita), 1. c, ii, p. 452, t. xc, f. 5 (1898). 
Eusebia, Druce, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) v, p. 515 

(1900). 
Daona, Druce, 1. c. (6) xiii, p. 357 (1894) ; Biol. Centr. 

Amer. Lep. Het., ii, t. xc, f. 20. 
Lloreda, Dogn. (Rhuda), Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., xli, p. 26 

(1897) = Amata, Druce, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 

(7) vii, p. 75 (1901). 
Laeca, Schs., P. Z. S., 1892, p. 333 ; Biol. Centr. Amer. 

Lep. Het., ii, t. xci, f. 2. 
Hertha, Schs., 1. c, 1892, p. 334. 
Atrax, Schs., 1. c, 1892, p. 335. 
Virgea, Schs., 1. c, 1892, p. 334. 
Epona, Schs., 1. c, 1892, p. 335. 



304 Mr. W. Schaus's 

Cloelia, Schs. (Rifargia), 1. c, 1892, p. 338. 

Gelduba, Schs. (Rifargia), 1. c, 1892, p. 339 ; Biol. Centr. 

Airier. Lep. Het., ii, t. xcii, f. 3. 
Masta, Schs. (Rifargia), 1. c, 1894, p. 241 ; Biol. Centr. 

Amer. Lep. Het., ii, t. xcii, f. 9. 
Paranensis, Schs., 1. c, p. 243. 
Mejjhitis, Schs. (Lirimiris ?), 1. c, p. 242 ; Biol. Centr. 

Amer. Lep. Het., ii, t. xcii, f. 5. 
Corda, Druce, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) vii, p. 437 

(1901). Not examined. 
Tuna, sp. nov. 
Semilunata, sp. nov. 
Aroensis, sp. nov. 
Isidra, sp. nov. 
Jamaicensis, sp. nov. 
Vestona, sp. nov. 
Discata, sp. nov. 
Rascona, sp. nov. 
Divisa, sp. nov. 

Hcterocampa tuna. 

Fore legs and palpi blackish-brown. Head and thorax pale buff, 
somewhat mottled with reddish-brown. Abdomen greyish-brown. 
Primaries : basal half and a shade beyond cell pale buff, irrorated 
with brown below the cell ; a dark streak from near base of median 
vein to near end of cell ; outer half of wing thickly irrorated with 
reddish-brown ; some buff spots on costa ; a black streak from within 
cell below subcostal vein to near apex, terminating in a black costal 
spot ; a blackish shade near outer margin from inner margin to vein 
3 ; traces of an interrupted, geminate brown outer line ; a sub- 
terminal wavy black line ; a terminal black line interrupted by 
the veins ; fringe reddish-brown. Secondaries dull greyish brown, 
the fringe mottled with pale hairs. 

Expanse 35 m.m. 

Hob. Colombia. 

In this species the palpi are longer and smoother, the 
wings narrower than in typical Heterocampa. 

Hcterocanvjia scmihcnata, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax grey. Abdomen light brown with a blackish 
subdorsal tuft at the base. Primaries light grey ; some light rufous 
shading at the base ; a fine black streak below the median, and 
another on the inner margin ; the inner transverse line very fine 



Revision of the American Notodontidiv. 305 

and indistinct; a fine brown streak at the end of the cell, and 
starting from its lower end a large seniilunate velvety-brown mark, 
not extending above vein 4 ; a fine median dark grey angular line ; 
three outer lines, wavy, and partly confluent, forming a darker 
space between the costa and the seniilunate mark \ a subterminal 
wavy white shade ; an interrupted terminal brown line. Secondaries 
entirely white. 
Expanse 33 m.m. 

Hob. Castro, Parana. 



Hetcrocamjpa aroensis, sp. no v. 

Head and thorax light reddish-brown ; the patague powdered with 
white in the 9 • Abdomen light brown with a dark dorsal tuft at 
the base. Primaries in the ^ grey shaded with yellowish on the 
inner and outer margins, below the median vein, and irregularly 
between the veins on the outer portion of the wing ; the veins 
partly streaked with black, also fine black streaks between veins 2 
and 3, 4 and 5, and 5 and 6 ; a few fine black streaks at the base of 
the wing ; the inner line lunular ; a median wavy line interrupted 
towards the costa ; the outer line replaced by some irregular black 
scales ; a greyish shade beyond the cell ; a subapical wavy grey 
shade. Secondaries white with the costa grey, and the inner margin 
clothed with grey hairs. £ with the primaries more silvery -grey ; 
no distinct transverse lines ; the veins only black at their extrem- 
ities ; the intervenal lines heavier ; the subterminal brown shade 
more pronounced and confluent with the streak between veins 2 and 
3 ; a terminal fine brown line ; the base of the fringe black. 
Secondaries duller white, the margins greyish-brown. 

Expanse £ 38 m.m. ; <J> 46 m.m. 

Hah. Aroa, Venezuela. 

Heterocampa isidra, sp. no v. 

Head and thorax mottled black and white scales. Abdomen grey. 
Primaries white thinly speckled with black and orange scales ; an 
oblique wavy dark line from costa near base to inner margin near 
centre ; traces of an outer, geminate, orange line from the costa to 
anal angle ; a faint dark median shade ; a subterminal dark shade, 
absent below vein 2 and between veins 3 and 4 ; a terminal blackish 
shade, and a more distinct terminal line interrupted by the veins ; 
fringe mottled white and black ; a small black crescent at end of 
cell. Secondaries white thickly speckled with black scales, leaving 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901.— PART III. (SEPT.) 21 



306 Mr. W. Scbaus's 

traces of a white median line ; a dark terminal line ; fringe as on 
primaries. 

Expanse 5 45 m.m. 

Hah. Orizaba, Mexico. 

Heterocampa jamaicensis, sp. no v. 

$ . Head and thorax light green, posteriorly with fawn-colonr tufts. 
Abdomen brown, fawn-colour on last segment. Primaries light 
green ; the veins streaked with black at their extremities ; the 
lines reddish-brown, fine, geminate, indistinct, wavy ; the discal 
spot large, fawn-colour ; two geminate lines on costa above discal 
spot; the outer line followed by a fine dark shade; a wavy reddish- 
brown subterminal shade not extending below vein 3 ; a terminal 
black line, fringe reddish. Secondaries green on costa with traces 
of geminate, dark median and outer lines ; the outer margin 
broadly brown ; the base fawn-colour ; a terminal black line ; 
fringe as on primaries. 
Expanse 50 m.m. 

Hah. Jamaica, B. W. I. 

Heterocampa vestona, sp. nov. 

9. Head and collar fawn-colour. Thorax greyish-green. Abdomen 
with some darker dorsal tufts. Primaries dark green speckled 
with black ; basal, and inner, geminate, transverse darker lines 
very indistinct ; a fine line in the cell surrounded by lighter 
green ; the outer line most distinct, dark, lunular, with minute 
white specks on the veins on either side of it ; a subterminal row 
of small brown dashes ; a terminal pale green line outwardly 
edged with black. Secondaries greyish-brown ; a terminal dark line 
spotted with yellow on the tips of the veins. 

Expanse 45 m.m. 

Hah. Orizaba, Mexico. 

Allied to Viridcscens, Walk., but quite distinct. 

Heterocampa discata, sp. nov. 

Antennse with basal half pectinated. Head and thorax dark 
green. Abdomen brownish above, greyish below. Primaries dark* 
moss-green ; an angular inner, and outer greyish line, the former 
whitish on the inner margin, the latter marked by white points on 
the veins ; a subterminal, indistinct, blackish shade and some black 
scales on the tips of the veins • a large white spot at the end of the 



Revision of the American Notodontidm. 307 

cell, surmounted by a smaller white spot on the costal margin. 
Secondaries white ; yellow hairs on the inner margin ; the costal 
margin moss-green ; a terminal brownish line. The discal spot 
sometimes tinged with roseate. 
Expanse 37 m.m. 

Hah. Castro, Parana. 

Ifetcrocampa rascona, sp. nov. 

9 . Body dark grey. Primaries brownish speckled with black ; 
a large greyish space at the base on the inner margin, and about the 
anal angle ; two superposed black points in the cell, surrounded by 
pale buff ; the basal line, fine, black ; the inner line black, geminate, 
irregular and indistinct ; the outer line black, lunular, followed by 
some white points on the veins, not extending to costa ; a subter- 
minal darker shade ; some terminal black points between the veins ; 
the fringe spotted with black at the ends of the veins. Secondaries 
brown, the fringe slightly paler. 

Expanse 42 m.m. 

Hob. Orizaba, Mexico. 

Heterocampa divisa, sp. nov. 

<$ . Body brown, the thorax mottled with black. Primaries with a 
little more than the basal half dark slaty -grey, crossed by some pale 
shades, and outwardly by a reddish-brown median line ; a light grey 
patch on inner margin beyond the basal line, which is reddish- 
brown and indistinct ; the outer portion of the wing light brown, 
darker at the end of the cell ; the outer line fine darker brown, 
followed by some darker shades ; a subterminal irregular row of 
distinct black spots, followed by a wavy indistinct pale line ; some 
small blackish spots at the ends of the veins. Secondaries whitish, 
the veins and margins brownish, a geminate brown spot at anal 
angle. Veins 3 and 4 on secondaries stalked. 

Expanse 49 m.m. 

Ilab. Rio Janeiro. 

Malocampa, gen. no v. 

Antennae of male with basal half pectinated. Palpi extending 
slightly beyond frons ; second joint hairy ; third juint minute. 
Legs very hairy ; tarsi smooth. Primaries long and narrow ; apex 
rounded ; outer margin rounded, oblique ; vein 5 from above 
middle of discocellular ; 6 from centre of areole, which is long 



308 Mr. W. Schaus's 

and narrow, 7, 8, 10, from end of areole. Secondaries : costal 
margin convex ; underneath thickly scaled below costa at base ; 
veins 3 and 4 from a point j 6 and 7 from a point or short stalk. 

Type. M. punctata, Cr. 
Punctata, Cr., Pap. Exot., iv, t. 307, f. F. (1782) = 

Bifurcata, Sepp. (Bombyx) Surin. Vlind., i. t. 13 

(1830). 
Sida, Schs. (Blera), P. Z. S., 1892, p. 333. 
Bolivari, Schs. (Blera), 1. c, 1894, p. 243. 
Albolineata, Druce (Lirimiris) ; Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. 

Het., i, p. 245, t. xxv, f. 10 (1887). 
Argentata, Druce (Heterocarapa), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 

(6) xv, p. 49 (1895) ; B. C. A., ii, t. xc, f. 18. 
Danala y Druce (Dasylophia ?), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 

xiii, p. 357 (1894); B. C. A, ii, p. 467 (Nystalea), t. 

xcii, f. 11. 
? Amphissa, Druce (Phalera), P. Z. S., 1890, p. 509. 
? Tharis, Stoll (Bombyx) Pap. Exot., iv, t. 308 D. (1782). 
? Ziliante, Stoll (Bombyx) 1. c, t. 384 C. (1782). 
Sidoidcs, Schs., sp. nov. 
Obscura, Schs., sp. nov. 

Malocampa sidoides, sp. nov. 

Body dark grey ; abdomen below whitish. Primaries grey along 
costal and inner margins, otherwise brownish ; the veins speckled 
with black and white ; a black point at the base ; a black spot at 
anal angle ; a faint trace of a darker geminate inner line ; the 
outer line only visible on costa and there followed by four dark 
points. Secondaries whitish ; the ends of veins brownish ; a terminal 
brown line ; fringe white ; some pale yellowish hairs along inner 
margin. 

Expanse 38 m.m. 

Hah. Aroa, Venezuela. 

Malocampa obscura. 

Body brown. Primaries : a reddish-brown basal space, followed 
by a violaceous-brown space to outer line • an oblique olivaceous 
shade from costa at one-third from base to middle of inner margin • 
this shade is cut by an interrupted blackish line ; a large round 
olivaceous discal spot ; the outer line blackish, dentate, geminate, 
the inner portion crossing the dark space ; marginal space lighter 
brown, shaded with olivaceous on costa before apex, and at inner 



Revision of the American Notodontidm. 309 

angle ; an indistinct subterminal line. Secondaries brown • at anal 
angle a pale spot edged above and below with black. Underneath 
brown, the inner area of secondaries yellowish. 
Expanse 49 m.m. 

Hob. Colombia. 

Allied to M. danala, Druce. 

Magava. 
Magava, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xxxii, p. 503 (1865). 

Antennae serrate fasciculate, the fascicles long on basal half. Palpi 
ascending beyond frons ; the second joint hairy, the third minute. 
Primaries as in Malocampa, neuration similar. Secondaries broader ; 
long hairs on inner margin ; the base of secondaries underneath not 
hairy ■ veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 diverging from 7 
just beyond centre of cell. 

Type of Genus. M. multilinear, Walk. 
Multilinea, Walk., 1. c. (1865); Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. 

Het., ii, t. xc, f. 16. 
Marginata, Schs., sp. nov. 

Magava marginata, sp. no v. 

Palpi, head, and thorax laterally and posteriorly light grey ; 
thorax otherwise and collar reddish-brown. Primaries white thinly 
irrorated with reddish scales, the outer margin thickly irrorated ; 
some black specks along- the inner margin ; a black, geminate, basal 
line oblique from costa to inner margin ; a fine, median, oblique 
black line, geminate on costa and inner margin ; a heavy black 
geminate line from near costa before apex, inwardly curved to inner 
angle, this line confining the darker outer margin ; a fine, angular, 
terminal black line ; the commencement of a subterminal line 
before apex. Secondaries white finely irrorated with reddish -brown ; 
a long cluster of reddish-brown hairs on inner margin. 

Expanse 46 m.m. 

Hah. Rio Janeiro. 

Rhuda. 

Rhuda, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xi, p. 621 (1857). 

Antenna) fasciculate in male on basal half, the fascicles short. 
Palpi extending slightly beyond frons ; second joint hairy; third 
minute ; head with diffuse tufts. Legs hairy ; tarsi smooth. 



310 Mr. W. Schaus's 

Primaries : the outer margin crenulate : vein 5 well above centre 
of discocellular ; 6 from centre of areole ; 7, 8, 10 from end of areole, 
which is long and narrow. Secondaries not very hairy at base 
underneath ; veins 3 and 4, and 6 and 7 from a point or shortly 
stalked ; vein 8 close to 7 to end of cell. 

Type. R. focula, Cr. 
Focula, Cr. (Noctua), Pap. Exot., iv, t. 383, G. H. (1782) 

= basifera, Walk. (Rhuda), Cat. Lep. Het. B. M. 

xi, p. 621 (1857). 
Diffusum, Feld. (Orthosoma), Reise, Nov., t. 97, f. 18 

(1874). 
Ehdymion, Schs., P. Z. S. (1892), p. 340. 
Procas, Druce (Drymonia), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 

xiii, p. 358 (1894). 

Gisara, gen. nov. 

Antennae fasciculate. Palpi very long, upturned ; third joint 
nearly so long as second, the latter hairy, the former smooth. Legs 
slightly hairy. Abdomen long and stout. Primaries broad ; the 
outer margin slightly crenulate; vein 5 from above middle of dis- 
cocellular ; 6 from about middle of areole • 7, 8, 10 from end of 
areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 on short 
stalk. 

Type. G.procne, Schs. 
Procne, Schs. (Symtnerista), P. Z. S., 1892, p. 336 = 

Sambana, Druce (Nystalea), Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist, (6) xv, p. 50 (1895); Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. 

Het., ii, t. xcii, f. 13. 
Ionia, Druce (Heterocampa), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 

v, p. 515 (1900). 

Boriza, gen. nov. 

Antennae fasciculate in the £ . Palpi short, porrect ; third joint 
minute, conical. A small frontal tuft. Abdomen long, stout. 
Wings shorter and broader than in Dicentria, H. S. Primaries : 
areole long ; vein 6 from areole ; 7, 8, 10 from end of areole. 
Secondaries : veins 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 close to 7 to near end of cell. 

Type. B. crossaea, Druce. 
Crosscea, Druce (Heterocampa ?), Ann. and Mag. Nat, 
Hist. (6) xiii, p. 357 (1894); Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. 
Het. ii, t. xc, f. 21. 



Revision of the American Notodontidse. 311 

Blera. 
Blera, Walk., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) i, p. 255 (1862). 

Antennre fasciculate in male, the fascicles short. Palpi extending 
slightly beyond frons, hairy, the third joint minute. Head tufted. 
Legs hairy. Primaries : the costal margin slightly convex before 
apex, which is acute ■ the outer margin rounded, oblique ; vein 5 
from well above centre of discocellular ; 6 from centre of areole ; 7, 
8, 10 from end of areole. Secondaries : costal margin straight at 
base ; somewhat hairy underneath at base of vein 8, which runs 
close to 7 to end of cell ; veins 3 and 4 from a point • 6 and 7 
stalked. 

Type. B. politia, Cr. 
Politia. Cr., Pap. Exot, iv, 309, F. (1782) = Ceruroides, 

Walk. (Blera), 1. c, p. 256 (1862). 
Tenuis, Schs. (Harpyia?), P. Z. S., 1892, p. 336; Biol. 

Cent. Amer. Lep. Het., ii, t. xci, ff. 16, 18. 
Arecosa, Druce (Nystalea), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 
i, p. 148 (1898); B. C. A., Lep. Het., ii, t, xcii, f. 8. 

I have not seen this species, but judge from the figure 
that it belongs here. 

Bogenhoferi, Norn. Nov. = Politia (Sericochroa), Feld. 
Keise, Nov., t. 97, f. 21 (1874). 

Chadisra. 
Chadisra, Walk., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) i, p. 81 (1862). 

Antennae fasciculate in male. Palpi : second joint hairy in male ; 
third joint minute. Primaries : apex rounded ; vein 5 from above 
middle of discocellular ; 6 from middle of areole ; 7, 8, 1.0 from end 
of areole. Secondaries : veins 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 close to 7 to near 
end of cell. 

Type. G. bipars, Walk. 

Bipars, Walk., 1. c, p. 82 (1862), from Ceylon. 

Perilleus, Schs. (Heterocampa), P. Z. S., 1892, p. 335. 

Varona, Schs , sp. no v. 

Zabena, Schs., sp. nov. 

Batama, Schs., sp. nov. 

Torresi, Dogn. (Xylophasia), Le Naturaliste, 1889, p. 
82; Lep. de Lqja, PL 6, f. 5. This is possibly the % 
of G. perilleus, Schs., and would have priority. 



312 Mr. W. Schans's 

Chadisra varona, sp. no v. 

Head and thorax greenish-fawn colour. Collar and patagioe white. 
Abdomen brown, the last segment whitish with a dorsal black line. 
Primaries with the base pure white, followed by a broad dark olive- 
green band, widest on costa and inner margin ; this band inwardly- 
bordered with black and the median and submedian veins black 
where crossing it ; wing otherwise white thickly speckled with fawn- 
colour scales showing an indistinct fine inner, and an outer line ; on 
costa before apex a triangular dark olive-green spot, two of its angles 
spotted with black ; fringe whitish with the base olive-green ; a fine 
crescent-shaped black line in the cell. Secondaries brownish-black ; 
the fringe fawn-colour. 

Hob. Castro, Parana. 

Chadisra zabena, sp. nov. 

9 . Head and thorax grey, abdomen light brown with a dorsal 
dark tuft at base and a fine dark line dorsally on last segment. 
Primaries brown slightly tinged with violaceous-grey ; some white 
scales along inner margin ; the outer margin from angle to vein 4 
white speckled with black ; a long white spot on costa before apex, 
containing four dark costal spots as in C. batama y this spot bordered 
with darker brown and followed below apex by two velvety-brown 
streaks ; similar dark streaks at anal angle below and above the 
submedian vein ; faint traces of darker geminate, inner, median and 
outer lines ; a terminal lunular black line ; fringe grey spotted with 
brown ; the fringe darkest towards apex. Secondaries dark brown, 
paler at base and a median indistinct pale line most visible under- 
neath ; fringe fawn-colour ; some white and black clusters of scales 
about anal angle. Underneath brown the costa of primaries with 
four white spots beyond middle. 

Expanse 47 m.m. 

Hal. Orizaba, Mexico. 

Chadisra batama, sp. nov. 

$ . Head and thorax grey ; tips of patagise black. Abdomen 
brown ; anus grey. Primaries whitish at the base and above the 
angle; a long white spot on the costa from above end of cell to apex, 
containing four black spots on extreme costal margin ; an oblique 
black streak at the base ; cell and outer margin below apex brownish ; 
an inner, indistinct, geminate line ; a transverse very dark median 
shade not reaching the inner margin and containing in cell a paler 



Revision of the American Notodontidie. 313 

spot ; the outer, geminate, dark line only visible between veins 4-7 ; 
the apical white spot posteriorly margined with black ; a terminal 
black line ; a black streak on basal half of inner margin ; the sub- 
median and vein 2 tipped with black ; the other veins less so. 
Secondaries yellowish white towards base ; brownish otherwise ; the 
fringe yellowish ; some white and black scales at anal angle. Under- 
neath white, the costal and outer margin broadly blackish. 
Expanse 36 m.m. 

Hob. Rio Janeieo. 

Veins 3 and 4 on primaries apart. 

Bincodes, gen. nov. 

Neuration as in Talmenia, Moschl. Antennce finely serrate. Palpi 
upturned reaching above head ; second joint long, deeply fringed ; 
third joint small, smooth. Abdomen with long tuft of scales. 

Type B. minnta, Druce. 
Minuta, Druce (Crinocles), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 
v, p. 516 (1900). This is possibly the species figured 
in Cramer, vol. iv, t. cccc, fig. L., as Clara ; it is not the 
same as the Clara figured on t. cccxi, and which is 
quoted under JYotophcsia. 

Talmenia. 

Talmenia, Moschl., Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xxxii, p. 
345 (1883). 

Antennae fasciculate, the fascicles short. Palpi porrect, slight, 
thinly haired ; third joint minute. Primaries : the outer margin 
-oblique, rounded between veins 3 and 4 ; vein 5 from middle of 
discocellular ; 6 from centre of areole ; 7 and 8 from end of areole ; 
10 from before its end. Secondaries : costal margin convex on basal 
half ; apex somewhat acute ; veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 
stalked ; 8 close to 7 to near end of cell. 

Type. T. arsilonchoides, Moschl. 
Arsilonchoides, Moschl., 1. c, p. 346, t. 18, f. 34 (1883). 

Ophitis. 
Ophitis, Feld., Reise Nov., t, 97, f. 10 (1874). 

Antenna) fasciculate. Palpi extending slightly beyond frons ; 
second joint long, third very short. Primaries: outer margin 
rounded, slightly oblique, crenulate ; inner angle hardly rounded ; 



1314 Mr. W. Schaus's 

vein 5 from above middle of discocellular ; 6 from middle of areole ; 
7, 8, 10 from end of areole ; 3 and 4 apart. Secondaries : vein 8 
close to 7 to end of cell ; 3 and 4 slightly apart ; 6 and 7 on short 
stalk. 

Type. Ophitis magnaria, Feld. 
Magnaria, Feld., 1. c. 

Meragisa, gen. no v. 

Antennae fasciculate, the fascicles short. Palpi extending beyond 
frons, ascending ; the second joint hairy ; the third joint minute. 
Legs hairy. Head without tuft. Primaries : costal margin slightly 
convex ; outer margin broad ; convex ; the inner angle somewhat 
rounded ; vein 5 from above middle of discocellular ; 6 from middle 
of areole ; 7, 8, 10 from end of areole. Secondaries rather long ; the 
base of costa convex ; apex, outer margin and anal angle rounded ; 
veins 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 close to 7 to end of cell. 

Type. M. valdiviesoi, Dogn. 
Valdiviesoi, Dogn. (Orthosoma), Le Naturaliste, 1890, 

p. 193 ; Lep. de Loja, pi. 5, f. 8. 
Limosa, Schs. (Heterocampa), P. Z. S., 1892, p. 344. 
Marcata, Dogn. (Symrnerista), Le Naturaliste, 1889, p. 82; 

Lep. de Loja, pi. 5, f. 10. 
Pallida, Schs., sp. nov. 
Politioidcs, Schs., sp. nov. 
Sidata, Schs., sp. nov. 

Meragisa pallida, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax whitish -grey ; abdomen darker. Primaries 
white thinly speckled with black scales ; an oblique black line from 
costa to middle of inner margin, geminate on costa and on inner 
margin ; an outer wavy, geminate, black line from costa near apex 
to inner angle ; a terminal irregular black line and some black scales 
on either side of the tips of veins. Secondaries greyish, paler to- 
wards the inner margin and a faint trace of an outer line especially 
towards the anal angle. 

Expanse 45 m.m. 

Hab. Castro, Parana. 

Meragisa politioides, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax grey. Abdomen darker above tinged with yellow 
towards base ; underneath yellow. Primaries light grey speckled 



Revision of the American Notodontidse, 315 

with brown and black scales ; a basal, an oblique inner, and an 
irregular outer, geminate line, the lines black filled in with yellow 
scales ; a terminal irregular black line inwardly shaded with yellow, 
and some yellow scales on the tips of the veins. Secondaries blackish ; 
yellow at the base. Underneath the primaries are blackish ; the apex 
outer and inner margins yellowish ; the secondaries yellowish-grey 
with a broad subterminal black band. 
Expanse 44 m.m. 

Hab. Rio Janeiro and Coatepec, Mexico. 

This is the species referred to in the Biologia as S. 
politia, Cr. 

Meragisa sidata. 

Body grey. Primaries thickly irrorated with grey and buff scales, 
darker than E. politioides, Schs. ; a dark grey inner line, geminate, 
outwardly oblique from costa to median vein ; a minute discal 
streak, above which is an oblique costal streak ; outer line fine, 
dark, dentate, geminate on costa, suffusing below vein 3 with the 
subterminal which consists of geminate black lunules separated by 
greenish-buff ; these lunules are oblique from costa before apex to 
vein 4, and below vein 4 they are closer to the outer margin ; some 
terminal outwardly curved black lunules, preceded by black marks 
below each vein ; fringe yellow. Secondaries dull brown ; fringe 
yellow. Underneath dull brown ; a terminal dark line on primaries. 

Expanse 49 m.m. 

Hah. Mepjda, Venezuela. 

Phastia. 

Phastia, Walk, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond.(3) i, p. 258 (1862). 

Antennae fasciculate. Palpi slender, porrect, slightly hairy ; 
third joint one-third the length of second. Primaries : costa convex ; 
outer margin and inner angle rounded, only slightly oblique ; vein 
5 from above middle of discocellular ; 6 from middle of areole ; 
7, 8, 10 from end of areole. Secondaries long, not very broad ; the 
costal margin straight ; veins 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 close to 7 to end 
of cell. 

Type. Phastia basalis, Walk. 
Basalis, Walk., 1. c. (1862). 
Alcimede, Druce (Oedemasia ?), P. Z. S, 1890, p. 510 ; Biol. 

Centr. Amer. Lep. Het, ii, t. xc, f. 2. 
Duronia. Druce (Oedemasia), 1. c, p. 453, t. xc, f. 3 

(1898). 



316 Mr. W. Schaus's 



EUXOGA. 



Euxoga, Moschl., Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xxvii, p. 692 

(1878). 

Antennae fasciculate. Palpi extending beyond frons, thickly 
haired, smooth ; the third joint more than half as long as second. 
Primaries broad ; costal margin straight ; apex not acute ; outer 
margin concave to vein 3, then oblique ; the inner angle oblique ; 
vein 5 from above middle of discocellular ; 6 from middle of areole ; 
7, 8, 10 from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from a 
point ; 6 and 7 on short stalk ; 8 diverging from 7 at middle of 
cell. 

Type. E. argentco punctata, Moschl. 
Argcntco punctata, Mosch., 1. c, t. x, f. 50 (1878). 

Goaxis, gen. nov. 

Antenna? fasciculate. Palpi extending beyond frons ; second 
joint long, third short. Legs smooth. Primaries broad ; outer 
margin crenulate, excavated between veins 3-6, oblique below vein 
3 • vein 5 from above middle of discocellular ; 6 from centre of 
areole ; 7, 8, 10 from end of areole. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 
from a point ; 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 diverging from 7 at middle of 
cell. 

Type. G. singular is, Schs., sp. nov., t. xi, f. 13. 

Goaxis singidaris. 

Head and thorax greyish. Abdomen brown. Primaries brown ; 
a buff space from inner margin near base, obliquely to almost the 
middle of costal margin ; this sjDace outwardly shaded with reddish- 
brown, irrorated with darker scales, and followed from inner margin 
to subcostal vein by a blackish brown space crossed by a pale ante- 
medial line, which does not extend into the cell ; the discocellular 
broadly brown edged on either side by a whitish line ; beyond the 
cell a dark angular line, followed by a geminate lunular brown line, 
filled in with buff ;. veins black towards apex ; an apical buff shade ; 
a subterminal black shade from just below apex to vein 3 ; a 
marginal row of small reddish-brown spots between the veins. 
Secondaries dark brown ; fringe terminally white. 

Expanse 30 man. 

Hob. Petropolis, Brazil. 



Revision of the American Notodontidse. 317 

Maschane. 
Maschane, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xxvii, p. 2 (1863). 

Antennae fasciculate. Primaries : costal margin very convex to 
beyond middle ; apex acute ; outer margin rounded, very oblique ; 
vein 5 from near upper angle of cell ; 6 from middle of areole ; 7 
and 8 from a point ; 10 from before end of areole. Secondaries : 
veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. M. erratipennis, Walk. 
Erratipennis, Walk., 1. c, p. 3. 
Simplex, Walk. (M.), 1. c, p. 3. 

RlFAKGIA. 

Eifargia, Walk., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) i, p. 258 
(1862). 

Antennae fasciculate. Palpi extending slightly beyond frons ; 
second joint hairy, third minute. Legs hairy. Abdomen long, 
stout. Primaries : apex rounded ; outer margin rounded, oblique ; 
inner margin straight ; vein 5 from just above middle of discocel- 
lular ; 6 from middle of areole ; 7, 8, 10 from end of areole. Second- 
aries : veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 on short stalk ; 8 diverging 
from 7 at middle of cell ; base of wing underneath hairy. 

Type. B. xylinoides, Walk. 
Xylinoides, Walk., 1. c, p. 259 (1862). 
Moha, Dogn., Ann. Soc. Ent. Bel?;., xli, p. 27 (1897). 
Cauda, Schs. (Blera), P. Z. SL, 1892, p. 332. 
Bianca, Sch. (Blera), 1. c., p. 333. 
Apella, Schs. (Blera), 1. c, p. 333. 
Myconos, Schs. (Symmerista), 1. c, p. 336. 
Tethys, Sch. (Symmerista), 1. c, p. 336. 
Distinguenda, Walk. (Acronycta), Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. 

ix, p. 63 (1856) = JDnbia, Moschl. (Symmerista), Verh. 

Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xxvii, p. 689 (1877). 
Mus, Moschl. (Symmerista), 1. c, p, 689, t. x, f. 47 

(1877). 
? Brunnea, Moschl. (Symmerista), 1. c, p. 690, t. x, f. 48 

(1877). 
Lineata, Druce (Symmerista), Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. 

Het., i, p. 240, t. xxv, f. 11 (1887). 
Bichorda, Hamps. (Heterocampa), Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist. (7) vol. vii, p. 251 (1901). 
Felderi, Schs., sp. no v. 



318 Mr. W. Schaus's 

Collema, Schs., sp. nov. 
Grisea, Schs., sp. nov. 
Cassandra, Schs., sp. nov. 

Nubila, Druce, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) vii, p. 
437 (1901). 

Rifargia f elder i, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax white with a few black scales ; a transverse 
black line on collar, and a longitudinal black line on patagiae. 
Primaries white with a few scattered black scales ; a fine geminate 
black inner line, inwardly oblique from costal to subcostal, then 
outwardly curving to submedian with another short curve below it ; 
this line joined on subcostal by a geminate line from the base ; at 
end of cell geminate lines connected on median by a black line and 
also on subcostal by two oblique lines from costa ; the outer line 
wavy, geminate, followed on inner margin by a black spot ; terminal 
line fine indistinct, lunular towards anal angle • between vein 4 and 
apex some subterminal brownish shadings. Secondaries white ; a 
small dark spot at anal angle. 

Expanse 38 m.m. 

Hob. Peru. 

Rifargia collema. 

Head and collar grey mottled with brown. Thorax brown ; the 
patagiae grey mottled with white. Abdomen brown. Primaries 
white irrorated with grey, and shaded with brown below the median 
vein ; a geminate basal costal streak ; an antemedial, geminate, 
wavy, dark brown line, filled in with lighter brown ; a whitish 
lunular discal spot ; two median dark streaks on costa ; an outer 
geminate, wavy line, the inner part black, the outer part brown, less 
heavily marked ; the outer line followed below costa by two velvety- 
black spots, and by three less conspicuous spots below and above 
vein 2, and between veins 3 and 4 ; a subterminal black line, nearly 
straight from costa to vein 3, then forming three curves to inner 
angle ; terminal dark shades at veins ; fringe grey. Secondaries 
whitish ; the outer margin broadly black ; some terminal white 
shades between the veins ; fringe white. 

Expanse 39 m.m. 

Hob. Colombia. 

Rifargia grisea. 

Head and collar brown. Thorax grey. Abdomen buff at base, 
then brown ; the last two segments dorsally white irrorated with 



Revision of the American Notodontidw. 319 

brown scales. Primaries silvery-grey ; the costa shaded and spotted 
with brown ; a small black mark at the base ; an inner dark brown, 
geminate, line ; a broad outer transverse brown band, preceded by 
velvety-black spots above and below vein 2, and also between veins 
4 and 5, and 5 and 6 ; a terminal brown line preceded by an inter- 
rupted blackish line ; fringe white spotted with brown. Secondaries: 
the inner area whitish, the veins dark ; a broad marginal dark grey 
shade narrowing at anal angle ; the extreme margin mottled with 
white between the veins ; fringe white. In the females the second- 
aries are darker ; the inner area somewhat tinged with buff. Under- 
neath the female is black ; the costa near apex spotted with white ; 
on the secondaries a whitish shade from middle of costa to anal 
angle. 

Expanse <£ 40 m.m. ; 9 43 m.m. 

Hah. Colombia. 

Bifargia cassandra. 

Body dark grey, the collar shaded with reddish-brown. Primaries 
white irrorated with grey and pale brown ; veins 2-10 with inter- 
rupted black streaks ; traces of a basal, and a geminate inner, trans- 
verse grey line ; a large reddish-brown spot at end of cell, containing 
a darker line, and preceded and followed by a dark streak which 
reaches costa ; a subterminal whitish shade, outwardly shaded with 
reddish-brown above vein 4 ; a dark lunate terminal line ; fringe 
greyish, spotted with dark brown at ends of veins. Secondaries 
white ; a terminal dark grey line ; some dark hairs on inner margin ; 
fringe white. 

Expanse 44 m.m. 

Hob. Merida, Venezuela. 

Ajilia, gen. no v. 

£ Antennae finely pectinated ; in the $ simple. Palpi minute. 
Primaries long and narrow, the inner angle rounded ; no accessory 
cell ; veins 3 and 4 from lower angle of cell, 6-10 stalked. Second- 
aries : veins 3 and 4 from lower angle of cell ; 6 and 7 from a point ; 
8 diverging from cell at a third from base ; the costal margin 
straight. 

Type. A. cinerea, Schs. 
Cinerea, Schs., sp. nov. = Cerura cinerea,, Druce (Nee 
Walk.), Biol. Centr. Anier. Lep. Het., i, p. 241 (quoted). 
T. xii, f. i. 



320 Mr. W. Schaus's 

Afilia cinerea, sp. no v. 

Head and thorax grey, abdomen reddish-brown. Primaries grey, 
finely speckled with black ; a fine black basal line angled at sub- 
costal vein j a median wavy black line not reaching the submedian ; 
a lunular black line at the end of the cell ; an outer, indistinct, red- 
dish shade followed by some irregular blackish shades ; a distinct 
wavy subterminal black line ; a terminal black line ; fringe reddish- 
brown. Secondaries sordid white in the <$ , greyish-brown in the 
9 , with the base whitish. 

Expanse £ 33 m.m. ; 9 40 m.m. 

Hah. Orizaba, Guadalajara, Mexico. 

The markings in the ? are more distinct than in the 
,?, and a female from Las Vigas on the Cofre de Perote has 
the space from basal to median lines filled in with reddish 
brown. 

LOBEZA. 

Zobeza, H. S., Ausser.-Europ. Schmett., i, p. 11 (1854). 
Dukinfieldia, Schs., P. Z. S., 1894, p. 234. 

Antennae shortly pectinated to tips. Palpi, short hairy, upturned, 
not extending beyond frons. Legs hairy. Abdomen long, stout, 
tufted laterally. Primaries convex before apex ; outer margin 
rounded, oblique ; vein 5 from centre of areole ; 6 from upper 
angle of cell ; 7-10 stalked ; 10 from beyond 7. Secondaries : veins 
3 and 4 close together ; 6 and 7 from a point or shortly stalked ; 8 
connected to 7 at middle of cell by a bar. 

Type. L. aglone, H. S. 
Aglone, H. S., 1. c, f. 85 (1854). « 
Lateralis, Walk. (Cossus), Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. vii, p. 520 

(1856). 
Favilla, Dogn., Le Naturaliste, p. 33, 1892 ; Lep. de Loja, 

pi. 9, f. 10. 
Suprema, Schs. (Dukinfieldia), P. Z. S., 1894, p. 234. 
Dentilinea, Schs., sp. nov. 

Lobcza dcntilinea, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax above grey. Abdomen above blackish -grey, 
underneath with deep yellow transverse lines and lateral yellow 
tufts. Thorax below yellow centrally, laterally black. Primaries 
grey ; an inner oblique line slightly dentate on costa, then wavy, 
nearer the base on the costa than on the inner margin ; an outer very 



Revision of the American Notodontidse. 321 

dentate transverse line ; both lines and a transverse line at the end 
of trje cell reddish-brown. Secondaries blackish-grey, paler along 
the outer margin ; fringe light grey. Underneath the wings are 
blackish-grey. 
Expanse 66 m.m. 

Hal. Sao Paulo, S.E. Brazil. 

Loheza dukinfteldia. Larva. 

Length 70 m.m. Head black. Second segment somewhat con- 
tracted ; a black transverse band, divided subdorsally. Body yellow. 
Third and fourth segments with transverse red bands centrally, a 
narrower red band posteriorly, and a red line anteriorly interrupted 
laterally. From segment five a subdorsal red line ; broad red trans- 
verse bands between the segments ; centrally on each segment are 
irregular red bands, contracted laterally, and widening on dorsum 
where it is connected to subdorsal line by a short red streak. Under- 
neath red, the prolegs and abdominal legs tipped with black ; gemi- 
nate yellow streaks anteriorly on segments 7-11. Described from a 
specimen in spirits. 

Lusara. 

Lusura, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. v, p. 1067 (1855). 
Tifama, Walk., 1. a, p. 1077 (1855). 

Antennae pectinated to tips. Palpi long, especially the S3cond 
joint. Areole absent. Primaries : apex rounded ; outer margin 
rounded, oblique ; vein 5 from middle of discocellular ; 6 from upper 
angle of cell ; 7-10 stalked ; vein 10 from beyond 7. Secondaries : 
veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. L. discalis, Walk. 
Discalis, Walk., 1. c, p. 1067. 
Ckera, Stoll. (Noctua), Pap. Exot., iv, t. 308, E. (1782) = 

Megalops, Sepp. (Bombyx), Surin. Vlind., i, t. 24 

(1848) = Simois, Walk. (Tifama), 1. c, p. 1078, n. 1 

(1855). 
Altrix, Stoll. (Bombyx), 1. c, t. 307, E. (1782); Feldor, 

Reise Nov., t. 98, f. 6. 

Gluphisia. 
Gluphisia, Boisd., Irid. Meth., 55 (1829). 

Male antenna? pectinated to tips ; female simple. Palpi short, 
hairy. Primaries : vein 5 from middle of discocellular ; 6 from 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART HI. (SEPT.) 22 



322 Mr. W. Schaus's 

upper angle of cell ; 7-10 stalked, 10 from beyond 7. Secondaries : 
veins 3 and 4 well apart ; 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 close to 7 to end of 
cell. 

Type of genus. G. crenata, Esper., from Europe. 
Crenata, Esper. (Bombyx), Schmett., in, p. 245, t. 47, ff. 3, 

4 (1785). 
Lintneri, Grote, Can. Ent., ix, p. 85 (1877). 
Severn, Edw., Ent. Amer., ii, p. 167 (1886). 
Septentrvmis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. v, p. 1038 

(1855). 
Wrightii, H. Edw., Ent, Amer., ii, p. 11 (1886). 

For synonymy of American species see Packard's Mono- 
graph of American Bombycine Moths. 

Nagidusa. 

Nagidusa, Walk., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) i, p. 257 
(1862). 

$ . Antennae simple. Head with slight tuft. Primaries long, 
narrow ; apex acute ; outer margin oblique, slightly rounded ; no 
accessory cell ; vein 5 from above middle of discocellular ; 6-10 
stalked ; 10 from before 7. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 
and 7 stalked ; 8 close to 7 to near end of cell. 

Type of genus. N xylocampoides. Walk. 
Xylocampoides, Walk., 1. c. (1862). T. xii, f. 2. 
Exyra, Druce (Heterocampa), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 

(7), vii, p. 76 (1901). 
Cinescens, Schs., sp. nov. 

Nagidusa cinescens. 

Head and thorax grey. Abdomen brownish-grey. Primaries 
grey ; a dark line from base of median vein to submedian vein at 
antemedial line, which is wavy, geminate, black ; the postmedial 
geminate, very indistinct ; a dark discocellular line ; the subterminal 
consisting of an indistinct shade, angular below vein 2, and replaced 
towards costa by blackish streaks on and between the veins ; some 
dark spots on costa beyond middle ; a terminal dark grey line ; 
fringe grey spotted with black at veins. Secondaries smoky-grey ; 
an outer whitish line ; a terminal dark grey line ; fringe whitish 
spotted with grey. 

Expanse 47 m.m. 

Hah, Orizaba, Mexico. 






Revision of the American Notodontidx. 323 

Ellida. 
Mlida, Grote, Can. Ent. viii, p. 125 (1876). 

Antennas pectinated to tips. Palpi short, hardly extending 
beyond frons. Wings long and narrow. Primaries : vein 5 from 
middle of discocellular ; 6-10 stalked, 10 from before 7. Secondaries : 
veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 close to 7 to end of 
cell. 

Type of Genus. E. caniplaga, Walk. 
Caniplaga, Walk. (Cymatophora), Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. ix, 
p. 18 (18 56) = transversata y Walk. (Edema), 1. c., xxxii, 
p. 427 (I860) = Gelida, Grote, 1. c, p. 126 (1876). 

Macrurocampa. 
Macrurocampa, Dyar., Ent. News., iv, p. 34 (1893). 

Antennae pectinated, but not to tips. Palpi porrect, hairy, 
extending slightly beyond frons. Legs hairy. Primaries : vein 5 
from about middle of discocellular ; 6-10 stalked, 10 from before 7. 
Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 diverg- 
ing from 7 a little before end. of cell. 

Type of Genus. M. marthesia, Cr. 
Marthesia, Cr. (Noctua), Pap. Exot.,iii,pl. 264, f. B. (1779) 

= tesella, Pack. (Lochmaeus), Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii. 

p. 370 (1864)= Turbida, Walk. (Cerura), Cat. Lep. 

Het., B. M. xxxii, p. 407 (I860) = Mongata, Grote 

and Rob. (Heterocampa), Trans. Ent. Soc. Phil., i, p. 

184 (1867). 
Amazonica, Butl. (Symmerista), Ann. Nat. Hist. (5) ii, p. 

171 (1878). 

Harpyia. 

Harpyia, Ochs., Schmett., Eur., iii, 19 (1810). 

Antennoo pectinated to tips. Primaries : vein 5 from middle of 
discocellular ; 6 from upper angle or stalked close to it ; veins 7-10 
stalked, 10 from before 7. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 
6 and 7 on long stalk. 

Type of Genus. H. bicuspis, Borkh., from Europe. 
Bicuspis, Borkh. (Bombyx),Eur. Schmett., iii, p. 380 (1790). 
Borealis, Boisd. (Dicranoura), Guer., Icon. R. Anim., t. 88, 

f. 5 (1829). 
Scolopendrina, Bdv., Lep. de la Cal., p. 86 (1869). 



324 Mr. W. Schaus's 

Cinerea, Walk. (Cerura), Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xxxii, p. 407 
(1865). For complete synonymy see Packard's Mono- 
graph of American Bombycine Moths. 



Notela, gen. nov; 

Palpi short. <£ Antennae pectinated ; in the $ simple. A high 
frontal tuft in the $ . Primaries with costal margin convex towards 
apex ; outer margin oblique, somewhat rounded in the $ ; no 
accessory cell. Veins 3 and 4 well apart, 6 from upper angle of 
cell ; 7-10 stalked, 10 from lower on stalk than 7. Secondaries 
with veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 on short stalk ; 8 close to 
7 to near end of cell. 

Type. N. jaliscana, Sclis. 
Jaliscana, Schs., sp. nov. t. xii, f. 3. 

Notela jaliscana, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax dark grey. Abdomen light brown above, 
greyish below. Primaries grey speckled with black, especially on 
the veins ; longitudinal and transverse brownish shadings, very 
indistinct, the most noticeable being the two outer lines ; fine 
subapical black lines. In some specimens a black line from the 
base t below the median vein, first straight, then slightly wavy at 
vein 2 and not quite reaching the middle of the outer margin ; 
below the line a black spot between veins 2 and 3. Secondaries 
whitish, the veins and outer margin smoky, fringe white. 

Expanse £ 32 m.m. ; 5 36 m.m. 

Hah. Guadalajara, Mexico. 

Euharpyia, gen. nov. 

$ Antennas pectinated on basal half ; at base of antennas a long, 
porrect, tuft of hairs. Palpi porrect ; second joint long. Primaries : 
veins 6-10 stalked ; 10 from before 7. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 
from a point ; 6 and 7 on short stalk. 

Type. Euharpyia comita, Schs. 
Comita, Schs., sp. nov. t. xii, f. 4. 

Euharpyia comita, sp. nov. 

Frons buff mottled with brown hairs. Collar dark brown. Abdo- 
men brown above, buff below. Primaries : the basal and outer 



Revision of the American Notodontidse. 325 

thirds brown ; the median space greyish ; some dark streaks at the 
base, and an indistinct inner shade ; a fine, brown, geminate median 
line, forming three curves from costa to inner margin ; a greyish 
spot in the cell ; the outer line broad, paler grey especially on the 
veins, bordered on either side with dark grey, crossed by a fine 
black line, interrupted by the veins, and with a row of black points 
on the veins ; beyond the outer line there is a row of black points 
on the veins, beyond which they are streaked with black ; three 
black spots before the subterminal line, below vein 2, between 4 and 
5, and between 7 and 8 ; the subterminal line is reddisli -brown, 
followed by a black spot at angle, and four similar spots between vein 
4 and the apex ; fringe light-brown spotted with black between the 
veins. Secondaries brown, paler at the base. 
Expanse 38 m.m. 

Hob. Chanchamayo, Peru. 

Eunotela, gen. nov. 

g . Antennae with basal half pectinated. Palpi upturned extending 
beyond frons ; second joint long. Legs hairy. Primaries : vein 5 
from middle of discocellular ; 6 from upper angle of cell ; 7-10 
stalked, 10 from before 7. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 
7 stalked. 

Type. Uunotela pallida, Schs. 
Pallida, Schs. sp. nov. t. xii, f. 5. 
Tropica, Schs. (CEdemasia), P. Z. S., 1894, p. 241. 
Collaris, Schs., sp. nov. 

Eunotela pallida., sp. nov. 

Palpi dark brown. Head and collar fawn-colour, the latter 
posteriorly margined with dark brown. Thorax and abdomen grey. 
Primaries pale brownish-grey, the median space whitish. Some 
blackish specks at the base and an interrupted basal black transverse 
line ; an inner transverse irregular black line, preceded by a linear 
brown shade ; a velvety-black line on discocellular, followed by a 
fine black transverse linear shade. An outer row of black points 
followed by a smoky transverse shade ; a subterminal very distinct 
velvety-black line, preceded towards apex by some brownish shades ; 
a terminal dark grey line. Secondaries white; a few black scales 
at anal angle. 

Expanse 40 m.m. 

Bab. Castro, Paraua, 



326 Mr. W. Schaus's 



JEunotela dollaris. 

Palpi brown. Frons fawn-colour ; vertex and collar dark velvety- 
brown. Thorax grey. Abdomen brownish -grey. Primaries brown 
mottled with fawn-colour at base, in cell and on outer space ; some 
white and black scales at base of inner margin, and a whitish streak 
mottled with black below the median vein ; a white discal spot 
edged above with black, below with brown, and preceded by a 
whitish space ; a large brown spot on costa at one-third from base, 
followed by a geminate brown transverse line ; veins 2, 3, 4 and 6 
partly irrorated with white and black scales ; an outer white 
punctiform line ; marginal black spots between the veins, edged 
with grey. Secondaries greyish-brown, palest at base ; an indistinct 
pale outer line ; fringe whitish towards anal angle. 

Expanse 39 m.m. 



Hah. Colombia. 



EUNYSTALEA. 



JEunystalea, Grote, Abb. Naturw. Vereins zu Bremen, xiv, 

'7 (1895). 

" Vein 5 from near middle of cross- vein, 6-9 stalked, 10 from the 
cell, no accessory cell ; on secondaries veins 3 and 4 from the lower 
angle of the cell, 6 and 7 short stalked,"— -fide Dyar. Trans. Am. 
Ent. Soc, xxiv. (1897). From the description, the Genus is distinct 
from anything described. 

Type. E. Indiana, Grote. 
Indiana, Grote (Nystalea), Pap. iv, p. 7 (1884). 

PONTALA. 

Pontala, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het, B. M. xxx, p. 954 

(1864). 
Platyodonta, Feld., nee Moscbl. 

Primaries straight from apex to vein 5, then angled and very 
oblique to inner margin, which is excavated and deeply toothed ; 
vein 5 from upper angle of cell ; 6, 7, 10 from end of areole ; 8 
stalked with 7. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 
stalked. 

Type. P. rtcbrana, Walk. 
Eubrana, Walk., 1. c. (1864). 
Calpe, Feld. (Platyodonta), Reise Nov. t. xcvii, f. 16 (1875). 



Revision of the American Notodontidx. 327 

Apela. 

Apela, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het, B. M. v, p. 1092 (1855). 
Platyodonta, Moschl. (nee Felder), Verh. ZooJ.-bot., Ges. 
Wien, xxvii, p. 682 (1878). 

Male. Antennas fasciculate on basal half. Palpi : third joint 
short. Primaries broad ; costal margin convex on basal half ; inner 
margin excised, and deeply lobed — vein 5 from upper angle of cell ; 
7 and 8 stalked. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 

7 stalked. 

Type. A. divisa, Walk. 
Divisa, Walk., I.e., p. 1093 (1855) = Strigata, Moschl. 
(Platyodonta ?), 1. c., p. 683, t. x, f. 41. 

This species was erroneously described as from India. 

Dylomia. 

Dylomia, Feld., Reise, Nov., t. 97, f. 13 (1874). 

Antennas fasciculate, palpi not extending beyond frons, small, 
upturned. Primaries : apex not acute ; outer margin and inner 
angle obliquely rounded ; vein 5 from close to upper angle of cell ; 
6 from middle of areole ; 7-10 from end of areole. Secondaries : 
veins 3 and 4 apart (from a point in Ciliata, Feld.) ; 6 and 7 stalked ; 

8 diverging from 7 at middle of cell. 

Type. D. tortricina, Felder. 
Tortricina, Feld., Reise, Nov., t. 97, f. 13. 
Cxsia, Feld., 1. c, t. 97, f. 14. 
Ciliata, Feld., I.e., t. 97, f. 15. 
Diagonalis, Feld., 1. c, t. 98, f. 5. 

Napkepa. 

tfaprepa, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. ML v, p. 1046 (1855). 

Antennas fasciculate. Palpi upturned, extending beyond frons ; 
second joint long, with thick short hairs ; third joint minute. High 
thoracic crest. Primaries : outer margin crenulate ; on inner margin 
a tufted lobe ; vein 5 from about middle of discocellular ; 6 from 
areole, near cell ; 7 and 8 stalked ; 10 from end of areole. Second* 
aries : veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 diverging 
from 7 before end of cell. 

Type. N. camelinerdes, Walk. 
Camelinerdes, Walk., J.c, (1855), 



328 Mr. W. Schaus's 

Cyllota, Druce (Ophitis), Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het., i, 
p. 247, t. xxv, f. 14 (1887), (Naprepa), 1. c, ii, p. 466. 

Pulcheria, Druce (Ophitis), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 
xvi, p. 38 (1895) ; B. C. A., ii, p. 466 (Naprepa), t. xcii, 
f. 10. 

Mongata, Sens., sp. nov. 

Naprepa clongata, sp. nov. 

The wings proportionately longer and narrower than in Naprepa 
cylotta, Druce, and more of a reddish-brown ; the markings other- 
wise very similar but without the outer row of light points on the 
veins, and the tuft on inner margin darker. Secondaries with the 
anal markings more pronounced and pale points at tips of veins. 
The secondaries are whitish underneath without any transverse line, 
and there is a cluster of dark scales at anal angle. 

Expanse 93 m.m. 

Hah. Rio Janeiro. 

Naprepa cyllota, Druce. Larva. 

Length 60 m.m. Head and first segment very small ; second 
segment larger ; third and fourth much enlarged. Head and first 
segment pale bluish-green ; laterally on first segment two small 
white spots circled with black ; seg. 2 with 4 similar spots. 
Segments 3-13 bright green ; posteriorly on segment 4 a semicircular 
black line edged behind with white, segments 5 and 10 with two, the 
other segments with three white spots circled with red placed rather 
outwardly ; below these spots is a lateral wavy white line edged 
above and below with black, beginning at the 5th and ending at 11th 
segment ; below this line are four white spots on each segment ; 
segments 2, 3 and 4 have also four lateral spots and above prolegs on 
segments 1, 2, and 3 are two other small spots. Laterally below 
white line, underneath, and abdominal legs bluish-green. Prolegs 
white with three black specks externally ; segment 11 is laterally 
bordered with maroon, and the stigma is placed in a round black 
spot circled with yellow. Segments 12 and 13 dorsally maroon, 
underneath bright green. 

LOPHOPTERYX. 

Lophopteryx, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., ii, p. 26 (1829). 

Palpi porrect. Antennas serrate and fasciculate. Primaries : outer 
margin crenulate ; vein 6 from areole near cell ; 8 and 10 stalked. 



Revision of the American Notodontidm. 329 

Secondaries : veins 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 close to 7 to near end of cell. 
Thoracic crest. 

Type. L. capticina, Linn. 
Capucina, Linn., Syst. Nat., i, p. 507 (1758). 
Americana, Harv. Can. Ent., ix, p. 95 (1877). 



Herhertina, gen. nov. 

Antennae with minute fascicles. Head with small tuft. Primaries 
broad ; a tuft of hairs on inner margin ; areole small ; vein 6 from 
areole ; 8-10 stalked. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 
stalked ; 8 diverging from 7 at middle of cell. 

Type. H. eumeta, Druce. 
JEwneta, Druce (Lophopteryx), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(7), v, p. 514 (1900). 

Odontosia. 
Odontosia, Hitbn, Verz. Bek. Schmett., 145 (1888). 

Antennae pectinated to tips. Palpi short. Primaries long ; outer 
margin crenulate, oblique ■ long tuft on middle of inner margin ; 
vein 5 from middle of discocellular ; 6 from areole near cell ; 7 and 
8 from end of areole. Secondaries: veins 3 and 4 apart; 6 and 7 
stalked ; 8 close to 7 to near end of cell. No thoracic crest. 

Type. 0. carmelita, Esp., from Europe. 
Carmelita,~Es\). (Bombyx), Schmett., iii, Cont., p. 65, t. 91, 

f.i. (1790). 
Elegans, Strecker (Lophopteryx), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phil., 1884, p. 285 = Notaria, Hy. Edw. (Notodonta), 

Ent.Amer., i, p. 17 (1885). 

Hypepleschka. 

ITyper&schra, Butl., Aim. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), vi, 65 
(1880). 

Male antennae pectinate to tips. Palpi hairy. Primaries : outer 
margin smooth ; vein 5 from middle of discocellular; 6 from upper 
angle of cell ; 7-10 stalked. Secondaries : 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 close 
to 7 to near end of cell. 

Type. H. pallida, Butl., from India. 
Pallida, Butl., Ann, Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), vi, 1880, p. 65. 



330 Mr. W. Schaus's 

Stragula, Grote (Notodonta), Proc. Ent. Soc. PhiL, iii, p. 93 

(1864<) = Scitipcnnis, Walk. (Notodonta), Cat. Lep. 

Het., B. M. xxxii, p. 411 (1865). 
Pacifica, Behr. (Notodonta), Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2), iii, 

p. 206 (1892). 
Tortuosa, Tepp. (Drynobia), Bull. Brook., Ent. Soc, iv, p. 

2 (1881). 
Georgica, H. S. (Notodonta), Ausser.-Europ.,Schmett., f. 384 

(1855). 

Notodonta. 

Notodonta, Ochs., Schmett,, Eur., iii, 45 (1810). 
Peridea, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust, ii, 22 (1828). 
Chatfieldia, Grote, Abh. Natur. Yereins zu Bremen, xiv, 7 

(1895). 

Male antennae shortly pectinated, female simple. Areole absent. 

Primaries : vein 5 from middle of discocellular, G-10 stalked. 

Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 apart ■ 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 close to 7 to 
near end of cell. 

Type. A 7 ", dromedarius, Linn., from Europe. Dromc- 
darius, Linn. (Bombyx), Syst. Nat. i (2), p. 827 (1767). 
Basitriens, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. v, p. 1000 (1855). 
Simplaria, Graef., But). Brook., Ent. Soc, iii, p. 95 (1881). 



LOPHODONTA. 
Lophodonta, Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., iii. p. 357 (1864). 

Antennse simple in both sexes. Palpi short, hairy. Primaries: 
vein 5 from middle of discocellular ; 6-10 stalked, areole absent. 
Secondaries : 6 and 7 stalked. 

Type. L.fcrruginea, Pack., 1. c. (1864). 
Angnlosa, Sm. and Abb. (Phalsena), Lep. Ins. Georg., ii, p], 
83 (1797). 

Pheosia. 

PJieosia, Htibn, Verz. Bek. Schmett., 145 (1818). 
Zeiocampa, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., ii, 24 (1828). 

Antennae pectinated in both sexes. Palpi very short, hairy, not 
extending beyond frons. Primaries : vein 6 from upper angle of 
cell ; 7-10 stalked. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 
stalked ■ 8 close to 7 to near end of cell. 



Revision of the American Notodontidie. o31 

Type. P. tremula, Clerck., from Europe. 
Tremula, Clerck. (Bombyx), Icones., t. 9, f. 13 (1759). 
Dimidiata, H. S. (Drymoma), Ausser.-Europ., Schmett., f. 

515 (1856) = Bimosa, Pack., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. 

iii, p. 358 (1864) = Calif brnica, Stretch., Zyg. and 

Bomb., N. A., 116 (1872). 
Portlandia, Hy. Edw., Ent, Amer, ii, p. 168 (1887) = 

Descherci, Neum. (Notodonta), Can. Ent., xxiv, p. 227 

(1892). 

Goacampa, gen. nov. 

Antennae long, evenly and shortly pectinated in the <$ to the 
tips, serrate in the $ . Head large and prominent. Palpi very short, 
porrect. Wings long and narrow. Abdomen short and stout. 
Primaries with long areole from before end of cell ; 6 from areole ; 
7 and 10 from end of areole ; 3 and 4 from lower angle of cell. 
Secondaries with 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 very close to 7 to near the end 
of the cell. 

Type. G. variabilis, Schs. 
Variabilis, Schs., sp. nov., t. xii, f. 6. 

Goacampa variabilis, sp. nov. 

£ £ . Head and thorax grey. Abdomen brownish above, grey 
below, white towards the base. Primaries light grey ; an inner, and 
outer fine angular darker line ; a sub terminal, and a terminal row of 
dark streaks between the veins ; a large black spot at the end of the 
cell ; a broad black basal band. A third £ has merely a broad 
black streak from the base to the outer margin above the submedian 
vein. The $ 9 mostly darker grey with the lines and streaks as in 
the g , and the discal spot circular, dark grey, filled in with lighter 
grey. One <J? has the inner margin broadly black and a large black 
space beyond the cell. Secondaries in both sexes white ; the veins 
brownish at the base, black marginally ; a terminal black shade and 
a black spot just before the angle ; fringe white. 

Expanse 42-46 m.m. 

Hab. Oaxaca, Mexico. 

Kurtia, ^en. nov. 

Palpi hairy, third joint minute. Antennae deeply pectinated for 
four-fifths. Tibia hairy. Primaries long and narrow ; the costal 
margin slightly convex, apex rounded, outer margin very oblique, 
inner margin straight ; veins 3 and 4 apart ; 5 from upper angle of 
cell ; areole long ; vein 6 from beyond its middle ; 7 and 8 from end 



332 Mr. W. Schaus's 

of areole, 10 from before end. Secondaries short and broad, costal 
margin convex, outer margin rounded • veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 
6 and 7 on short stalk • vein 5 absent. 

Type. Kurtia modesta, Schs. 
Modesta, Schs., sp. nov., t. xii, f. 7. 



Kurtia modesta, sp. nov. 

Palpi dark brown • head and collar dark grey ; thorax reddish- 
brown ; abdomen duller brown with long dorsal tufts. Primaries 
reddish-brown with some slight greyish inter venal streaks ; traces 
of basal and inner lines on costa only ; an outer row of minute dark 
spots almost imperceptible and a terminal row of black spots between 
the veins. Secondaries dull brown ; the fringe partly fawn-colour. 

Expanse 50 m.m. 

Hah. Aroa, Venezuela, 



Anita, gen. nov. 

Antenna? pectinated for four-fifths of length. Palpi ascending, 
third joint minute. Legs smooth. Primaries short and broad ; 
costal and inner margin straight ; outer margin obliquely rounded ; 
veins 3 and 4 apart ; 5 from close to upper angle ; areole long and 
narrow • 6 from beyond its centre ; 7 and 8 from end of areole • 10 
from just before end. Secondaries short and broad ; costal margin 
straight, apex rounded, outer margin straight to vein 2 then 
rounded • vein 5 very weak. 

Type. Anita basipunda, Schs. 
Basipuncta, Schs., sp. nov., t. xii, f. 8. 



Anita uasipnnda, sp. nov. 

Palpi creamy in front. Head and thorax brown ; white tufts at 
base of antennas. Abdomen light brown. Primaries above median 
vein whitish, below it light brown ; outer portion of veins from sub- 
median to vein 6 dark brown ; a large velvety-brown spot at base of 
costa and cell. Secondaries white thickly speckled with light 
brown. 

Expanse 42 m.m. 

Hob. AroA, Venezuela. 



Revision of the American Notodontidte. 333 

COLAX. 

Colax, Hiibn., Verz. Schmett., 141, 1513 (1816). 

Antennae pectinated in both sexes on basal two-thirds. Palpi 
hairy, hardly extending beyond frons. Head tufted at base of 
antennas. Primaries : costal 'margin convex on outer half ; apex 
acute ; outer margin straight from apex to vein 5, then oblique 
slightly concave in £ to inner angle ; areole absent ; vein 5 from 
middle of discocellular ; 6-10 stalked, 10 from before 7. Secondaries : 
veins 3 and 4 apart ; 6 and 7 stalked ; 5 absent ; 8 diverging from 
7 at middle of cell. 

Type. G. apuhcs, Cr. 
Apulus, Cr. (Sphinx), Pap. Exot., i, t. 88, f. E. (1779). 
Phocus, Sens. (Hapigia), P. Z. S., 1892, p. 340. 

Hemiceras. 

Hemiceras, Guen., sp. gen., Lep. Noct., ii, p. 379 (1852). 
Ecregma, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xii, p. 966 (1857). 
Comidava, Walk., 1. c, xxvi, p. 1695 (1862). 
Epicoricty Walk., 1. c, xxxiii, p. 852 (1865). 
Gadiana, Walk., 1. c, p. 854 (1865). 
Salamhoria, Walk., 1. c, p. 855 (1865). 
MdophopteryXy Moschl., Verb. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wein, xxvii, 
p. 684 (1878). 

Antennas pectinated for half their length in male • simple or 
fasciculate in female. Palpi extending beyond frons, smooth ; second 
joint long ; third joint short. Primaries : vein 5 from near upper 
angle of cell ; 6 from middle of areole ; 7, 8, 10 from end of areole. 
Secondaries : vein 5 absent ; 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 diverging from 7 at 
middle of cell. Male usually with glandular spot at end of vein 2. 

Type. H. pallidula, Guen. 
Pallidula, Guen., 1. c, p. 381 (1852). 
Linea, Guen., 1. c, p. 381 (1852). 
TrinuMla, Guen., 1. c, p. 382 (1852). 
Zotula, Guen., 1. c. (1852). 
Pidvenda, Guen., 1. c. (1852). 
Indistans, Guen., 1. c, p. 383 (1852). 
Cadmia, Guen., 1. c. (1852) = obliqicili?iea, Walk. (Comi- 

dava), 1. c., xxvi, p. 1695 (1862). 
Barina, Guen., 1. c, p. 383 (1852) = Illucens, Walk, 1. c, 

xxxiii, p. 852 (1865). 
Sigula, Guen., 1. c, p. 384 (1852). 



334 Mr. W. Schaus's 

Violasccns, Guen., 1. c. (1852). 
Vinicosta, Guen., 1. c. (1852). 
Sabis, Guen., 1. c, p. 385 (1852) = Ania, Druce, P. Z. S., 

1890, p. 511. 
Meona, Or., Pap. Exot., iv, t. 358, f. B ; larva : Stoll., t. 33, 

f. 7. 
Zissa, Druce, 1. c. (1890). 
Zosa, Druce, 1. c. (1890). 
Zevana, Druce, 1. c, p. 512 (1890). 
Plusiata, Feld., Reise Nov., t. 97, f. 11 (1874). 
Transducta, Walk. (Ecregma), 1. c, xii, p. 967 (1857). 
Sparsipcnnis, Walk., 1. c, p. 972 (1857) = Canosparsa, 

Walk. (Epicoria), 1. c, xxxiii, p. 853 (1865). 
Metastigma, Walk., 1. c, xii, p. 974 (1857). 
Zeucospila, Walk., 1. c. (1857). 

Zeomata, Walk. (Epicoria), 1. c, xxxiii, p. 853 (1865). 
Gemina, Walk. (Epicoria), 1. c. (1865). 
Walkeri, Sens., Norn. Nov. = Zeomata (preoccupied), Walk. 

(Salamboria), 1. c, p. 855 (1865). 
Rufescens, Walk. (Gadiana), 1. c, p. 854 (1865). 
Alba, Walk. 1. c, xxxiii, p. 851 (1865). 
Obliquicola, Walk. (Comidava), I.e., xxvi, p. 1696 (1862). 
Subochraceum, Walk., Char. Lep. Het., p. 184 (1866) = 

Mora, Druce, Biol. Centr. Amer. Lep. Het., i, p. 251 

(1887). 
Plana, But!., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 34. 
Striolata, Butl., 1. c. (1879). 
Modesta, Butl. (Ecregma), 1. c. (1879). 
Splendens, Moschl. (Eulophopteryx), 1. c, p. 684 (1878). 
Albulana, Druce (Comidava), 1. c, i, p. 252 (1887). 
Ruizi, Dogn., Le Naturaliste, 1889, p. 25 ; Lep. de Loja, 

t. 6, f. 1. 
Punctata, Dogn., 1. c, t. 6, f. 2. 
Carmelita, Mssn. Sttib. Reis. Sud. Am., p. 148, t. 7, f . 4 

(1890). 
Postica, Mssn., 1. c, t. vii, f. 3 (1890). 
Tulola, Schs., sp. nov. 
Striata, Schs., sp. nov. 
Vecina, Schs., sp. nov. 
Aroensis, Schs., sp. nov. 
Serana, Schs., sp. nov. 
Brunnea, Schs., sp. nov. 
Nigrigutta, Schs., sp. nov. 
Ovalis, Schs., sp. nov. 



Revision of the American Notodontulte. 335 

Bilinea, Schs., sp. nov. 

Pagana, Scbs., sp. no v. 

Nuhilata, Schs., sp. nov. 

Panctilla, Schs., sp. nov. 

Quebra, Schs., sp. nov. 

Velvet, Schs. sp. nov. 

Nigricosta, Schs., sp. nov., t. xii, f. 10. 

Nigrcscens, Schs., sp. nov., t. xii, f. 9. 

Sericita, Schs., sp. nov. 

Hcmiceras tulola, sp. nov. 

Head with whitish tufts. Thorax and abdomen brownish -grey. 
Primaries brownish-grey ; lines fine, black ; the inner line wavy, 
outwardly oblique from costa to inner margin ; outer line linear on 
inner margin, otherwise punctiform, straight from costa near apex to 
inner margin at a third from angle ; an indistinct dark shade in cell. 
Secondaries light brown, whitish towards the base. Inner margin 
of primaries slightly sinuous. 

Expanse 37 man. 

Hob. Castro, Parana, 
Allied to H. lotula, Gn. 

Hemiceras striata, sp. nov. 

<$ . Head and thorax greyish-brown ; collar and abdomen dorsally 
reddish -brown ; abdomen and thorax below greyish. Primaries 
greyish -brown speckled with olivaceous scales ; the veins dark olive- 
brown, interrupted by the transverse lines ; the inner line slightly 
oblique ; the outer line from the costal margin near the apex to 
middle of inner margin ; both lines reddish-brown inwardly shaded 
with olive and outwardly with testaceous ; the inner margin is 
nearly straight and slightly excised at the base ; fringe olive-brown. 
Secondaries white, the veins and outer margin reddish -brown, the 
fringe w T hite ; no opaque spot. 

Expanse 42 m.m. 

Hob. Nova Friburgo, Brazil. 

Hcmiceras vecina } sp. nov. 

Body reddish-grey above, testaceous below. Primaries light reddish- 
brown thickly mottled with white scales ; the two lines are fine, dark 
reddish-brown, outwardly shaded with ochreous and white ; the 
inner line nearly straight ; the outer line from close to apex on 



336 Mr. W. Schaus's 

costal margin to middle of inner margin ; a subterminal darker 
shading ; fringe dark brown ; a darker oblique line at the end of the 
cell. The inner margin is slightly toothed near the base. Second- 
aries light brown, the opaque spot of the same colour ; the fringe 
whitish . 

Expanse 35-42 m.m. 

Hob. Aroa, Venezuela ; Jalap A, Orizaba, Mexico. 

Allied to H cadmia, Gn. 

Hemiceras arocnsis, sp. nov. 

Frontal tuft white, palpi and thorax reddish fawn-colour, some 
lilacine scales on tegulae. Abdomen above fawn-colour, underneath 
yellowish. Primaries toothed at middle of inner margin and at 
inner angle, fawn-colour tinged with lilacine from base to outer line ; 
the inner line wavy, very fine and indistinct ; the outer line from 
apex to sinus on inner margin, dark brown shading to lighter 
brown outwardly, and marked by dark streaks on the veins ; a 
minute dark point on subcostal above the cell ; fringe not darker 
than the outer margin. Secondaries white, the veins and outer 
margin narrowly, and opaque spot, light reddish-brown ; fringe white. 

Expanse 35 m.m 

Hab. Aroa, Venezuela. 

Hemiceras scrana, sp. nov. 

Body fawn-colour above, creamy-yellow below. Primaries with a 
single tooth near the base, pale fawn-colour ; the inner line fine, 
hardly perceptible, marked by three black points on veins ; the 
outer line from costa near apex to middle of inner margin, fine 
reddish-brown, outwardly shaded with yellowish and marked by 
minute black points on the veins ; a dark point in the cell ; fringe 
reddish-brown. Secondaries white ; veins, outer margin narrowly, 
and opaque spot light reddish-brown ; fringe wdiite. 

Expanse 35 m.m. 

Hah. Aroa, Venezuela. 

Hemiceras bmmnea, sp. nov. 

Body light violaceous-brown ; top of the head white. Primaries 
with the inner margin slightly sinuate, excised at the base, brown 
faintly speckled with greyish scales ; an inner and an outer row of 
black points on the veins connected by an indistinct rufous shade ; 



Revision of the American Notodontidze. 337 

the inner row oblique to median vein, then straight to inner margin ; 
the outer row from costa near apex parallel to outer margin to vein 
3, then curved inwardly to inner margin ; an oblique dark shade 
in the cell. Secondaries light brown, whitish at the base and 
darker along the outer margin ; fringe testaceous. No opaque spot. 
Expanse $ 45 m.m. 

Hah. Cochabamba, Bolivia. 

Hemiccras nigrigutta, sp. nov. 

Top of head white, otherwise and also thorax reddish-brown. 
Abdomen above dark violaceous-brown, underneath creamy yellow. 
Primaries with the inner margin straight, slightly excised at base, 
dull brown ; the inner line slightly curved from costa to inner 
margin, fine yellowish, outwardly spotted with black points on the 
veins ; the outer line similar, with the black points placed in- 
wardly, from the costa at four-fifth from the base, slightly curved 
and parallel to the outer margin ; a black spot in the cell, inwardly 
surmounted by a smaller black spot. Secondaries whitish-fawn 
colour, with the outer margin darker ; the opaque spot large and 
dark. 

Expanse 46 m.m. 

Hah. Cochabamba, Bolivia. 

Hemiceras ovalis, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax pale grey ; abdomen above light brown, under- 
neath white. Primaries with the inner margin slightly rounded, 
silvery-grey, slightly speckled with darker scales ; a basal, inner, 
and outer fine transverse lunular lines, light brownish marked by a 
darker speck on the veins ; a large oval yellowish spot in the cell, 
crossed by the inner line. The outer margin broadly darker grey. 
Secondaries white with the veins and outer margin brownish ; tip 
of the fringe whitish. Underneath the wings are white ; the costal 
half of the primaries reddish-brown. The opaque spot dark brown 
or light grey. 

Expanse 44 m.m. 

Hah. Nova Fhiburgo, Brazil. 

Hemiceras hilinea, sp. now 

Body violaceous-brown above, yellowish below. Primaries red- 
dish-brown, the veins powdered with greyish scales ; the inner line 
straight ; the outer line from close to apex to middle of inner margin ; 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART III. (SEPT.) 23 



338 Mr. W. Schaus's 

both lines dark olivaceous-brown, the inner line inwardly, the outer 
line outwardly shaded with ochreous ; some indistinct subterminal 
shadings ; two blackish spots in the cell, sometimes confluent. The 
inner margin is slightly toothed near the base. Secondaries brown. 
Expanse 40 m.m. 

Hob. Jalapa, Mexico. 

Hemiceras pagana, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax greyish. Abdomen reddish-brown above, testa- 
ceous below. Primaries rather long and narrow ; the outer margin 
very obliquely rounded; inner margin sinuous. Primaries fawn- 
colour, finely speckled with dark grey, especially in the median 
space ; a large black spot at the end of cell ; the lines indistinct ; the 
inner line wavy oblique ; the outer line irregular punctiform, fol- 
lowed by some dark shades at apex. Secondaries white, the veins 
and outer margin narrowly reddish-brown ; the glandular patch 
prominent. 

Expanse 45 m.m. 

Hab. Paraguay. 

Hemiceras nvMlata, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax light reddish -brown. Abdomen testaceous. 
Primaries reddish-brown, the median space darker, being thickly 
speckled with grey and lilacine scales ; the inner line faint, dark 
grey, oblique from costa to median vein, then slightly wavy to inner 
margin ; the outer line punctiform, inwardly oblique from costa to 
vein 3, then slightly wavy to inner margin and nearer the base ; a 
reddish shade on outer portion of line on inner margin, a dark 
shade on outer margin between veins 2 and 4 ; a dark spot in cell. 
Secondaries light reddish-brown palest at the base. 

Expanse $ 44 m.m. 

Hab. Aroa, Venezuela. 

Allied to H. mctastigma, Walk., but altogether darker 
and the inner margin of primaries straighter ; described 
from 7 $ $ 9 $ ? . 

Hemiceras punctilla, sp. nov. 

$ . Head with a white spot between antennas ; the base of antennas 
white ; the collar and thorax light reddish-brown, the former edged 
with dark scales. Primaries with inner margin excised before angle, 



Revision of the American Notodontidze. 339 

light reddish-brown ; some black scales at the base ; the inner line 
black, wavy, broken ; the outer line wavy, black, parallel to outer 
margin and most heavily marked on costa and inner margin ; a dark 
reddish-brown spot in cell, preceded on subcostal vein by a small 
black spot. Secondaries white the veins darker, and some reddish- 
brown scales on outer margin ; the glandular patch small reddish - 
brown. 

Expanse 40 m.m. 

Hob. Aroa, Venezuela. 

Ilemiceras quebra, sp. nov. 

Inner margin of primaries sinuous. Body reddish-brown ; abdo- 
men below testaceous. Primaries reddish-brown ; the lines faint, 
punctiform, black ; the outer line from vein 2 to inner margin 
further from outer margin than the rest of line. A faint dark spot 
in cell. Secondaries reddish-brown, whitish at the base and in disc. 

Expanse 42 m.m. 

Hob. Aroa, Venezuela. 
Described from two $ $ . 

Hcmiceras velva, sp. nov. 

Abdomen testaceous ; head, thorax and primaries pale violaceous- 
brown ; the lines faintly traced and punctiform ; the outer line 
parallel to outer margin from costa to submedian vein, followed by 
a faintly darker shade between veins 3 and 4 ; an indistinct dark 
spot in cell. Secondaries very white, the tips of veins and outer 
margin narrowly reddish-brown. The inner margin of primaries 
straight. 

Expanse 39 m.m. 

Hah. Aroa, Venezuela. 
Described from three $ <?, one $ . 

Ilemiceras nigricosta, sp. nov. 

Head reddish-brown, posteriorly white. Thorax reddish-brown. 
Abdomen dark brown above, pale brown below. Primaries reddish- 
brown, the space between the lines somewhat violaceous ; the costa 
black speckled with white ; the inner line dark, curved from costa 
to inner margin ; the outer line consisting of dark lunular shades ; a 
dark oblique line at the end of the cell, and a darker shade beyond 



340 Mr. W. Schaus's 

the outer line between veins 3 and 4 ; the inner margin deeply- 
excised before angle. Secondaries dull brown. 
Expanse $ 53 m.m. 

Hah. Costa "Rica. 

Hemiceras nigrescens, sp. nov. 

Head and collar anteriorly reddish-brown ; white tufts at base of 
antennae and on head posteriorly. Thorax and abdomen above 
violaceous -brown, underneath testaceous. Primaries violaceous- 
black, the base somewhat reddish ; the outer margin brown ; a dark 
shade from the cell crossing the outer line to the brown outer margin ; 
the lines dark reddish-brown ; the inner line oblique from costa to 
median vein, then wavy to inner margin ; the outer line, straight, 
lunular followed at apex by some whitish scales ; inner margin 
deeply excised before angle. Secondaries very dark brown above, 
testaceous below. 

Expanse $ 39 m.m.; £ 45 m.m. 

Hah. Costa Rica. 

Hemiceras sericita. 

Head and thorax violaceous-brown. Collar reddislvbrown. Some 
white hairs at base of antennae and on vertex. Abdomen dull brown. 
Primaries silky violaceous-brown ; basal third of costa and an inner 
shade from costa, narrowing to a point on submedian vein, reddish- 
brown ; a reddish-brown oblique streak at end of cell ; the outer 
margin broadly reddish-brown, limited by a dark brown line from 
costa, near apex, where it is preceded by some white scales, straight 
to vein 2, then curved inwardly to excision on inner margin ; a deep 
lobe on inner margin between base and excision. Secondaries light 
brown, palest at the base. 

Expanse 44 m.m. 

Hal. Colombia. 

Hemiceras pallidula, Guen. Larva. 

Length 1-lg inches. Head large and prominent, yellow except 
lower third which is black. First segment smaller than the others, 
yellow with a conspicuous black transverse band. Body rich maroon 
with two dorsal yellow bands which terminate on segment 11 in a 
large subdorsal bright red tubercle ; laterally are three white lines, 
on the lowest of which are the black stigmae ; these lines continue to 
segment 12 ; the posterior portion of segment 11, the 12th dorsally 



Revision of the American Notodontidse. 341 

and anterior portion of 13th, white; lower portion of segment 13 
black ; prolegs black ; underneath and abdominal legs reddish ; 
anal feet black. August 20th formed a thin cocoon in leaves drawn 
together ; emerged September 11th. Pupa f of an inch in length, 
rather elongated, smooth, dull reddish-brown. 



Hapigia. 

Hapigia, Guen., Noct., ii, p. 375 (1852). 

CorymMa, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xxxiii, p. 765 

' (1865). 

Antennae ciliate. Palpi extending beyond frons, the second joint 
hairy. Primaries : apex acute ; outer margin rounded, very oblique 
vein 5 from middle of discocellular • 6 — 10 stalked • 3 and 4 close 
together. Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 form a point ; 6 and 7 
stalked • 8 connected with 7 by a bar towards base of cell. In 
H. oblicpta, Walk., vein 5 on primaries is from above middle of 
discocellular. 

Type. H. nodicornis, Guen. 
Nodicomis, Guen., I.e., 376 (1852). 
Obliqua, Walk. (Corymbia), Cat. Lep. Het., B. M. xxxiii, 

p. 766 (1865), erroneously described from India. 
Smcrinthoides, Walk. (Corymbia), I.e., p. 765 (1865). 
Simplex, Walk. (Corymbia), 1. c., p. 766 (1865). 
Raatzi, Moschl. (Chliara), Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien., 

xxxii, p. 350 (1883) = Ribbei, Druce (Hapigia), Biol. 

Centr. Amer. Lep. Het., i, p. 244, t. xxv, f. 8 (1887). 
Arcipiter, Schs., P. Z. S., 1892, p. 340. 
Abscondens, Walk. (Crino), 1. c., xiv, p. 1347 (1858), nee 

fip-. BioWia. 
Rufcscens, Schs., sp. nov. 



Hapigia rufescens. 

Head and thorax reddish-brown. Abdomen greyish-brown. 
Primaries reddish-brown ; an indistinct greyish basal line ; the 
inner line represented by greyish spots on veins ; the outer line 
dark reddish-brown, slightly curved ; sub terminal blackish spots in 
pairs between the veins, one above the other, those at apex shaded 
with white and coalescent ; these spots preceded by a dark brown 
wavy shade ; a silvery white crescent in cell, surmounted by a 



342 Mr. W. Schaus's 

round silver spot. Secondaries : buff on costal margin ; light 
blackish-brown outwardly. 
Expanse 48 m.m. 

Hah. Aroa, Venezuela. 

Chliaba. 

Chliara, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het, B. M. xii, p. 938 (1857). 
Autogrcvpha, Hubn, Verz. Bek. Schmett., p. 251 (partim). 

Antennae ciliate, not nodose at base. Palpi upturned ; second 
joint hairy ; third joint short, smooth, conical. Primaries : apex 
acute ; outer margin rounded, oblique. Vein 5 from middle of 
iiscocellular ; 6 from upper angle or just beyond it ; 7 — 10 stalked. 
Secondaries ; veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 on short stalk. 

Type. C. cronsus, Cr. 
Croesus, Cr. (Phalsena), Pap. Exot., ii, t. 142, f. c. (1780) = 

Crcesa, Hiibri. (Autographa), 1. c., p. 251 = Imperialis, 

Walk, I.e., p. 939 (1857). 
Moneta, Feld, Reise Nov, t. xevi, f. 7 (1874). 
Notha, Moschl, Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xxxii, p. 350, 

t. 18, f. 38 (1883). 

AnttEA. 
Antxa, Hubn, Verz. Bek. Schmett, p. 266 (1816). 
Caroia, Walk, Cat. Lep. Het, B. M. xv, p. 1791 and 1861 

(185 8). 

Antenme fasciculate. Palpi upturned ; second joint, hairy, 
elliptical; third joint long, smooth. Primaries: apex acute; outer 
margin rounded, oblique, partly crenulate ; vein 5 from just above 
middle of discocellular ; 6 from upper angle of cell ; 7 — 10 stalked. 
Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 from a point ; 6 and 7 stalked ; 8 
diverging from 7 at middle of cell. 

Type. Antteajuturna, Cr. 
Juhorna, Cr, Pap. Exot, ii, t. 129, f. E. (1780). 
Licormas, Cr, 1. c, i, t. 74, f. E. (1779) = Bombycoidcs 
(Caroia), Walk, 1. c, p. 1792 (1858). 

Pseitdhapigia, gen. nov. 

Antennse pectinated to tips. Palpi not extending beyond frons ; 
second joint hairy ; third minute. Primaries : apex acute ; outer 
margin rounded, oblique ; inner angle rounded ; inner margin 
excised; vein 5 from middle of discocellular; 6 — 10 stalked. 



Revision of the American Notodontidse. 343 

Secondaries : veins 3 and 4 slightly apart ; C and 7 stalked ; 8 
diverging from 7 at middle of cell. 

Type. P. brunnca, Schs. 
Brunnea, Schs., sp. nov. 

Xolotl, Schs. (Hapigia), P.Z.S., 1892, p. 339; Biol. Centr. 
Amer. Lep. Het., ii, t. xci, f. 19. 

Pseudha/pigia bricnnea, sp. nov. 

£ . Antennas pectinated to tips. Head and thorax reddish-brown ; 
abdomen lighter brown. Primaries reddish-brown, the costa greyish ; 
a basal and an inner transverse greyish line, the latter outwardly 
oblique from costa ; the outer line parallel to outer margin from 
costa to vein 2, then straight to inner margin, dark grey, inwardly 
shaded with violaceous ; a subterminal wavy black line preceded at 
apex by two silver spots ; in the cell a small, followed by a larger 
irregular silvery spot finely edged with black. Secondaries greyish, 
palest at the base. The inner margin of primaries is slightly excised 
at its middle. 

Expanse 44 m.m. 

Rah. Guadalajaea, Mexico. 

Canodia. 

Ganodia, Guen., Sp. Gen. Noct., ii, p. 377 (1852). 

Antenna? pectinated to tips. Palpi short not extending beyond 
frons. Primaries acute ; outer margin rounded, oblique ; inner 
angle rounded ; inner margin straight. 

Type of Genus. G. carmelitoides, Guen. 
Carmelitoides, Guen., 1. c, p. 378 (1852), pi. 12, f. 8. 
Diffmmiis, H. S. (Canodea), Ausser.-Europ. Schmett, f. 132. 

These species are both unknown to me, and Difformis 
may possibly not be congeneric with Carmelitoides. 



Explanation of Plate XI. 

Fig. 1. Tagela dentata, Schs. 

2. Marthula quadrata, Walk. 

3. Antiopha multilinear Schs. 

4. Tecmessa elegans, Schs. 

5. Psorocampa denticulata, Schs. 

6. Betola aroata, Schs. 

7. Gopha mixtipennis. Walk. 

8. Naduna lignea, Schs. 

9. Pauluma nubila, Schs. 

10. Hardingia roberti, Schs. 

11. Salluca moruma, Schs. 

12. Litodonta nigripuncta, Schs. 

13. Goaxis singularis, Schs. 



Explanation of Plate XI F. 

Fig. 1. Ajilia cinerea, Schs. 

2. Nagidusa xylocampoides, Walk 

3. Notela jaliscana, Schs. 

4. Euharpyia comita, Schs. 

5. Eunotela pallida, Schs. 

6. Goacampa variabilis, Schs. 

7. Kurtia modesta, Schs. 

8. Anita basipuncta, Schs. 

9. Hemiceras nigrescens, Schs. 
10. „ nigricosta, Schs. 



( 34i 



XIII. Cases of Protective Besemhlancc, Mimicry, etc., in the 
British Coleoptera. By Horace St. John K. 

DoNISTHORPE, F.Z.S. 

" So may the outward shows be least themselves ) 
The world is still deceiv'd with ornament." 

Merchant of Venice. 

[Read June 5th, 1901.] 

In writing a paper on this interesting subject it is not 
necessary for me to explain what is meant by " mimicry," 
" protective resemblance," or any of the phases connected 
with them, the work of such men as Bates, Fritz Miiller, 
Wallace, Trimen, Melclola, Poulton, and others having 
made them household words to all students of natural 
history. In this paper I merely wish to bring forward 
all such cases as appear to me to occur in our British 
Coleoptera, and by doing so I hope to call attention to 
a subject which has been much neglected by Coleopterists. 
A certain amount of work has of course been done in 
Exotic Coleoptera, for instance Mr. Gahan's paper on 
mimetic resemblances between species of the Coleopterous 
genera Lema and Diabrotica in our transactions (Trans. 
Ent. Soc, 1891, p. 367), Mr. Guy A. K. Marshall's and 
Mr. R. Shelford's papers in the Reports of the British 
Association at Bradford 1900, pp. 793 and 795 respectively. 
Furthermore Wallace, Poulton, and others record various 
cases in some of their writings, but the subject has not been 
as systematically dealt with as it has in the Lepidoptera. It 
seems to me a great pity that collectors send home beetles 
which are evidently mimics of ants, or wasps, etc., as the 
case may be, but without the species mimicked, or notes 
on the subject; whereas how much more valuable would 
be their consignments if they paid more attention to this 
branch of entomology. Men like Bates, Wallace and Belt 
never failed to note and record such interesting cases, 
because they were always on the look out for them. I 
also think it is a mistake that museums, even when the 
" mimics" and ''mimicked" are sent home together, at 
once separate them into different cabinets, thus rendering 
the work of the future student of insect bionomics more 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART III. (SEPT.) 



346 Mr. H. Donisthorpe on 

laborious and difficult. I have no doubt tbat many more 
cases than those recorded in the present paper could be noted 
and verified in our British list, if collectors would look out 
for them ; for every worker must meet with some special 
individual experience in the field. There are a certain 
number of cases in this paper which I bring forward with 
all due diffidence in the hope that experimental proof may 
be obtained. We require many more carefully devised 
experiments on the edibility or distastefulness of numerous 
species. I do not consider experiments with foreign birds 
in confinement a very satisfactory test, since first they are 
accustomed to be fed and expect to eat everything that is 
given to them, and secondly, they could never have seen a 
British insect in nature, and so would be inclined to attack 
it out of curiosity. Furthermore, being insectivorous and 
yet not regularly supplied with insect food or with a very 
monotonous insect diet they are likely to be less dis- 
criminating than in the wild state. Nevertheless they 
present certain points of special interest ; for we can 
watch the effect of a new experience and test the efficiency 
of memory. I have used the terms " procryptic, " " apose- 
matic," etc., brought forward by Professor Poulton in his 
book on the colours of animals, to classify the species 
mentioned, and have followed, for convenience, the order 
adopted by Dr. Sharp and Canon Fowler in their 1893 
catalogue of the British Coleoptera. 

I wish to express my thanks to all those friends, particu- 
larly Mr. W. Holland, of the Hope Department, Oxford 
University Museum, who have supplied me with material 
and helped me in this paper ; but above all to Professor 
Poulton for his advice, help, and great kindness in assisting 
me in any difficulty. 

Cakabim;. 

Carabus. 

I would suggest that the black colour of some of the 
large dark-coloured species of Carabus such as G. violaceus, 
L., C. catenulatus, Scop., etc., is aposematic. I have no 
doubt that they are more or less distasteful as they possess 
a strong and most unpleasant smell, and have the power 
to discharge an acrid fluid. I remember picking up a 
specimen of G. violaceus on the Deal sand-hills .which 
shot this fluid into my eye, causing considerable pain. 
Professor Poulton points out that some African Carabid/v 



Cases of Protective Resemblance, Mimicry, etc. 347 

have large white spots on a black ground, which makes 
them very conspicuous. He suspects the acrid ejection 
is the character which defends them, together with their 
powerful mandibles. 

Nebria complanata, L. 

This large beetle which is very noticeable in a cabinet 
drawer, is by no means so in its natural environment. 
The colour, yellow with black stripes on the back, makes 
it very hard to see when partly covered by the sand in 
which it lives. This I experienced when searching for 
the beetle at Braunton Burrows. On being disturbed 
it rushes very quickly to hide itself again. Mr. Holland 
says, " When beaten from its hiding-places in the sands 
great sharpness is necessary if all the disturbed individuals 
are to be caught." 

Maphrus. 

All the species of Maphrus have rugged elytra, and 
their metallic colour makes them almost invisible 
when motionless on the wet mud they frequent. This 
was especially noticeable in E. uliginosus, F., when in 
company with several other Coleopterists I found it in 
numbers at Lymington Salterns. The most successful 
results were obtained by tramping about on the mud and 
walking towards the water, when the beetles, running 
before us, were more easily seen. 

Clivina and Dyschirius. 

All the species of these genera are somewhat ant-like in 
appearance. Mr. Holland says " the gregarious ones look 
at first sight like a company of ants." It may be worth 
while to mention that Crowther recorded in the Entomo- 
logist's Monthly Magazine (Vol. xv, 1878, p. 19), the 
occurrence of Clivina fossor in numbers with Lasius flavus. 

Broscus cephalotes, L. 

This is a fairly large black beetle and is found on the 
coast, where it burrows in the sand, and hides under 
stones and refuse. When frightened it often puts itself 
into the most extraordinary attitudes, its legs stretched 



348 Mr. H. Donisthorpe on 

out quite stiff in all directions, and remains immovable 
for a long time. This is one of the very many instances 
in Coleoptera of so-called " feigning death/' To be 
motionless is a great protection, as moving things are 
seen more easily; moreover, predacious creatures as a 
rule prefer their prey to be alive. As Mr. Holland points 
out, " Beetles often lie dead in the road unnoticed by 
anything but the scavenger ant." 

Panageus crux-major, L., and P. quadripushdahos, Stm. 

These beetles are coloured bright orange-red with a 
very conspicuous black cross on the back, which suggests 
that they may be examples of warning colours and 
distasteful, but of course experiments to prove this are 
required. 

Chlmnms vestitus, Payk. 

Mr. Holland says that this beetle looks bright and 
conspicuous enough in the drawer, but when disturbed 
from its cracks in the sandstone, its pale patch and legs, 
and pale silky coat shining in the sun, make it very 
inconspicuous. 

Amara fulvct, Dej. 

This species is only found in sandy places where it 
hides itself under stones and half buries itself in the sand, 
its yellow colour harmonising well with its surroundings. 

Bembidium pcdudosum, Panz., Tachypus palMpes, Duft., 
and T. jlavipes, L. 

These beetles are protected in the same manner as the 
species of Elaphrvs ; they also possess rugged metallic coats 
and frequent muddy or shingly banks of rivers and other 
wet places. 

Aepus marinus, Strom and A. robinii, Lab. 

These little beetles are found under stones and boulders 
among sand and shingle below high-water mark. They 
are just the colour of the sand, and it is difficult to detect 
them, as I have experienced in the case of both species at 
Lymington. 



Cases of Protective Resemblance, Mimicry, etc. oVd 

Lebia cyanocephala, L., and L. chlorocephala, Hoff. 

These beetles have a very " Phytophaga "-like appear- 
ance. They occur at the roots of broom, juniper, etc., and 
also on the blossom-. My friend Mr. Bouskell took a 
series of L. cyanocephala in the New Forest by beating 
broom in flower. Mr. Gab an tells me that the Central 
American Lebiinze have a strongly-marked resemblance 
to Phytophaga and Coccinellidnz, and that a closely-allied 
group has been called Galemcidiinse, from its resemblance 
to the GalerucidtB. The whole group of Phytophaga are 
extensively mimicked in all countries, and many of them 
are known to be distasteful. 

Dcmetrias unipunctatus, Germ. 

This beetle is coloured so as to be very well concealed 

in the sand in which it lives. 
■ 

Drypta dentata, Rossi. 

This species is of a brilliant metallic blue colour and 
might be easily mistaken for one of the Phytop>hagct. 

Brachinus crepitans, L. 

B. crepitans is protected by its "guns." Mr. Holland 
says, " It may also be protected by being gregarious and 
looking something like the big wood-ant. My brother 
once picked up a large stone in a wood-clearing on the 
chalk hills, and hurriedly called Mr. Hamm and me to 
come and look — there were between one and two hundred 
crepitans under that one stone, looking like a colony of 
ants. A number like this is very unusual, but it is a 
common thing to find a dozen or so under a stone in 
the same place." It is noteworthy that both the ant 
and the beetle defend themselves by ejecting acid. 

DYTISCID/E. 

As my friend Mr. W. E. Sharp pointed out to me, 
the prevailing sub-aquatic colours vary through a very 
short scale from dull green, olive-green, yellow-green, to 
yellow-brown and brown. These are the colours of nearly 
all denizens of water, particularly so in the water-beetles. 
This is not surprising, as they require perhaps more 



350 Mr. H. Donisthorpe on 

protection than land species, being in a more confined 
space and liable to the attack of such voracious creatures 
as fish. 

Laccophihts. 

The colours of the species of this genus fall within the 
above scale. Their ground-colour is broken up by flecks 
of yellow. 

Agabus nebulosus, Forst. and A. conspersits, Marsh. 

In these two beetles the ground-colour is broken up by 
specks of black. 

Dytiscus. 

The species of this genus are of an olive-green colour 
with yellow margins to the thorax and elytra. 

A dims. 

In Acilius we find a similar linear arrangement of 
yellow margins. 

Hydrophilim:. 

Helophorus. 

All the species of this genus have rough uneven upper 
surfaces and are no doubt protected in the same manner 
as the species of Maphrus, when on the wet mud and 
margins of pools, etc. 

Sphseridium scardbmoidcs, F., and S. hipustulatum, F. 

Mr. Holland says of this genus, " the spotted species 
look like lady-birds." This would be of service to them 
as the Goccinellidse are known to be distasteful and are 
mimicked by many groups. 

Cercyon. 

Of this genus, which mostly live in dung, Mr. Holland 
suggests, " The red apex to the elytra of all the species 
probably acts as a protection. Whew a cow-pad is dis- 
turbed and the Cercyon laid bare, they dive at once head 
first, thus exposing the posterior part, which is reddish, 
like the dung." 



Cases of Protective Resemblance, Mimicry, etc. 351 

STAPHYLINID/E. 

Atemelcs. 

Father Wasmann says of Lomechnm strumosa, which is 
very like an Atemeles but larger (and the following remarks 
will equally apply to our two species of Atemeles), that the 
similarity between the beetle and the ant depends more 
on deceptive reflexions of light, than upon real similarity 
of form. He points out that the beetle lives in the midst 
of the ants, and though away from them it does not in the 
least suggest the appearance of an ant, when it sits in their 
midst, the light reflected by the concave sides of the thorax 
appears to the eye like the narrow back of the ant, while 
the rolled-up abdomen of the beetle reflects the light in 
the same way as the rounded abdomen of a large ant. 
Consequently it is very difficult to detect them in their 
normal environment. 

Myrmedonia collaris, Payk. 

When I took this beetle in numbers, with its host 
Myrmica Itevinodis, in Wicken Fen, I also took with it 
several specimens of an ichneumon, Microcryptus nigro- 
cinctus, Grav. ($s). Both beetle and ichneumon are 
coloured in the same way, being banded alternately black 
and red, and much resembled each other when running 
on the paper. Mr. Morley tells me " the coloration is 
decidedly unusual in an ichneumonid." On the other 
hand, the colour of the beetle is also entirely different 
from that of the rest of our species. This may be a 
case of true mimicry of the beetle for the ichneumon, 
but the fact that they both have a superficial resemblance 
to the ants might indirectly account for their mutual 
similarity. 

Myrmedonia fiinesta, Grav. 

This beetle, which is found in and about the nests of 
the jet ant, Lasius fnliginosus, is very like its host in 
appearance ; the resemblance being caused, as pointed out 
by Father Wasmann, by its glossy black colour, narrow 
shape, and rolled-up abdomen. When disturbed its second 
line of defence consists (in common with all the other 
species of Myrmedonia and indeed with very many other 
species of Coleoptera) in curling itself up ; when remaining 



352 Mr. H. Donisthorpe on 

motionless for some time, it looks like a small lump of 
earth. 

Astilbus canaliculars, F. 

This beetle also has a strong superficial resemblance to 
an ant, especially when running. It is generally found 
with ants, and may accompany a variety of species of 
these Hymenoptera. 

Sipalia testacea, Bris., Arena octavii, Fauv., Phytosus 
baliicus, Kr., and P. nigrivcntris, Chevr. 

These small beetles occur under sea-weed on the sea- 
shore and are so coloured as to escape detection amongst 
the sand. 

Emus hirtus, L. 

This large beetle, though very rare in England, is 
common on the Continent. It is clothed with golden 
hair like a humble bee, and altogether has a general 
Hymenopterous and dangerous look. Mr. A. Luff when 
recording its capture in Alderney (Ent. Mo. Mag., xxxvi., 
p. 237) says, " Rye says it resembles a humble bee in flight, 
but Mr. Marquand says it looked more like a wasp, only 
with the peculiar flight of a beetle." 

Ocypus olens, Mull. 

This beetle has the habit, in common Avith most of the 
Staphylinidx, of turning up the tail in a formidable-looking 
manner when molested as if it could sting. This is one of 
the examples pointed out by Wallace (Darwinism, p. 210). 
It can also bite severely, and possesses two white " stink 
glands " which are exerted from the apex of the abdomen 
when the insect is irritated. 

Stilicus fragilis, Grav. 

All the species of Stilicus, more especially S. fragilis, 
have a very ant-like appearance. S. fragilis has a red 
thorax, and when it occurs at all, is to be found in numbers 
in faggot-stacks, etc. I have taken it freely at Shirley, 
and when beaten out on to a paper the beetles remind one 
most forcibly of the wood-ant Formica rufa. They also 
have the habit of appearing on the top of a heap of faggot 



Cases of Protective Resemblance, Mimicry, etc. 353 

refuse in the sun, when they look like a crowd of ants on 
the top of an ant-hill. 

Stenus, 

Mr. Holland suggests that the whole genus Stenus is 
protected in the mud and wet places by the rough rugged 
dorsal surface, much in the same way as Maphrus. 

Oxyporus rufus, L. 

This is a very conspicuous beetle of a bright red and 
black colour, suggesting a " warning " or " aposematic " 
appearance. It feeds on certain species of fungi. Of 
course experiments are needed to prove its inedibility. 

Micralymma brevipenne, Gyll. 

This small beetle occurs under stones, and under sea- 
weed on large boulders below high-water mark. Canon 
Fowler writes (Col. Brit. Isles, Vol. ii. p. 408) : " I have taken 
it a long way below high-water mark at Ventnor running 
on stones in the sun in company with a species of Thysanura 
which it probably preys on, and larger species of which it 
rather strongly resembles at a little distance." This may 
be a case of Aggressive Mimicry {Pseudepisematic), the 
beetle feeding on the Thysanura, or perhaps the Thysanura 
is distasteful and the beetle mimics it, in which case it 
would be Protective Mimicry (Pseudaposematic), but 
more evidence is required before any certain conclusion 
can be reached. 

SlLPHIDiE. 

Necrophorus. 

All the yellow-banded species of Necrophorus are very 
conspicuous and are probably distasteful, especially as 
they are carrion feeders. Probably also they are protected 
by possessing the characteristic banding of so many species 
of wasps. 

Silpha qiiadripunctata, L. 

This species has different habits from all the rest of the 
genus, as it lives on oak trees and hunts for lepidopterous 
larvse. It is also coloured differently, being yellow with 
four black spots on the elytra, and is perhaps protected by 
looking like a large lady-bird. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART III. (SEPT.) 24 



354 Mr. H. Donisthorpe on 

Histerim:. 

All the species of this family are protected by their 
oval shape and hardness. They also " feign death," when 
the legs and antenna? are packed close to the body, being 
withdrawn into cavities fitted for their reception. 

Hister quadrimaculatus, L., H. purpurascens, Herbst., 
and H. bimaculatus, L. 

These species, which are spotted with red., are probably 
protected by their resemblance to Coccinellidm. Of course, 
as in many other examples of mimicry, they may also* be 
distasteful on their own account, affording instances of 
Mullerian mimicry (Synaposematic Resemblance). 

Saprimcs virescens, Payk. 

This beetle bears a strong superficial resemblance to the 
Phytophagous beetle Ph&don cochleariw, F., on the larvae 
of which it feeds. The Phuedon is very common and lives 
on mustard, watercress, etc., the Sa/prinvs is much rarer. 
It is probably an advantage to the Saprinus to mimic a 
distasteful Phytophagous beetle and so be passed over by 
birds, etc., whilst it feeds on its prey. This example is 
beautifully shown in a show-case in the Natural History 
Museum. 

SCAPHIDIDvE. 

Scaphidium quadrimaculatum, 01. 

This beetle has four red spots on the elytra and is 
probably protected in the same way as the red-spotted 
Histers. 

COCCINELLID^E. 

All the lady-birds are very gaily-coloured, red and yellow 
spotted with black and white. They boldly walk about 
without any attempt at concealment, as do also their 
larvae. Both their larvae and pupae are also brightly 
spotted. The distastefulness of the perfect insects was 
proved by Jenner Wier, and has since been confirmed by 
both Poulton and Wallace. 

Endomychtm:. 

Dr. Sharp says (Camb. Nat. Hist., Insects, Pt. ii. p. 237) 
that many Coccinellidse are mimicked by Undomychidie. 



Cases of Protective Resemblance, Mimicry, etc. 355 

This is in all probability Miillerian mimicry, as the 
Endomychidm are themselves much mimicked by other 
groups. 

Alexia pilifera, Mull. 

This little beetle is very like the wingless form of the 
small bug Myrmedobia coleoptrata, Fall. Douglas says in 
the " Entomologist's Monthly Magazine " (Ent. Mo. Mag., 
1874-5, p. 138) — " M. coleoptrata was found on a bank at 
Highgate in company with small black ants, but not in 
their nests. Neither sex is like an ant, and the apterous 
$ resembles the Coleopterous Alexia pilifera which was 
found at the same time and place." Many of the bugs 
are known to be distasteful, and moreover the bug in 
question is found in and about ants' nests, which evidently 
do not harm it, so it may be an advantage to the beetle 
to resemble the bug. 

JEndomychtcs coccineus, L. 

This beetle is of a bright red colour spotted with black 
and bears a strong resemblance to a lady-bird. 

Erotylim:. 

Triplcwc russica, L., and T. amca, Schall. 

These two beetles, the one black, the other blue, with 
a red thorax, look very much like species of Phytophaga. 

Cyrtotriplax bipustulata, F. 

This little species is black with a red spot on each 
elytron and might easily be mistaken for a lady-bird. 

NlTIDULIDiE. 

Soronia jpunctatissima, 111., S. grisea, L., and Amphotis 
marginata, Er. 

These three beetles frequent trees where they are found 
under, and in chinks of the bark, etc. The first two species 
occur on " cossus " trees, and the last on trees infested by 
the ant Lasius fuliginosus. They are flat insects, coloured 
like flakes of bark, which they would resemble when at 
rest on the tree-trunks. 



356 Mr. H. Donisthorpe on 

Omosita. 

Our three species of Omosita live on old bones, half- 
dried-up carcases, etc. Their colours are well adapted to 
harmonise with their environment. 

Meligethes. 

Mr. Holland suggests that the genus Meligethes and its 
allies, and in fact all the small flower-frequenting species, 
might well be passed over as anthers on the stamens of 
the flowers. 

Ips. 

Our three species of Ips are all black insects spotted 
with yellow and may suggest Coccinellidte. 

Trogositim:. 

Thymalus limbatus, F. 

This insect is found on boleti on trees and under bark 
where boleti occur. It has always a mouldy appearance 
and never looks like a live beetle, but rather like a bit of 
mouldy bark, or patch of mould. Its shape, when sitting 
flat against the tree, also increases this resemblance. 

COLYDIIDiE. 

Cicones varicgatus, Hellw. 

This small beetle lives on tree-trunks among dry- 
powdery black fungi, and its variegated colour renders it 
indistinguishable from its surroundings. In the New 
Forest I have found that the best way to take it is, to 
scrape the parts of trees which seemed most favourable 
over paper, and then minutely to examine the de'bris. 

Monotomim:. 

Monotonia conicicollis, Aube,and M.formicetorum, Thorns. 

These two beetles, which live in the nest of the wood- 
ant, Formica rnfa, closely resemble little bits of wood, and 
this renders them very difficult to detect when motionless 
amongst the debris of the nest. Father Wasmann sug- 
gests that by this means they are protected from the ants 
themselves. 



Gases of Protective Resemblance, Mimicry, etc. 357 
MYCETOPHAGIDiE. 

Mycetaphagus quadripushdatus, L. 

This species has four yellow spots on the elytra, and 
Mr. Holland suggests that it is probably protected by its 
resemblance to a lady-bird. 

Dermestim:. 

Dermestes murinits, L. ' 

Mr. Holland points out that the colour of this species 
is well adapted for concealment in the fur of dead moles, 
and in his experience it is generally found on that 
animal. I personally have found it most frequently on 
stoats, when it is by no means inconspicuous. This is 
just one of those cases where experiment is required to 
settle the matter. I am inclined to think that being a 
carrion-feeder it is distasteful, and certainly at Chidding- 
fold, where the insect was very plentiful on the dead 
stoats hung up on trees by the gamekeepers, the beetles 
were about for months and I never saw birds, or anything 
else, interfering with them. 

Dermestes larddrius, L. 

Mr. Holland considers this beetle is coloured so as to 
represent " bird droppings." 

Byrrhid^r. 
Byrrhus pihda, L. 

All the species of this genus, which are called "pill- 
beetles," " feign death " when disturbed. The legs and 
antennse are packed close to the body, fitting into cavities 
for their reception, and the beetles then represent rabbits' 
dung, or little lumps of earth : they in no way suggest the 
appearance of living beetles. When I mentioned this to 
Mr. Holland, he told me that he takes several species 
near Oxford, among the rabbit dung, round the roots of 
" tussocks " of grass, where rabbits have been feeding ; and 
that they are certainly well protected in such situations. 

Georyssid^e. 
Georyssus pygmxits, F. 
This little beetle, which is found on the wet mud in 



358 Mr. H. Donisthorpe on 

damp ditches, etc, is always completely covered by a 
coating of mud, and when motionless is of course quite 
invisible. It is very curious, when one is looking for it, 
to see what is apparently a bit of mud get up and walk 
away. This is one of the best instances of adventitious 
protection (Allocryptic Resemblance) we possess in our 
Coleoptera. 

HETEROCERIDiE. 

Heterocenis. 

Mr. Holland considers that the species of this genus are 
well protected, on the wet mud in which they live, by 
their "silky coats" which harmonise well with their sur- 
roundings and render them very inconspicuous. 

Scarab^iid^:. 

Onthophagus. 

All the species of this genus live in and about dung, 
and are of a colour which conceals them well in these 
surroundings. 

Aphodius. 

Mr. Holland says, " The genus Aphodius are chiefly 
coloured like Cercyon, and have the same protective habits 
except that they are less active." Some of them are 
entirely red or brown. The large black species "feign 
death." They nearly all occur in dung. 

Geotrupes. 

The species of this genus also " feign death." I have 
noticed this in particular with G. vernalis which I used to 
capture on Wimbledon Common. I once picked up what 
I thought was a dead specimen and was agreeably sur- 
prised to find that it was very much alive. 

Hoplia philanthus, Fuss., Homaloplia ruricola, F., and 
Serica brimnca, L. 

Mr. Holland suggests that these beetles are all, more or 
less, like brown leaf scales, or bits of brown leaf, etc. 

Ehizotrogus solstitialis, L. 

Mr. Holland considers that this beetle is protected by 



Cases of Protective Resemblance, Mimicry, etc. 359 

its hairy coat which resembles lichen-covered branches, 
etc. It hides during the day and comes out and flies about 
at dusk, a habit common to many of the Melolonthina. 

Melolontha vulgaris, F., and M. hippocostani, F. 

Mr. Holland says, " Big as they are, they are very incon- 
spicuous in the lichen-covered hawthorn trees they so 
largely frequent. Even in the beating- tray where they 
1 feign death ' at first, their mealy brown backs look like 
a bit of lichen-covered bark." Judging from the remains 
one finds about, it is probable that they are both palat- 
able and much attacked. 

Anomala frischii, F. 

Mr. Holland considers this beetle is protected in the 
same way as Hoplia pliilantliUjS etc. 

Getonia aurata, L. 

Mr. Holland well describes the protection of this species. 
He says, " Getonia aurata looks a most conspicuous object 
in a drawer, but look for it where it loves to be, with its 
head and forepart buried in a flower-head of Viburnum 
opnlus, the projecting hind part slashed with wavy whitish 
marks like pollen flakes, and dusted with real pollen as 
the result of its own activity, and the beetle is hardly to 
be seen at all." 

Gnorimtcs variabilis, L., and G. nobilis, L. 

These two species also have protective white marks on 
the dorsal surface of the posterior part of the body, similar 
to those of the Getonia. 

Trichius faseiatns, L., and T. abclominalis, Men. 

These two beetles are banded with yellow and black, 
and clothed with yellow and golden hairs, much resemb- 
ling humble bees, both at rest, and during flight. The 
gardener at Dall House, Rannoch, told Professor Beare 
and me, that he had often mistaken them (T. fasciatus) 
for bees when he had seen them about the flowers in the 
garden. 



360 Mr. H. Donisthorpe on 

Bupkestim:. 

Anthaxia nitidula, L. 

This beautiful beetle is of a brilliant emerald green 
colour, and, as pointed out by Mr. Holland, looks some- 
what like a Ghrysis. The Continental form, with purple 
thorax and, cyaneous elytra, resembles the same model 
even more closely, as does the reputed British species, 
A. salicis. 

Throscim:. 

Throscus. 

The species of this genus " feign death " by packing the 
legs close to the body, when they look exactly like small 
brown seeds. 

Elaterid^e. 

Mater. 

The Elaters " feign death," and their ability to '* skip," 
in common with the rest of the family, is no doubt of great 
use to them. Mr. Holland points out that many of them 
possess a colour and shape suggesting the appearance of 
bits of dry brown stick. The bright red species may 
mimic the conspicuous genus Pyrochroa. 

Lacon murinus, L., Corymbites tessellatus, F., and 
C. holosericeus, F. 

Mr. Holland considers that the first of these beetles 
with its mealy uneven surface, and the two others with 
their uneven patches of silky pubescence, look like mottled- 
grey weathered pieces of stick. 

Campylus linearis, L. 

This beetle has much the appearance of a Telephones, 
and, like several species of that genus, it possesses two 
forms, a red and a blue. The Telephoridde, are known to 
be distasteful. 

MalacodermidtE. 

Eros aurora, Herbst., Pyropterm affinis, Payk., and 
Platycis mimtius, F. 

These three species are bright scarlet in colour and very 
conspicuous. It is most probable that they are distasteful 



Cases of Protective Bescmblancc, Mimicry, etc. 361 

and good instances of warning colours, as the Lycina, to 
which they belong, are much mimicked by other groups. 

Zampyris noctiluca, L. 

Wallace considers that the light in the glow-worm is a 
warning colour, as the male, eggs and larvae are all 
luminous as well as the female, though the latter is by far 
the most luminous. (Darwinism, p. 267.) Poulton on 
the other hand thinks that the light is a sexual attraction, 
and that the males are assisted in their search by the light 
of the females. In the former case they would come under 
the head of Aposematic colours, and in the latter of 
Epigamic colours. As Professor Poulton suggests, it 
would be well to find out, when in the life of the £ the 
light is brightest and most constantly displayed, whether 
in the virgin state, or before all copulation is over. The 
females are probably distasteful, for they as well as the 
larvae are coloured yellow and black, looking rather like 
a large lady-bird larva : furthermore they lie about by 
dozens in the day-time in sand-pits, etc., without appear- 
ing to make any attempt to hide themselves. The males 
on the other hand bury themselves in the earth during 
the day, as I frequently noticed with specimens I was 
experimenting with at Chiddingfold. 

TELEPHOKID.E. 

The Telephoridte as before stated are inedible. Mr. 
Jenner Weir found that they were refused by small birds. 
They are conspicuous red and black insects, and most of 
them are common, and no doubt good examples of warning 
colours. They walk and fly about without any attempt at 
concealment, sitting together in numbers on the flowers of 
umbelliferae, etc. They are mimicked by many other 
species of Coleoptera. In the Lepidoptera one of the 
footmen, ricbricollis, is very like a large Telephorus. When 
I first saw it in the New Forest, I thought for the moment 
that it was a grand new species of that genus. 

Mcdachius lenats, L. 

This beetle, with its large vivid red patches on the elytra, 
is evidently a good case of warning colours. It is found 
on flowers and herbage in meadows, etc. 



362 Mr. H. Domsthorpe on 

Psilothrix nobilis, 111., and Dolichosoma lineare, Rossi. 

These two species, which are of a metallic-green colour, 
much resemble Phytophaga. The former is very common 
on flowers in the Isle of Wight, Chesil Beach, etc. 
I have found that my lizards (1 Lacerta viridis; 2 Lacerta 
muralis, v. tiliguerta ; and 2 Lacerta agilis) won't touch 
the former species. 

Cleridjl 

Tillus elongahts, L. 

This beetle is very like a Zema, or Crioceris (Phytophaga). 
It has two forms, a black, and a blue with a red thorax, 
the latter being the more common of the two. In Zema, 
L. melanopa has a red thorax, while the other species are 
unicolorous. 

Tillus unifasciatuSy F., Tarsostemcs univittatus, Rossi 
and Thanisimus formicarius, L. 

These three beetles are all very good mimics of the 
fiercely stinging Mutillas. 

Necrohia and Corynetes. 

All the species of these two genera are much like 
Phytophaga. The Cleridse are themselves mimicked by 
other groups, so all these cases may be Mullerian, and not 
Batesian mimicry. 

Lymexylonim:. 

Zymexylon navale, L. 

This beetle is somewhat like a Telephorus in appearance. 

Ptinim:. 

Niptus hololeucus, Fald., N. erenatus, F., Mezium affine, 
Boield., and Gibbinm scotias, F. 

All these beetles bear a strong resemblance to spiders, 
as do, more or less, the species of the genus Ptinus. 

At present we do not know the reason or the advantage 
of this mimicry. Spiders are extremely liable to the 
attacks of insectivorous foes. These beetles are found in 
old houses, cellars, lofts, and similar places where spiders 
abound. 



Cases of Protective Resemblance, Mimicry, etc. 363 

Cekambycid^:. 

Aromia moschata, L. 

Mr. Holland suggests, " This beetle is very like the 
specially protected Cantharis." It smells strongly of 
musk, and sits about in a conspicuous manner on umbels, 
etc. ; it is most probably distasteful on its own account. 

Hylotrupes bajulus, L. 

Mr. Holland points out that the smaller forms of this 
beetle are " wonderfully like a species of Telephones." 

Callidium variabile, L. 

This Longicorn is also very like a Telephones. It has 
two forms, a blue and a red, as have several species of 
Telephones. 

Callidium alni, L. 

This pretty little beetle, with its red and white stripes 
on a black ground, is a good mimic of a Mutilla. 

Clytus arietis, L. 

This beetle is black banded with yellow and bears 
during life a strong superficial resemblance to a wasp. A 
cabinet specimen closely examined is certainly not much 
like the Hymenopterous insect, but when at large flying 
about, and settling on stumps, as it loves to do, its move- 
ments, combined with its colour, are very wasp-like. 
Professor Poulton writes (Colours of Animals, p. 250) : " But 
the most remarkable point in the resemblance can only be 
appreciated by observing the living insect. When walking 
the slender wasp-like legs are moved in a rapid somewhat 
jerky manner, very different from the usual stolid cole- 
opterous stride, but remarkably like the active movements 
of a wasp, which always seem to imply the perfection of 
training." It is also probable that it is distasteful in itself 
as Mr. Shelford shows that the Clytinte, as a group, in 
Borneo are much mimicked by other Longicornes (Brit. 
Ass. Keport, 1900, p. 795). 

Clytus mysticus, L. 

The colours of this beetle afford a good likeness of a 
Mutilla. 



364 Mr. H. Donisthorpe on 

Motor chus minor, L., and M. umbellatarum, L. 

These beetles have very short elytra and the true wings 
are exposed. They much resemble Ichneumonidig. Mr. 
Holland considers the former a mimic of a Mntilla. 

Rhagimn inquisitor, F., and R. indagator, Gyll. 

These species, like many other Longicornes, are coloured 
in such a way as closely to resemble the appearance of 
lichen on trees. The former is often found walking on 
lichen-covered oak trunks. The latter, which in the 
British Islands is only found in Scotland, is very hard to 
find, as Professor Beare and I experienced at Rannoch. 
It conceals itself in the crevices of weather-beaten fir 
stumps. 

Rhagium bifasciatum, F. 

Of this beetle, which lives in fir and pine woods, Mr. 
Holland says, " It closely resembles a flake of pine bark." 

Toxotus meridianus, Panz. 

This beetle, with its broad shoulders, spined thorax and 
long straggling legs, looks at first sight more like a 
Hymenopterous insect than a beetle. 

Pachyta cerambyciformis, Schr. 

This beetle, which is yellow spotted with black (character- 
istic warning colours), flies rather like, and rather suggests 
a wasp-like insect. 

Pachyta collaris, L. 

It is of a blue-black colour with a red thorax, and much 
resembles the Phytophagous genus Lema. 

Anoplodera sexguttata, F. 

This beetle is black spotted with yellow (warning 
colours). Mr. Holland considers it " wasp-like." 

Strangalia aurulenta, F., S. qttadrifasciata, L., and $ 
armata, Herbst. 

These three species are all yellow striped with black 
and look like wasps or other Hymenoptera. As before 






Cases of Protective Resemblance, Mimicry, etc. 365 

stated yellow and black stripes are the commonest warn- 
ing colours. I have seen several specimens of S. armata 
at Chiddingfold hovering over flowers and bushes, rising 
and falling, when they looked very like Hymenoptera (I 
have observed the same thing in Pachyta ccrambyciformis). 
It is very common for Longicornes to mimic Hymenoptera 
all over the world. 

Grammoptera prteusta, F. 

This insect is a very good mimic of a Telephones (or 
rather of Bhagonycha, having the apex of the elytra black). 
It is found on the flowers of hawthorn, and in this country 
is practically confined to the New Forest. 

Acanthocinus ivdilis, L. 

Mr. Holland says this beetle is " very like a flake of 
pine bark." I proved this to be the case last year at 
Rannoch. Having found a mutilated specimen on the top 
of a fir post, I remarked to my friend Professor Beare, that 
it had been fighting. Examining the post more closely I 
saw what appeared to be the remains of a pair of antennae 
and said, " Here are the antennas of another." They turned 
out to belong to a perfect specimen. I was looking straight 
at it, but being in a slight depression of the weather-beaten 
post, it looked just like a piece of bark. 

Leiopus nefodosus, L., and Mesosa nubila, 01. 

These species are mottled and coloured somewhat 
like lichens. They occur on fallen boughs, faggots, etc., 
and exhibit a very perfect colour-harmony with their 
surroundings. 

Pogonochzerus. 

The colours of our three species of this genus with their 
white patches and uneven elytra undoubtedly resemble 
lichens on boughs. Professor Beare and I were both 
taken in by P. bidentatus in the New Forest. We were 
examining a heap of lichen-covered logs, on the underside 
of one of which were two specimens of this species. We 
held the log up, with the underside turned upwards, so 
that we were looking straight at the beetles and yet failed 
to see them until they ran and fell to the ground, one 
specimen being lost. 



366 Mr. H. Donisthorpe on 

Saperda carcharias, L. 

This big beetle, which frequents the poplar, is con- 
spicuous enough when it sits on the leaves, but as my 
friend Mr. Bouskell pointed out to me, when it sits close 
against a medium-sized bough, or on a rough part of the 
trunk of the tree, it is very difficult to see, resembling a 
knot or irregularity of the surface. 

Saperda scalaris, L., and S. populnea, L. 

Mr. Holland says, " Saperda populnea and scalaris are by 
their lichen-like mottling well protected on trees." I must 
confess that I was at first rather sceptical about this, for 
when I took S. populnea on Wimbledon Common, it was 
to be found in numbers on the pollard aspen bushes and 
very conspicuous. I have no doubt however that the same 
remarks will apply to these species as to S. carcharias: 
moreover, pollard bushes are not a natural form of 
environment. 

Tetrops prsausta, L. 

This little beetle is a splendid mimic of a small species 
of Telephones. 

Oberea oculata i L. 

Obcrca oculata with its grey elytra, red thorax and 
underside, black spots on the thorax, and black head and 
antennas, looks in a drawer about as conspicuous a beetle 
as one could wish to see, and yet in its natural surround- 
ings, on the sallow bushes in the Fens, this is by no means 
the case. The blue-grey elytra match the undersides of 
the sallow leaves very well, while the red underside of 
the beetle harmonises with the branches. Any one who 
has searched systematically for it will agree that it is a 
very well protected species, and that it is assisted by 
concealment in holding its own in the struggle for life. 

Bruchim:. 

Bruchus ater, Marsh. 

My friend Mr. Morley writes to me, " The Heteropteron 
(Caspidse) Poeciloscytus gyllcnhalii, Fall., exactly resembles 
BrucMis ater when swept up in a frightened and doubled- 
up posture, as I found at Stanstead Wood, Suffolk, last 



Cases of Protective Resemblance, Mimicry, etc. 367 

June." I would suggest that the Bruchus mimics the 
bug, as many bugs are known to be distasteful. This of 
course requires experimental proof. 

CHRYSOMELID.E. 

The Phytophaga are considered to be all more or less 
distasteful, and no doubt justly so. Many species have 
been proved to be so, and the group is mimicked by 
various orders of beetles throughout the world. They also 
exhibit synaposematic colours and patterns, both within 
the group and with other distasteful groups outside. 

Clythra qitadriptmctata, L. 

This beetle is superficially very like a lady-bird ; in fact 
I consider it to be a mimic of Goccinella distincta, F. Both 
species pass the earlier stages of their lives in the nest of 
the wood ant Formica rufa. At the same time Clythra 
may be distasteful on its own account, and thus provide 
an example of Mullerian mimicry, a question which I hope 
to settle this year. 

Timarcha. 

The species of this genus are of a blue-black aposematic 
colour. They may be seen in the spring in numbers on 
grassy downs, or in lanes, marching slowly along with 
deliberate tread. When handled they eject from the 
mouth a clear blood-red liquid, which no doubt is a means 
of defence. From this habit they have gained the name 
of " bloody-nose beetles." 

Melasoma pojmli, L. 

This beetle has a bright blue head and thorax, and red 
elytra. It has been proved to be distasteful by Professor 
Weismann, and is quoted by Professor Poulton as an 
instance of warning colours (Colours of Animals, p. 177). 
I sent a number of live specimens from Wicken Fen to 
the Zoological Gardens to be offered to various insect- 
eaters by Mr. Beddard, who had kindly agreed to conduct 
such experiments for me. He says, " They were pecked 
at, but finally refused, though killed, by Shama, Pyed 
My nab, Laughing Jackass, and Brambling. The Drongo 
and Graculipica nigrirostris ate several with pleasure." It 



368 Mr. H. Donisthorpe on 

appears to me that their refusal by so many insect-eaters 
in confinement conclusively proves their distastefulness. 

Phytodecta. 

The species of this genus, especially the black spotted 
P. rufipes, De G., and P. viminalis, L., much resemble 
Ooccinellidse. I have found that my lizards will not touch 
Phytodecta viminalis, and this is an instance, probably, of 
common warning colours. 

Phyllobrotica quadrimaculata, L. 

This beetle is of a yellow colour with four black spots 
on the elytra and superficially resembles a lady-bird. 
With my friend Mr. Bouskell I have taken it in numbers 
in Bradgate Park. It sits about on the skull-cap, and is 
very conspicuous, and I should expect distasteful. 

Crepidodera transversa, Marsh., and C.ferrnginea, Scop. 

These species "jump" strongly. I think they are also 
protected by resembling in colour and shape the brown 
seeds which one sweeps up with them. I sent some of 
these beetles, which were very abundant at Oulton Broad, 
to Professor Poulton mounted on card with some of the 
seeds. He was very much struck with the resemblance. 
I also sent live specimens to the Zoological Gardens. Mr. 
Beddard says, " They were eaten by Racket-tailed Drongo, 
Shama, Pyed Mynah, and New Zealand Thrush. The 
Chaffinch did not appear to notice the insect." It is 
therefore probable that they are edible, as might be 
expected if my conclusions with regard to their resemblance 
to seeds are correct. 

Cassida. 

Most of the species in this genus are protected by being 
green like the plants they frequent, and are indeed very 
difficult to see when sitting on the green leaves, etc. The 
margin of the thorax and elytra projects beyond the body 
and forms a rim all round. On this account they are 
called " tortoise " beetles. I would suggest that this 
serves as a means of defence, acting like the wings and 
especially the " tails " of hindwings of many butterflies. I 
took a specimen of C. eqiiestris, F., in Wicken Fen with 
what was evidently a bite out of the margin of the thorax 



Cases of Protective Resemblance, Mimicry, etc. 369 

and elytra. When so attacked the beetle would then fall 
to the ground and probably escape. I sent this specimen 
to Professor Poulton, who agrees with my interpretation. 
I sent live specimens of the common C. viridis, F. (which 
is found on thistles, its green colour rendering it very hard 
to see) to the Zoological Gardens. They were eaten by all 
the birds they were offered to. 

Cassida mnrriea, L. 

This species presents a very interesting case ; it has two 
forms, a red and a green. The green form is protected by 
its colour on the green leaves of the food-plant, flea-bane. 
The red form is very like a lady-bird. When Mr. J. J. 
Walker and I took the beetle near Oxford, he was taken 
in by it at first. He saw the first specimen, a red one, 
and looked at it for a short time, thinking it was only 
the common Coccinella scptempunctata. Professor Poulton 
compares this case with Precis scsamus, among butterflies, 
which has a cryptic underside and habits, while its wet 
season form (P. octavia) is very conspicuous and probably 
pseudaposematic. 

Tenebrionid^e. 

Opatmtm sabidosum, Gyll. 

Mr. Holland points out that in certain districts this 
beetle is covered with chalk, etc. He says, " The intervals 
between the rugosities of their upper sides are filled with 
chalk and other dirt." They are clean in some districts, 
but are generally hidden at the roots of herbage, etc. I 
should say that they are always cryptic and frequently 
allocryptic. 

Plfialeria cadaverina, F. 

This beetle, which is only found on the sea-coast, is 
coloured exactly like the sand on which it occurs. 

Platydcma molaceum, F., and Scaphidemct mctcdlicum, F. 

These two species, the former of which is a metallic 
violet and the latter a bronze, closely resemble Phytophaga. 

Helops pcdlidus, Curt. 

This is another sand-coloured beetle closely resembling 
its habitat, the sea-shore. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART III. (SEPT.) 25 



370 Mr. H. Donisthorpe on 

Melandryim;. 

Tetratoma fungontm, F. 

This pretty little violet and red beetle is also very like 
a species of Phytophaga. 

Osphya bipunctata, F. 

This species is exceedingly like a Telephones, the $ 
resembling some of the black species, and the $ the red. 
Some of the red species of Telephones have forms with 
black elytra. 0. bipunctata is a rare and local insect, 
occurring on hawthorn blossoms on which the Telephoridie 
of course abound. 

(Edemerid^e. 

CEdemera nobilis, Scop., and 0. lurida, Marsh. 

These two species are also very like Phytophaga : they 
are taken by sweeping flowers and herbage in places where 
Phytophaga are liable to occur in abundance. 

Oncomera femorata, F. 

This beetle occurs in the autumn, and is nocturnal in 
its habits, coming out at night on to ivy-blossoms. It 
hides during the day, and, as Mr. Holland says, looks like 
a bit of dry curled autumn leaf or a bit of dry brown stick. 
Such an appearance would assist it in escaping attention. 

Nacerdes melanura, L. 

This is another beetle which is exceedingly like a Tele- 
phorus. It lives in decayed wood, such as " sea-breakers," 
etc., but is often taken on the wing. 

Pyrochroim:. 

Pyrochroa. 

Our three species are all bright scarlet, and very con- 
spicuous insects. The largest, P. coccinea, L., has a black 
head. They sit about openly on the herbage, etc., and 
are most probably distasteful, and good examples of warn- 
ing colours. 



Cases of Protective Besemblance, Mimicry, etc. 371 

Rhipidophorim:. 
Metaecus imradoxus, L. 

This curious beetle is parasitic on, and lives in the nests 
of, wasps. Though unlike a wasp in appearance, it cer- 
tainly suggests a Hymenopterous insect rather than a 
beetle. 

Anthicid^e. 

Notoxus monoceros, L. 

This beetle, which is found in sandy places, is coloured 
so as to promote concealment in such situations. It is 
also, in common with most of the genus Anthicus, some- 
what ant-like in appearance. 

Anthicus himaculatus, 111. 

This beetle is found on the coast, and is coloured 
differently from all the rest of the genus, being like the 
sand on which it occurs. 

Meloitme. 

Meloe. 

These beetles are called " oil beetles," because of the 
yellow fluid which exudes from their limbs when handled, 
and which no doubt possesses distasteful properties. They 
are large, heavy creatures, and crawl about regardless of 
danger. Their colours are doubtless aposematic. 

Sitaris muralis, Forst. 

This beetle is parasitic on certain bees (Andrenie), and 
is found about their burrows. It has the true wings 
exposed, and is very like a Hymenopterous insect in 
appearance. 

Lytta vesicatoria, L. 

This species is of a bright metallic green colour, and as 
Mr. Holland says, " it is showy and probably unpalatable." 
It is the well-known " Spanish fly," or " blister beetle," 
and its properties would no doubt render it distasteful. 
The Cantharidx are mimicked in other countries. 



372 Mr. H. Donisthorpe on 

Anthribim;. 

Anthribus albinus, L. 

Anthribus is very like a " bird's dropping," or a bit of 
lich en-covered bark. It lives in old stumps, etc., its 
colouring being well suited to the surroundings. 

CURCULIONID.E. 

Apoderus coryli, L., and Atteldbus curculionoides, L. 

These two beetles are bright red in colour ; the former 
sits on the young leaves of hazel, and the latter on oak. 
Canon Fowler says of Apoderus (Col. Brit. Isles, v., p. 118) : 
"It is very conspicuous as it sits on the leaves in the 
sun." Both species may be passed over for Goccinellidm. 
When disturbed they drop instantly. 

Otiorrhynchits fuscipes, Walt. 

When Mr. Chitty and I were beating bushes on Purley 
Downs, we took a number of these beetles. Large brown 
berries about the size of the beetle kept falling into the 
beating- tray with it, and we were much struck with the 
resemblance between the insect and the fruit. 

Polydrusus tereticollis, De G. 

I noticed in Tilgate Forest in 1891 that this beetle was 
very like the buds of the birch which were beaten off with 
it. I mounted several specimens on cards with the buds. 
These I have sent to Professor Poulton, who was very 
pleased to add them to the collection illustrating insect 
bionomics which he is making in the Hope Department. 

Polydrusus confluens, Steph. 

This beetle bears a strong superficial resemblance to 
Sitones regensteinensis, Herbst. Both species are found on 
the broom, the Polydrusus being much the rarer of the 
two. I do not know what is the reason for, or the ad- 
vantage there may be in, this mimicry. ? Syncryptic if 
both are concealed on broom, like the resemblance between 
insects on pine-needles or lichen. 

Philopedon geminatus, F. 

Of this beetle Mr. Holland says, " Among the sand and 



Gases of Protective Resemblance, Mimicry, etc. 373 

grey-green foliage of the sea-shore, it is well protected by 
colour." 

Hypcra fasciadata, Herbst. 

This species, with its variegated markings, is very diffi- 
cult to see under the Erodium plants on the sand where it 
occurs. 

Cleonus sidcirostris, L. 

Mr. Holland has taken specimens of this beetle of a 
reddish colour upon the red sands of Boars Hill, near 
Oxford. The insects harmonised well with the ground on 
which they occurred, and were very different in colour 
from the ordinary grey forms that occur at Deal, etc. 
This is a very interesting case, and, as pointed out by 
Professor Poulton (Trans. Ent. Soc, 1899, p. 430), it is 
reasonable to suppose that these colours, which certainly 
harmonise with the ground of each locality, are protective. 

Limobius mixtus, Boh. 

I think I have found a parallel case to Mr. Holland's 
red Cleonus sidcirostris in Limobms mixtus. At Deal, 
where it is found at the roots of Erodium on the sand- 
hills, it is of a yellow colour well suited to its surroundings. 
Last April I took two specimens on the Chesil Beach, 
among the white pebbles, of a white colour. Of course 
further specimens are required to prove this case, but no 
doubt many such cases will be found when looked for. 

Lixus paraplecticus, L. 

This curious beetle, which occurs on Sium latifolium at 
Wicken, etc., looks very much like some of the attenuated 
bugs one sees on rushes and water-plants. 

Hylobius abietis, L., Pissodes pini, L., and P. notatns, F. 

Of these beetles Mr. Holland says : " They are found on 
fir trees, and being patched and dotted over with yellow, 
look like objects which are characteristic of their sur- 
roundings." 

Plintkus caliginosus, F. 

This species may be quoted as another instance of 



374 Mr. H. Donisthorpe on 

adventitious colouring. It is often found with its rough 
dorsal surface coated with chalk and dirt. 

Grypidms equiseti, F. 

Of this beetle Mr. Morley writes to me : " A spider 
occurs in the Bramford Marshes on the reeds, and when it 
is curled up in the net, frightened, the closeness of its 
superficial resemblance to Grypidms equiseti (which occurs 
in the same pond sparingly) is very striking." I am 
inclined to think the beetle presents a rather close re- 
semblance to " bird's droppings," and that both the spider 
and the beetle are similarly protectively coloured, thus 
accounting for their resemblance to each other. (Syn- 
cryptic resemblance.) 

domes scropliularise, L. 

This beetle is also rather like a bit of "bird's dropping." 
Mr. Holland tells me that the cluster of its slimy-looking 
larvae on the top of the fig-wort is an exact imitation of 
the bunch of slimy-looking unopened flower-heads, while 
the pupa is just as good an imitation of its bunch of seeds. 

Gionus blattariie, F. 

This little species is a still better imitation of bird's 
excreta. 

Orobitis cyaneus, L. 

This small beetle when " feigning death " with the legs 
and rostrum packed up is in shape and appearance exactly 
like a small blue seed. 

Gryptorrhynclms lapathi, L. 

This beetle is another splendid imitation of the drop- 
pings of birds. I remember finding it in plenty on some 
willows at Barrow-on-Soar. Beneath the willows was a 
bed of nettles upon which many of the beetles had fallen, 
and their appearance suggested that a number of birds 
had been roosting in the trees above. 

A calles. 

Mr. Bennett suggests that all the species of this genus 
are extremely like the dead buds which one beats with 
them from old hedges. 



Cases of Protective Resemblance, Mimicry, etc. 375 

Cceliodes didymus, F. (qtiadrimaculatus, L.), and Geuthor- 
rhynchus nrticsa, Boh. 

These two beetles both occur on nettles and are some- 
times found together, the Ceuthorrhynchus, however, being 
much the rarer of the two. They bear so strong a super- 
ficial resemblance to each other that only an experienced 
coleopterist would distinguish between them. Mr. Beddard 
quotes this (The Coloration of Animals, p. 221) as one 
of his cases of apparently useless mimicry, but it may be 
an example of syncryptic resemblance. 

Ceuthorrhynchus and Ceuthorrhynchidius. 

Many of the species in these two genera are clothed 
with patches of brown and white scales and hairs, and, 
when " feigning death," resemble bits of earth and other 
inanimate objects. 

Rhinonchus. 

This genus, with its patches of yellow on a darker 
ground, is protected in the same way. 



I now give a table of all the species mentioned in this 
paper classified according to Professor Poulton's method as 
brought forward in his book " The Colours of Animals," 
and since extended. 

[For the table above referred to see pages 376 and 377.] 



376 



Mr. H. Donisthorpe mi 



I. Apatetic Colours. 


II. Sematic Colours. 


III. Epigamic 


Colours resembling some part of the environment 


Warning and Signalling 


Colours. 


or the appearance of another species. 


Colours. 


Colours dis- 
played in Court- 
ship. 


A. Cryptic Colours. — 


B. Pseixdosematic Col- 




Protective and Aggres- 


ours. — False Warning 






sive Resemblances. 


and Signalling. 




Lampyrls noc- 
tiluca, light in 
$ (considered 
Aposematic by 
A. R. Wallace.) 


1. Procryptic Colours. — 


1. Pseudoposematic Col- 


1. Aposematic Colours. 


Protective Resem- 


ours. — Protective or 


— Warning Colours in- 


blances. 


Batesian Mimicry. 


cluding Synaposematic 


Nebria complanata. 

Amara fulva. 

A'epus marinus and A. 

robinii. 
Demetrias tmlpuncta- 

tus. 
Sipalia testacea. 


p 
p 

i fib 


(These may be in part 
Synaposematic = Miil- 
lerian mimics rather 
than true or Batesian 
mimics. The question 
can only be decided by 
laborious experiments. 


or Common W 
Colours (= Mii 
mimicry.) 

Carabus vlolace- * 
us and C. 
catenulatus, 
etc. 


aming 
llerian 

2-° 2 

5"c6 p" 

f P B 2 




Arena octavli. 


»g 


Clivina. 


' 


Timarcha. 


3 p ^ 




Phytosus balticus and 


5? 


Dyschirlus. 




Melee. 


S" 




P. nigrlventrls. 


P 


Brachlnus crepitans. 


> 


Panageus crux- ' 


J^ £ 




Phaleria cadaverina. 




Atemeles. 




major and P. 4 


? • a 




Helops pallidus. 




Myrmedonia. 


■ t "Z 


puntvlatus. 


2 op 




Notoxus monoceros. 




Astilbus eanalicula 


yr 


Oxyporvs rvfus. 


l!& 




Anthicus blmaculatus. i 




tus. 


_~ 


NecropJiorus, yel- 


/^-p s 




Chlcanms vestltus, on 


Stlllcus fragills. 




low and black 


,-," Clip* 




sandstone. 


Anthicus. 




species. 


p-2 2 - 




Cleonus sulcirostris, red 


Myrmedonia colla- \ 


5 — 


Cocclnellida . 


2»» 
2.P 




form on red sandstone. 


rism §& 


Telephoridw. 


5 ^p. 




Philopedon geminatus, on 


Molorchus minor. / fa & 


Eros aurora. ' 


' its 




sand among herbage, 


M. umbellatarum. j £f ? 


Pyropterus affinls. 


aSiS- 




etc. 


Tlllv.s unlfasclatus. 


lb. 


Platycls mhiutus. 


>rs°p- 




Limobius mixtus, white 


Tarsostcnus univit- 


~ 


Malachlv.s emeus. 


s p - ? 




form, on Chesil Beach 


tatus. 


Ig 


Pyrochroa. 


?>« 3 




with white stones. 


Thanisimus formica- 




Phytophaga. Metallic 




Elaphrus. 


H O 


rius. 


? 


"warning" colours. 




Bembldlum palu- 


P P 
2L^ 


Callldium alni. 


7? 


Endomychldie 






dosum. 


Clytus mysticus. 


a 


and Cocclnel- 


gi§3 i 




Tachypus palllpes 
and T. flavipes. 


i«< b" 


Emus hlrtus. \ 




lida'. 




"2.0 


Trichius fasclatus, 


^ 


Aromla 'mos- 


?P s? 




Helophorus. 


£/&. 


and T. abdomina- 


IB 


chata and 


p p. p p 

^ P O P^ 




Sttnus. 


2 s* 


lls. 


IP 


Lytta vesica- 


. y -o; P^ 




Heterocerus. 


P P. 


Clytus arletls. 


G 


torla. j 


: 




Ceuthorrliynchus. 


o f 


Toxotus meridlanus. 


a 






Ceuthorrhynchldius. 




Pachyta cerambyci- 


5 






Iihinonchus. 


)2 » 


formls. 1 








Myrmedonia, when 




Anoplodtra 6 gut- j 


rS 






feigning death. 


• CC 


tata. 


^ 






Cercyon. 


-O 


Strangalia auru- 


5 






Onthophagus. 


£* 


lenta. 


p 
o 






Ap/wdius. 


P<JQ 


S. 4 fasclata and S. 


§ 






Byrrhus pllula. Like 
rabbit's dung. 


armata. 









Metoecusparadoxus. 






Dermestes lardarius.' 




Sltarls muralls. , 


DO 






Anthribus albinus. 


- W 


Lebla cyanocephala 








Grypidius equiseti. 


*g.p/ 


and L. chlorocep- 








Clonus scrophula- 


crq v. 


kala. 








rice. 




Drypta dentata. 








Clonus blattarlce. 


*r% 


Saprlnus virescens. 








Cryptorrhynchus la- 


P o 
►P 


Triplax russlca and 


*t) 






pathl. 




T. cenea. 


«s> 




■ 


Soronla. . M ; _ a 


Psllothrlx nobllis. 


e> 






Amphotls margin- 


t? CD 


Dollchosoma llneare. 


1 






ata. 


Tlllus elongatus. 






Cicones variega- 


o'o 


Pachyta collarls. 


9 






tus. 




Platydema viola- 


c 






Rhlzotrogus sol- 


V CD ® 


ceum. 


a 






stltlalls. 


f^O*? 


Scaphldema metalll- 








Melolontha vulga- 


§£§ 


cum. 








ris, and M. hlp- 




Tetratoma fungorum. 








pocastanl. 


Oedemera nobllis and 








j 




p 


*1 


0. lurlda. 













Cases of Protective Resemblance, Mimicry, etc. 



377 



I. Apatetic Colours. 

Colours resembling some part of the environment 
or the appearance of another species. 



1. Procryptic Colour? 
(continued). 



2. Pseudosematic Colours 
(continued). 



I. Apatetic Colours. 

Colours resembling some part of the 
environment or the appearance of 
another species. 



1. Procryptic Colours (continued). 



Rhagium inquisi- 
tor, and R. bifas- 
datum, and R. 
indagator. 

Acctnthocinus cedilis 

Leiopus nebulosus. 

Mesosa nubila. 

Pogonochcerus. 

Saperda carcharias, 
S. scalaris and S. 
populnea. 

Hylobius abietis. 

Pissodes pini and 
P. notatus. 

Laccophilus. 
Agabus nebulosus. 
Agabus conspcrsu, 
Dytiscus. 
Acilius. 



)i: 



CD as 

% o 



§& 



Broscus cephalotes. 

" Feigning death. " 
Geotrupes. " Feignin 

death." 
Monotonia formice- 

torum. 
Monotonia conici 

collis. 
Mater (brown spe 

cies). )S 

Lacon murinus. a 

Corymbites tessel- o I 

latus. 
Corymbites holoseri- 

ceus. 
Hop! ia philanthus. 
Homaloplia ruri- 

cola. 
Serrica brunnea. 
A nomala frisckii. 
Oncomera femorata. 
Tkroscus. 
Crepidodera ferru- & 

ginea. \ p, 

Otiorrhynchus fus- ( rr 

cipes. % 

Orobitis cyaneus. ) ' 

Polydrusus tereticollis. 

Bud-like. 
Acalles. Bud-like. 
Cetonia aurata and C. 
Jloricola. Useful white 

pollen flake-like marks. 
Gnorimus nobilis and G. 

variabilis. Ditto ditto. 
Metigethes. Stamen-like 
Cassida. Green forms on 

green leaves. 
Obcrea oculata. On sal- 
low bushes. 
Omosita. On bones. 
Thymalus limbatus. On 

boleti. 
Dermestes murinus. On 

fur. 



Splueridium scarabs- 

oides and S. bipustu- 

latum. 
Silpha 4 punctata. 
Hister 4 maculatus, 

H. purpurascens and 

H. bimaculatus. 
Scaphidium 4 macu- 

latum. 
Cyrtotriplax bipustu- 

lata. 
Ips. 
Mycetopkagus 4 pus- 

tulatu,s. 
Clythra 4 punctata. 
Phytodecta. 
Phijllobrotica ivuwu- 

lata. 
Cassida murrcea, red 

form. 
Apoderus coryli. 
Attelabus curculioni- 

des. 
Campylus linearis. 
Lyviexylon navale. 
Hylotrupes bajulus. 
Callidium variabile. 
Grammopteraprasusta 
Tetrops preeusta. 
Osphia bipunctata. 
Nacevdes melanura. 
Mater, red species, 

rochroa-li'ke. 
Alexia pilifera. 
Bruchus ater. [ ~ W 

Lixus paraplecti- ( o> oq 

cus. J ' ,- 

A nthaxia nitidula. Chry- 

sis-like. 
Niptus hololeucvs\ 

and N. crenatns. K £? 
Mezium affine. ; ^ Si 

Gihbium scotias. J ^ 3 

Ptinus. I 

J 

2. Pseudepisematic Col- 
ours. Aggressive Mi- 
micry and Alluring 
Colours. 

Micralymma brevipenne 
and the Thysanura it 
feeds on ? 



By 



2. Allocryptic Colours = Adventitious 

Colours. 
Georyssus pygmwus. With coat of mud. 
Opatrum sabulosum. With dirt on 

rough dorsal surface. 
Plintlms caliginosus. With dirt on rough 

dorsal surface. 



September 30, 1901, 



MU6~. 

&+ HUMMMI. ~. 




( 379 ) 



XIV. Sexual dimorphism in Buprestis sanguinea, Fabr., a 
species occurring in Spain, and neiu to the European 
list. By George Charles Champion, F.Z.S. 

[Read October 2nd, 1901.] 

Plate XIII. 

During a recent visit to Aragon, July 27th — Aug. 8th, 
Dr. Chapman and I made various excursions to the low 
hills which extend along the base of the northern slope of 
the Sierra de Albarracin, between the towns of Albarracin 
and Gea, chiefly in search of the numerous interesting 
Satyrid-butterflies that abound there. In such localities 
there is a scattered growth of the cypress-like " savin " 
(Juniperus sabina), which here attains the dimension of a 
good-sized tree, and amongst these are many shrubs. On 
one of the latter, Ephedra nebrodensis* of the family 
Gnetacese (joint-firs), old plants of which have a stem 
nearly two inches in diameter, two very dissimilarly- 
coloured conspicuous Buprestids were to be seen, and as 
specimens of each of these occurred over and over again in 
close proximity on the same kind of plant, we took a good 
deal of interest in them, plant and insects alike being new 
to us. We very soon ascertained that all the examples of 
one form of the Buprestid were male and all the other 
female, the sexes being in about equal numbers, and there 
cannot, therefore, be the slightest doubt that they belong 
to the same species, though none were actually observed in 
copula. In the early morning the beetles were quite 
sluggish and easily captured with the fingers, being at 
rest, usually head downwards, on a bit of the woody stem, 
where the green twigs were thickly placed ; but during 
the heat of the day they were more active, and a few were 
then taken on the wing, mostly males. The present species 
has not, so far as I am aware, been recorded from the 
continent of Europe, though I have a specimen of the male 
from the vicinity of Gibraltar, sent me years ago by Mr. J. 
J. Walker. No such sexual difference has been noticed or 

* I am indebted to Mr. W. B. Hemsley, F.R.S., of Kew Gardens, 
for the determination of this plant. The specific name appears to 
have been taken from that of a district in Sicily. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART IV. (DEC.) 26 



380 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

suspected, I believe, amongst the Buprestidse, nevertheless 
the observations of Dr. Chapman and myself are sufficient 
to prove that in one species of the family, at least, such a 
peculiarity is to be found. The females agree very nearly 
with the brief diagnosis of Buprestis sanguined, Fabr., from 
Mogador, and with the description and figure of B. levail- 
lanti, Lucas, from Mostaganem, Algeria (these insects being 
treated as synonymous in the Catalogues of Gemminger 
and Harold and E. Saunders *), and the males with the 
description of B. margaripida, Mars., from Algeria, the 
male only of the latter being known. There can be very 
little doubt that the Albarracin insect is synonymous with 
B. sanguinea, Fabr. (a species not identified by Marseul 
and other modern writers), as in addition to the above- 
mentioned specimen from Gibraltar, there is a doubtful 
record of the female (under B. levaillanti) from Tangier. *f* 
As regards the Algerian B. levaillanti and B. nmrgdripictd, 
M. Rene Oberthur has been kind enough to send me a 
coloured drawing of each of them, and also to compare a 
male and female of the Spanish insect with his single 
specimens of each of these so-called species, that of the 
male (B. margaripictd) being the only one recorded. The 
differences noted by him (apart from the somewhat dis- 
similar elytral markings of the male) chiefly consist in the 
relative width of the front of the head, the armature of the 
apices of the elytra, and the extent of the emargination of 
the apex of the fifth ventral segment in the male. 

From analogy, it is almost certain that B. margaripida 
and B. levaillanti are but sexes of one species, and in this 
M. Oberthur is inclined to agree with me ; and it is very 
probable that the above-mentioned differences between the 
Spanish and the Algerian forms will prove to be in- 
constant when a longer series of the latter is available for 
comparison, and are no greater than might be expected 
between specimens from distant localities. 

The following description is taken from the series of 
upwards of twenty of each sex before me : — 

£ . Nigro- violaceous, the lateral margins of the prothorax broadly, 
and the anterior margin narrowly (except in the middle), and four 

* Lucas (Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1884, pp. xli, xlii) disputed the 
identity of his B. levaillanti with B. sanguinea, Fabr., but without 
giving substantial reasons for maintaining them as distinct. 

t Marseul, Monogr. Buprest.,p. 187 (1865). 



Sexual Dimoiyhism in Buprestis sanguinea. 381 

interrupted transverse fasciae on the elytra (the first two sometimes 
connected laterally, and in one specimen on the disc also, and the 
fourth often reduced to a small spot on the disc of each elytron), 
flavoii3 or pale stramineous (whitish in life), the base of the prothorax 
between the flavous lateral portions usually bordered with rufous or 
with two or three rufous spots or streaks ; beneath yellow or pale 
yellow, variegated with nigro-violaceous, a median stripe on the 
venter and the ventral suiures being conspicuously marked with 
this colour ; legs and antennae nigro-violaceous. Eyes large and 
rather convex, the head appearing very broad. Tarsi moderately 
dilated. Anterior tibiae simple, without recurved hook before the 
apex. Fifth ventral segment abruptly truncate and slightly 
emarginate at the apex. 

Length 11J-15J, breadth 4£-6 millim. [margaripicta, Mars.] 

$ . Bright rufous, with the following parts nigro-violaceous — the 
head, except for two transverse yellow marks on the front, four spots 
in a transverse row on the anterior part of the prothorax (all four, or 
the two on the middle of the disc, sometimes connected, and those on 
the disc sometimes wholly absent), the extreme basal margin of the 
latter, the scutellum, the sutural and basal margins of the elytra very 
narrowly, as well as the apex, a spot on the humeral callus, two 
others in a transverse line below it, a transverse post-median fascia 
(sometimes reduced to two spots on each elytron, and the inner one 
of these not always present), and an interrupted fascia before the apex 
(this latter often reduced to two spots, or wholly absent) ; beneath 
coloured as in the males ; legs and antennae nigro-violaceous, the 
femora sometimes with a yellow spot in the middle beneath. Eyes 
smaller and less convex, the head thus appearing much narrower 
than in the male. Tarsi feebly dilated. Anterior tibiae as in the 
male. Fifth ventral segment feebly truncate at the apex. 

Length 10|-17|, breadth 4-7 millim. [sanguinea, Fabr. = 
levaillanti, Luc] 

Head closely, rugosely punctured ; prothorax convex, coarsely, 
closely punctate, deeply bisinuate at the base and apex, rounded at 
the sides, with a short median channel or fovea in front of the 
scutellum, the latter very small ; elytra deeply striate, the striae 
finely punctate, the interstices convex and sparsely punctate, the 
apex of each elytron obliquely truncate, with the sutural angle 
acutely produced and the outer one more or less dentiform. Head, 
legs, and under surface clothed with short, scattered, pallid hairs. 
Median sulcus on the first ventral segment deep, extending nearly or 
quite to the posterior margin of the latter, in some males carried on to 
the second segment. 

There is in both sexes a considerable amount of variation in the 



382 Mr. G. C. Champion on 

markings of the upper surface (these not always being symmetrical 
on the elytra), according to the predominance of the light or dark 
colour, some of the spots on the prothorax or elytra being often 
absent, especially in the female. The median sulcus on the first 
central segment also varies a little in length, and the tooth at the 
outer apical angle of the elytra is sometimes obsolete. The coloration 
of the under surface is similar in both sexes. 

The Algerian insect, M. Oberthtir informs me, has the 
interocular portion of the head relatively narrower ; the 
longitudinal impression upon the first ventral segment 
deep, sharply defined, and extending to the posterior 
margin of the latter ; the fifth ventral segment of the male 
narrowly and somewhat deeply emarginate in the middle ; 
the tooth at the outer apical angle of the elytra (in the 
male) obsolete ; and the anterior margin of the prothorax 
less sinuate. In the coloured drawing before me of the 
type of the male (margaripicta) the second elytral fascia is 
represented by a large subtriangular patch on each elytron, 
this being more extended in the longitudinal direction than 
in any of the Spanish specimens obtained at Albarracin. 
The single male from Gibraltar has a narrow streak 
extending down the fifth elytral interstice from the first 
yellow fascia, and in one of the examples of the same sex 
from Albarracin this yellow streak runs still further down 
and joins the second fascia, so as to completely enclose a 
common transverse nigro-violaceous patch. 

In the simple anterior tibise in the male, the present 
species, as noted by Marseul (under B. margaripicta), 
differs from all the other European forms, three of which 
occurred in the pine-forests of the same district in Spain, 
approaching the genus Eurytliyrca in this respect, in which, 
however, the scutellum is much larger, etc. The sexual 
dimorphism and the similar form of the anterior tibiae in 
the two sexes tend to show that the insect will probably 
have to be removed from the genus Buprestis. 

It may be observed also that the habits of B. sanguinea 
are different from those of its congeners, these latter 
attacking pine-logs, upon which the beetles may frequently 
be seen during the heat of the da} 7 . 

B. hilaris, Klug (= variegata, Klug), from Egypt, said 
to be found on mint, is perhaps congeneric with B. 
sanguinea. B. amori, Graells, from Spain, is sunk by 
Marseul and others as synonymous with the Algerian 



Sexual Dimorphism in Buprestis sanguinea. 383 

B. douei, Luc. ; it cannot, therefore, as is evident by the 
published figures of these insects, be very nearly related to 
B. sanguinea. 

The locality, Albarracin, in the province of Teruel, 
is remarkable for possessing various Lepidoptera not found 
elsewhere in Europe, some of which are African, as 
Satyrus prieuri, Albarracina horbi (the larva of which 
also lives on the Ephedra), etc. The plant, Ephedra 
nebrodensis, has much the appearance of a shrubby Equise- 
tum, the young shoots being somewhat similarly jointed, 
and such leaves as we could find were merely chaffy scales 
at the joints. In their second year the shoots become woody, 
and for a shrub comparable in size to Galluna, its stems 
were remarkably thick and strong, reaching high up in the 
plant, making it very stiff and broom-like. We saw the 
Ephedra, no doubt, after its season of growth for the year, 
and much of it looked faded and turning brown. The 
stunted unsymmetrical aspect was probably due to injury 
by grazing animals. The stems of the plants were covered 
with a rusty-red lichen, very similar in colour to the upper 
surface of the female beetle, and this may afford the insect 
a certain amount of protection. 

The extraordinary sexual dimorphism in the present 
species tends to show that the same peculiarity is likely to 
occur in other Buprestids, especially, no doubt, amongst 
the Australian Btigmoderse, numbers of which have been 
named without any notice being taken of the sex of the 
individuals described. 

Assuming that B. sanguinea, Fabr., B. levaillanti, Lucas, 
and B. margaripicta (Mars.) are synonymous, the citations 
are as follows : 

$. sanguinea, Fabr., Ent. Syst., SuppL, p. 135 (1798). 

Type, Mogador (Schousboe in Mus. Lund. = Mus. 

Copenhagen) (cf. Erichson). 
$. levaillanti, Lucas, in Rev. ZooL, 1844, p. 50 ; Expl. 

Algerie, ii, p. 149, 1. 15, f. 85 ; Marseul, in L'Abeille, 

ii, pp. 169, 186. Type, Mostaganem, Algeria. 
<J . margaripicta, Marseul, in L'Abeille, ii, pp. 169, 186 

(1865) (Ancylochira). Type, Algeria. 
In addition to the specimens described by these authors 
(two being mentioned by Lucas), three others have been 
captured, but not recorded.* These are from Oran, 

* M. Bedel has been kind enough to send me these particulars. 



384 Mr. G-. C. Champion on Sexual Dimorphism, etc. 

Western Algeria : one female on the Plaine des Anda- 
louses, beyond Cape Falcon (Saint Pierre, coll. V. Mayet) ; 
two males on the Champ des Manoeuvres (Moissori). As 
noted on p. 380, the record of B. levaillanti, from Tangier, 
by Marseul, is doubtful. 



Explanation of Plate XIII. 

Figs. 1 — 5. Buprestis sanguinea, Fabr. $ . 

6. „ „ ,, , (£, underside. 

6a. ,, „ ,, , <$ , anterior leg. 

' -L^* jj »> » j + • 

13. A piece of the food-plant, Ephedra nebrodensis (order 

Gnetaceae), the woody stem of which is probably 

attacked by the beetle : § nat. size. 

The specimens figured, including the plant, are from Albarracin, 

with the exception of fig. 5, which is taken from a £ found near 

Gibraltar. 



( 385 ) 



XV. Lepidoptera Hetcroccra from China, Japan, and Corea. 
By the late John Heney Leech, B.A., F.L.S., 
F.Z.S., etc. Part V. With descriptions of new 
species by Richard South, F.E.S. 

[Read October 2nd, 1901.] 

Plates XIV and XV. 

[The present portion of this paper treats of the Pyralidse, 
and concludes the subject so far as the author purposed 
dealing with it. The manuscript was nearly completed 
at the time of Mr. Leech's lamented decease, and practically 
all that there remained to do was to prepare the MS. for 
publication. This I have done, and at the same time I 
have described the species that had been set aside as new 
to science. I am greatly indebted to Sir George F. 
Hampson for much valuable assistance in the determin- 
ation of genera in this somewhat difficult family. 

Of the four hundred and thirty-four species now referred 
to, seventy-three are novelties, and thirty-eight were else- 
where described by Mr. Leech. 

A few species recorded from " China " have been included, 
and these ma}^ only occur in southern parts of the country, 
and do not therefore properly belong to the Palsearctic 
region. 

Mrs. Leech having generously presented her son's 
collection of Lepidoptera to the nation, the types of all 
species here introduced, as well as of those previously 
described by Mr. Leech, are in the Natural History 
Museum at South Kensington. 

R.S.] 

Subfamily GALLBRIINM. 
Genus Melissoblaptes. 
Zeller, Isis, 1839, p. 180. 

1572. Melissoblaptes bipunctanus. 

Melissoblaptes bipunctanus, Curt., Brit. Ent., v, p. 201. 

One specimen taken by a native collector at Hakodate 
in June or July. 

Distribution. Europe. — Yesso. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART IV. (DEC.) 



386 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Genus Paralipsa. 
Butler, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) iv, p. 454 (1879). 

1573. Paralipsa modesta. 

Paralipsa modesta, Butl., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) iv, 
p. 455 (1879). 

There was one example in Pryer's collection, and I have 
received specimens from Moupin, Ornei-shan, and Wa-shan. 
Occurs in June and July. 

Distribution. Japan ; Western China. 

1574. Paralipsa gularis. 

Melissoblaptes gularis, ZelL, Hor. Soc. Ent, Ross, xiii, p. 74, 

pi. i, fig. 26 $, pi. ii, fig. 27 ? (1877). 
Melissoblaptes tenebrosus, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, 

p. 78, pi. lx, fig. 1 (1879). 
Paralipsa gularis, Rag., Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 475 (1901). 

One specimen was obtained at Chang-yang in May, 
another at Chow-pin-sa in May and June, and a third 
example at Chia-ting-fii in July. 

Butler's type of M. tenebrosus was from Yokohama. 

Distribution. Bhutan; Japan. 

This species was observed in England in 1891, vide 
Entom. xxv, p. 286. 

Genus Galleria. 
Fabr.; Rag., Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 447 (1901). 

1575. Galleria mellonella. 
Galleria mellonella, Linn., Syst. Nat., x, p. 537. 

Ragonot mentions a female specimen from Japan, which 
he states has the secondaries brownish-grey in colour and 
the fringe white. 

Distribution. Europe. — Africa. — Asia ; Japan. — Aus- 
tralia. — N. America. 

Genus Cathayia. 
Hampson, Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 45 l f 



Heterocera frommCWina, Japan, and Corea. 387 

1576. Gathayia dbliquella. 
Gathayia dbliquella, Hampson, Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 452, 
pi. li, fig. 6 (1901). 
Habitat. Eastern China. 

Genus Lamoria. 
Walker, Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 87 (1863). 

1577. Lamoria anella. 

Tinea anella, Schiff., Wien. Verz., p. 135 (1776). 

Galleria anella, Zink., Sommer. Germ. Mag. Ent., iv, p. 

243. 
Lamoria anella, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 7 (1896). 

I met with this species at Nagahama and Tsuruga in 
July; my native collector obtained it at Nikko and 
Hakodate. 

Distribution. Europe. — Africa. — Afghanistan ; Pun- 
jar ; Poona ; Ceylon {Hampson) ; Japan ; Yesso. 

1578. Lamoria inostentalis. 

Maraclea inostentalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 88 

(1863). 
Lamoria inostentalis, Rag., Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 436 (1901). 

Specimens were obtained, in July, at Ichang, Moupin, 
Pu-tsu-fong, and the province of Kwei-chow ; two examples 
were received from Mr. Manley of Yokohama. 

Distribution. Borneo ; Japan ; Central and Western 
China. 

Genus Tirathaba. 

Walk. ; Hampson, Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 459. 

1579. Tirathaba irmfatella. 

Tirathaba irmfatella, Rag., Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 462, 
pi. xliii, fig. 26 (1901). 

Habitat. JAPAN. 

Genus Achroia. 

Hubn.; Rag., Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 496 (1901). 



388 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

1580. Achroia obscurevittella. 

Achroia ohscurevittella, Rag., Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 498, 
pi. xliii, fig. 24. 

Habitat. Japan. 

Subfamily CRAMBINJE. 
Genus Culladia. 
Moore, Lep. Ceyl., iii, p. 383 (1886). 

1581. Culladia admigratella. 

Araxes admigratella, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 192 

(1863). 
Culladia admigratella, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 11 (1896). 

Distribution. China ; Ceylon ; Borneo (Ramjoson). 

Genus Crambus. 

Fabr. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 12 

(1896). 

1582. Crambus infixellus. 

Crambus infixellus, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 167 
(1863). 

Described from Shanghai. 
Distribution. China; Japan. 

1583. Crambus diplogrammus. 

Crambus diplogrammus, Zell., Chil. and Cramb., p. 25 
(1863). 

Four specimens from Chang-yang, taken in June and 
August, and one example from Tsuruga, obtained in July. 
Distribution. Amurland ; Japan ; Central China. 

1584. Crambus textellus. 

Crambus textellus, Christ., Bull. Mosc, lxi, p. 48 (1881). 
Crambus argentistriellus, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 107, pi. v, 
fig. 11 (1889). 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 389 

Crambus diplogrammus, Rebel, (part), Cat. Lep., (3rd ed.), 
p. 3 (1901). 

Three specimens from Gensan, taken in June. 

Distribution. Corea ; Amurland. 

This species should not be confused with G. diplo- 
grammus, Zell., which is a larger, darker-coloured insect, 
and has an oblique medial line on the primaries. 

1585. Crambus striatellus. 

Crambus striatellus, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 107, pi. v, fig. 3 
(1889). 

Five specimens from Yokohama, in Pryer's collection, 
and one from the isle of Kiushiu. 
Habitat. Japan and Kiushiu. 

1586. Crambus aridellus, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 1.) 
Primaries pale ochreous, powdered with, brown, rather darker on 
outer area, venation brown ; transverse lines brown, the first, medial, 
is inwardly edged with ochreous, oblique from middle of the costa 
to end of the cell, thence inwardly oblique to just before middle of 
the inner margin ; the second line, submarginal, is outwardly edged 
with ochreous and almost parallel with the first line; some dark- 
brown dashes between the veins internal to the second line, and a 
brown subapical spot ; fringes blackish, glossy, preceded by black 
dots on the nervules. Secondaries pale fuscous, fringes paler with a 
brownish line at their base and one before the margin, the enclosed 
space rather paler than the fringes. 
Expanse 21 millim. 

Two specimens from Chang-yang, taken in June and 
July. 

Habitat. Central China. 

K. S. 

1587. Crambus geniculeus. 

Palparia geniculea, Haw., Lep. Brit., p. 489. 

Crambus geniculeus, Zell., Chil. and Cramb., p. 42 (1863). 

Distribution. Europe.— Japan. 

1588. Cr ambits atrisquamalis. 

Crambus atrisquamalis, Hampson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1900, p. 372. 



390 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

The type was from Amurland. 

Specimens were obtained at Nagasaki and Fusan in 
June, at Gensan in July, and at Hakodate in August. 
Distribution. Amurland; Kiushiu; Yesso; Corea. 



1589. Omnibus cohtmbinellus, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 25.) 

Primaries grey with a brownish tinge on the basal two-thirds of 
costal area ; fringes grey with some black dots and traces of a silvery 
line at their base towards the inner angle. Secondaries pale fuscous, 
darker on outer margin ; fringes whitish. 

Expanse 21 millim. 

One female taken in May at Chang-yang. 

Habitat. Central China. 

Allied to C. atrisquamalis, Hampson. 

R. S. 

1590. Omnibus fractellus, sp. n. (Plate XIY, fig. 5.) 

Primaries brownish merging into greyish on inner marginal area, 
the latter dusted with black scales ; there are indications of a black 
central line, similar to that in G. salinellus, Tutt, but more sharply 
angled below the costa ; submarginal line very indistinct, except 
towards the inner margin ; fringes greyish tinged with brown, 
preceded by black dots towards the inner angle. Secondaries whitish 
with a faint fuscous tinge, fringes whitish preceded by a brownish 
line. 

Expanse 26 millim. 

Two specimens from Omei-shan, taken in June or July. 
Habitat. Western China. 

R, S. 

1591. Orambus myelins. 

Orambus myelins, Hiibn., fig. 37. 

One example from Hakodate, taken by myself in 
August. 

Distribution. Europe. — Yesso. 

1592. Omnibus furciferalis. 

Orambus furciferalis, Hampson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1900, p. 371, pi. iii, fig. 17. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 391 

One specimen from Omei-shan, taken in June or July. 

The type was from Sutschau. 

Distribution. Amurland; Western China. 

1593. Cr ambus mixtalis. 

Crambns mixtalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxviii, p. 166 
(1863). 

Described from Shanghai. 
Habitat. Eastern China. 

1594. Crambns obliterans. 
Crambns obliterans, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 169. 

Walker's type was from Sarawak. 

Specimens were obtained in Satsuma in May, at Fusan 
and Gensan in June and July, and at Chang-yang in 
June. 

Distribution. Central China; Corea; Kiushiu; 
Borneo. 

1594a. Crambns hortuellus. 

Crambus hortuellus, Hiibn., 46 ; Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1895, p. 934. 

Distribution. Europe. — Japan. 

1595. Crambus lucellus. 
Crambus lucellus, H.-S., iv, p. 59, v, pi. xix, fig. 135. 

Specimens were obtained at Nikko, Gensan and Chang- 
yang in June and July. 

Distribution. Europe. — Japan ; Corea ; Central 
China. 

1596. Crambus ornatellus. 

Crambus ornatellus, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 106, pi. v, fig. 2 
(1889). 

I obtained the type, a male, at Nagahama in July. 
Habitat. JAPAN. 

1597. Cr ambits yokohamte. 

Crambus yokohamie, Butl., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(5), iv, p. 456 (1879). 



392 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Gr ambus splendidellus, Christ., Bull. Mosc., lvi, p. 43. 

There were five specimens in Pryer's collection. 
Distribution. Amurland ; Japan. 

1598. Cr ambus argyropkorus. 

Crambus argyropkorus, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., ii, p. 61, 
pi. xl, fig. 5 (1878) ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 
p. 15 (1896). 

Type from Yokohama. I obtained specimens at Ningpo 
in April, and in Satsuma in May ; a native collector took 
others at Ningpo in June and also in the isle of 
Kiushiu. 

Distribution. Sikhim {Hampson) ; Japan ; Kiushiu ; 
Eastern China. 

1599. Crambus nigriscriptellus, sp. n. 

Primaries white, suffused with brownish on the inner marginal 
half ; there are traces of an indented, dusky antemedial line on the 
inner marginal area ; the postmedial line is not well denned, but is 
traceable as a fuscous curve from the costa to a black angular mark 
placed almost at the extremity of a blackish longitudinal line from 
the base of the wing ; submarginal line fuscous, parallel with margin, 
except towards costa ; fringes white, preceded by a fuscous line and 
four black dots towards the inner angle. Secondaries white with a 
slight fuscous tinge. 

Expanse 30 millim. 

One female specimen from Wa-shan, July. 

Habitat. Western China. 

Somewhat similar to a form of C. argyropkorus, Butl., 
occurring in Sikhim and at Ningpo, but C. nigriscriptelhis 
is larger and the primaries are proportionately broader. 

1600. Crambus procellanellus. 

Crambus procellanellus, Motsch., Etud. Ent., ix, p. 38 (1857). 
Crambus vigens, Butl., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), iv, p. 

456 (1879). 
Crambus fucatellus, Christ., Bull. Mosc, lvi, p. 45. 

Six specimens in Pryer's collection and one captured at 
Gensan in July. 

Distribution. Japan; Corea. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 393 

1601. Crambus picturatelhcs, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 4.) 

Primaries white, clouded and suffused with dark grey on basal 
area and sometimes on outer area also ; a blackish band traverses the 
medial area ; this is outwardly angled at cell and is intersected by an 
interrupted transverse line ; submarginal line double, blackish, 
enclosed space greyish-white, parallel with outer margin, except 
towards costa ; fringes grey, preceded by a double blackish line and 
a series of black dots. Secondaries whitish, tinged with fuscous on 
costal area, fringes preceded by a brownish line. 

Expanse 26-30 millim. 

Two male specimens from Pu-tsu-fong, one from Wa- 
shan, and one female from Chia-kou-ho. June and July. 
Habitat Westekn China. 

K. S. 

1602. Crambus distinctellus. 

Crambus distinctellus, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 107, pi. v, 
fig. 1 (1889). 

Five specimens taken by myself at Hakodate in 
August. 

Habitat. Yesso. 

1603. Crambus perlellus. 

Crambus perhllus, Scop., Ent. Cam., p. 243 ; Hampson, 
Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 16 (1896). 

Four specimens from Hakodate taken in August and 
one from Ni-tou. 

Distribution. Europe. — Kashmir; Yesso; Western 
China. 

1604. Crambus bipartellus, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 9.) 

Primaries white on costal area and greyish-brown on the inner 
marginal area ; fringes agree in colour with the wings, preceded by a 
brown line. Secondaries white, faintly tinged with fuscous. 

Expanse 24 millim. 

One male specimen from Moupin, taken in August. 
Habitat. Western China. 

Allied to C. nivellus, Koll., but without any white 
marking on the inner margin. 

R. S. 



394 Mr. J. H. Leech 



on 



1605. Crambus purellus. 

Crambus purellus, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 108, pi. v, fig. 7 
(1889). 

'I obtained four specimens at Hakodate in August. 
Habitat. Yesso. 



1606. Crambus latelhcs. 

Crambus latellus, Snell., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond.,1890, p. 644 ; 

Tijd. Ent., xxxvi, pi. iii, fig. 7 (1893) ; Hampson, Fauna 

Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 14 (1896). 
Crambus nigrvpunctellus, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 107, pi. v, 

fig. 10 (1889). 

One example of each sex taken at Ningpo by native 
collector, one male specimen obtained at Gensan. July. 

Distribution. Japan ; Dharmsala ; Khasis ; Nagas 
{Hampson) ; Gensan ; Eastern China. 

1607. Crambus brevilinclhts, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 3.) 

Primaries white with a short, oblique, black central line ; fringes 
glossy, golden-brown, preceded by a fine fuscous line and two black 
dots towards the inner angle ; there is a golden-brown cloud on the 
costa before the apex. Secondaries white, marginal line fuscous. 

Expanse 26 millim. 

Two specimens from Omei-shan, taken in June or July, 
and one example from Chang-yang, taken in June. 
Habitat. Central and Western China. 
Allied to C. latellus, Snell. 

K. S. 

1608. Crambus nigrocilielhcs. 

Crambus nigrociliella, Zell., Chil. and Cramb., p. 52 (1863); 

nigriciliellus, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 17 (1896). 
Crambus inclaralis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 166 

(1863). 
Crambus immaturellus, Christ., Bull. Mosc, lvi, p. 48. 

Two specimens from Shimonoseki and six from Gensan, 
taken in July, two from Kiushiu, the same number from 
Yokohama, and one from Chang-yang. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 395 

Distribution. Japan ; China ; Dharmsala ; Bombay 
(Hampson); Cc-REA. 

1609. Cramhus fuliginosellus, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 6.) 

Palpi, head, thorax and two-thirds of abdomen fuliginous, termi- 
nal third of abdomen whitish. Primaries dark grey, clouded with 
fuliginous on basal half and along basal two-thirds of costal area ; 
medial line dark brown, diffuse, almost straight ; postmedial line 
dark brown, parallel with outer margin, except towards the costa, 
slightly indented before the inner margin ; fringes dark grey, necked 
with whitish. Secondaries white clouded with blackish at the base ; 
the outer margin bordered with black, tapering towards but not 
reaching the anal angle ; fringes glossy white. 

Expanse 20 millim. 

One male specimen from Chow-pin-sa, taken by a native 
collector in May or June. 
Habitat. Western China. 

K.S. 
1610. Cr ambits atrosignatus. 

Cramhcs atrosignatus, Zell., Hor. Ent., Ross, xiii. p. 43, pi. 
i, fig. 17 (1877). 
Described from Japan. 

1611. Crambibs hitmidellus. 
Crambus humidellus, Zell, Horae Ent., Ross, xiii, p. 42. 
The type was from Japan. 

Genus Platytes. 
Guen. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 19 
(1896). 

1612. Platytes sinuosellus, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 8.) 
Primaries brown with a white stripe from the base just below 
costa to the apex, the middle of the stripe broader than the extrem- 
ities and its upper edge is black ; submarginal line blackish, origin- 
ating on the outer margin below the stripe, gently curving inwards 
to one-fourth, where it is sharply bent, returning to inner margin 
just above the angle ; the area traversed by this line is whitish ; fringes 
glossy white, traversed by a thin brown line and preceded by a 
broader brown line on which are some darker dots towards the 
inner angle. Secondaries whitish, suffused with fuscous, especially 
on the outer margin ; fringes white preceded by a white line. 
Expanse 28 millim. 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART IV. (DEC.) 27 



396 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

One male specimen from Chow-pin-sa taken by a native 
collector in May or June. 
Habitat. Western China. R S, 



1613. Platytes inteo^ruptella. 

Argyria interruptella, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxxv, p. 1763 

(1866). 
Argyria inficitella, Walk., 1. c, p. 1764. 
Argyria obliquella, Zell., Horse- Ent., Ross, xiii, p. 58, pi. i, 

fig. 22 (1877). 
Argyria, Candida, Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1881, p. 

590. 

The types of interruptella and inficitella were from 
Shanghai ; the type of Candida, Butl., was described from 
Tokio, and that of obliqitella from Japan. 

Specimens were received from Ningpo, Fusan, Yokohama, 
Moupin, Wa-shan, and Chang-yang. April and June. 

Distribution. Japan ; Corea ; Eastern, Western and 
Central China. 

• Genus Eromene. 

Hubn.; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 23 
(1896). 

1614. Eromene exjoansa. 
Eromene exjpansa, Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1881, p 590. 

Type from Tokio. 

I obtained nine specimens at Foochow in April and have 
received others from Chang-yang. 
Distribution. Japan ; Central China ; Foochow. 

1615. Eromene sujperbella. 

Eromene superbella, Zell., Stettin, Ent. Zeit., 1849, p. 314 ; 
Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 24 (1896). 

Three specimens from Chang-yang and one from Wa- 
shan, taken in May and June; also one example from 
Chang-yang taken in August. The latter is darker than 
either of the other specimens. 

Distribution. Europe. — Sind; Punjab {Hampson); 
Central and Western China. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 397 

Genus Diatr^ea. 

Lands. Guild. Trans. Soc. Encour. Arts, xlvi, p. 143 
(1832). 

1616. Diatriea venosatus. 

Chilo venosatus, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 144(1863). 

One example of each sex taken in August at Ichang. 
Walker's type was from Sarawak. 
Distribution. Borneo ; Central China. 



Genus Chilo. 

Zinck. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 26 
(1896). 

1617. Chilo demotellus. 

Chilo demotella, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxxv, p. 1749 

(1866). 

One specimen taken at Hakone in August. 
The type, with two other examples in the national 
collection, are not localized. 
Habitat. Japan : — ? 



1618. Chilo luteellus. 

Schcenobiits luteellus, Motseh., Bull. Mosc, xxxix, i, p. 198 

(1866). 
Chilo ditbia, Baker, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1894, p. 48, pi. 

i, fig. 18. 
Chilo lutellns, Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1895, p. 

956. 

Six male specimens from Chang-yang, taken in May and 
June ; one example obtained at Gensan in June. 

Distribution. Amurland; Central China; Japan; 
Sumatra. 

1619. Chilo simplex. 

Jarthcza simplex, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, p. 

690. 
Crambus zonellus, Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 

528, pi. xlviii, fig. 16. 



398 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Chilo simplex, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 26 
(1896). 

Butler's type was from Formosa. Two specimens were 
obtained by native collector in the isle of Kiushiu, and two 
others at Hakodate. 

Distribution. Japan ; Chusan ; Formosa ; Meean 
Meer, Punjab ; Karachi (Hampson) ; Yesso ; Kiushiu. 

1620. Chilo gensanellus. 

Chilo gensanellus, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 108, pi. v, fig. 9 
(1889). 

The type was obtained by myself at Gensan in July. 
Distribution. Corea. 

1621. Chilo suppressalis. 

Crambns suppressalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 166 

(1863). 
Chilo suppressalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 27 (1896). 

Described from Shanghai. 

Distribution. Meean Meer, Punjab ; Sibsagar ; 
Assam ; Calcutta ; Ceylon {Hampson) ; North- 
eastern China. 

Genus Eschata. 

Walk. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths., iv, p. 28 

(1896). 

1622. Eschata chrysargyria. 

Chserecla chrysargyria, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxxii, p. 

634 (1865). 
Eschata argentata, Moore, Lep. Atk., p. 227 (1887). 
Eschata chrysargyria, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 29 (1896). 

Distribution. North China ; Sikhim ; Khasis ; Nagas, 
Manipur ; Nilgiris ; Kangoon ; Ceram (Hampson). 

Genus Mesolia. 
Ragonot, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1888, p. 282. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corca. 399 

1623. Mesolia tenebrella. 

Mesolia tenebrella, Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1895, p. 963. 

Described from Ichang. 
Habitat. Central China. 

Genus Prionopteryx. 
Steph. ; Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1895, p. 963. 

1624. Prionopteryx marmorellus, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 24.) 

Primaries white dusted and clouded with brown ; a cuneiform patcli 
of brown in the cell before the white lunule, an elongate patch between 
the median and sub-median nervures ; submarginal line white edged 
with brown ; fringes white tipped with brown, a brown line at their 
base and another through them. Secondaries white tinged with 
fuscous ; submarginal line white edged internally with fuscous. 
Under surface whitish, the primaries suffused with fuscous from base 
to the submarginal line. 

Expanse 26 millim. 

One female from Ta-chien-lu, taken in July or August. 
Habitat. Western China. 

E. S. 

Genus Ancylolomia. 

Hiibn. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 33 
(1896). 

1625. Ancylolomia chrysographella. 

Ghilo chrysographella, Koll., Hug. Kasch., iv, p. 494 (1844). 
Ancylolomia taprobanensis, Zell., Hor. Ent.,Ross, xiii, p. 25, 

pi. i, fig. 8 (1877) ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl., iii, p. 381, pi. 

clxxxiv, figs. 2, 2a (1886). 
Ancylolomia chrysographella, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind. ; 

Moths, iv, p. 23 (1886). 

Occurs at Tsuruga, Gensan and in Satsuma, also at 
Chang-yang and Ichang. 

Distribution. South Africa. — Aden; Formosa; 
throughout INDIA, Ceylon, and BURMA ; Penang 
{Hampson) ; Japan ; Kiushiu; Corea ; Central China. 



400 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Subfamily SGHCENOBIIN^E. 
Genus Leechia nov. 

Palpi porrect, second and third joints conically scaled ; maxillary 
palpi well developed and dilated at the extremity. Antennae thick- 
ened and flattened. Tibia slightly hairy, outer spurs two-thirds 
length of inner. Neuration similar to that of Niphopyralis, Hampson, 
but all the wings have veins 4, 5, stalked. 

Type L. sinuosalis. R S. 

1626. Leechia sinuosalis, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 15.) 

Primaries white ; antemedial line black, almost straight ; post- 
medial line black, elbowed opposite the end of cell and angled before 
the inner margin, followed by a brownish shade ; a black dot at end 
of cell and one at apex of the wing. Secondaries white with a double, 
fuscous, central line ; outer marginal area tinged with brownish. 
Fringes tinged with greyish, preceded by a fuscous line and marked 
with black towards the apex of primaries. 

Expanse 15-20 millim. 

Two specimens from Chang-yang. July. 

Habitat Centeal China. R. S. 

1627. Leechia bilinealis, sp. n. 

Differs from L. sinuosalis in having the antemedial line of prim- 
aries outwardly oblique and the postmedial line outwardly oblique 
to vein 6, thence inwardly oblique to the inner margin. Secondaries 
have a single central line. 

Expanse 18 millim. 

Four specimens from Chang-yang. July. 

Habitat. Central China. R. S. 

Genus Ackopenttas. 
Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1890, p. 470. 

1628. Acropentias aureus. 

Micrseschus aureus, Butl., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) 

i, p. 402 (1878). 
Marimatha straininca, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 70, 

pi. lviii, fig. 2. 
Sparagmia obtusalis, Christ., Bull. Mosc, lvi, p. 26 (1881). 

Distribution. Amurland; China; Japan; Corea. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 401 

Genus Patissa. 
Moore, Lep. CeyL, iii, p. 388 (1886). 

1629. Patissa fidvosparsa. 

Apurima fulvosparsa, ButL, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1881, 

p. 591. 
Patissa tortualis, SnelL, Tijd. Ent., xxxvi, p. 58, pi. iii, 

fig. 3. 
Patissa fulvosparsa, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 44 (1896). 

Type from Tokio. 

There was one example in Pryer's collection, and I 
received specimens from Nagasaki in the isle of Kiushiu, 
and from Gensan. 

Distribution. Dharmsala ; Kulu ; Poona ; Nilgiris ; 
Shan States ; Java {Hampson) ; Japan ; Kiushiu ; 
Corea. 

Genus Scirpophaga. 

Treits. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 45 
(1896). 

1630. Scirpophaga chrysorrhoa. 

Scirpophaga chrysorrhoa, Zell., Mon. Chil. and Cramb., p. 1 

(1863). 
Tripancea innotata, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. xxxiii, p. 523 

(1863). 
Scirpophaga chrysorrhoa, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., 

Moths, iv, p. 46 (1896). 

Distribution. China; Mergui; Borneo; Java; Ceram 

{Hampson). 

1631. Scirpophaga auriflua. 

Scirpophaga auriflua, Zell., Mon. Chil. and Cramb., p. 2 

(1863); Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 46 

(1896). 
Apurima xanthogastrella, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 

194 (1863); Moore, Lep. CeyL, iii, p. 388, pi. clxxxiv, 

fig. 14 (1886). 
Scirpophaga intacta, SnelL, Tijd. Ent., xxxiv, p. 343, pi. 

xviii, figs. 1 — 4. 



402 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Specimens were taken in Satsuma in May and at Sakata 
in August; my collectors met with the species at Ichang in 
June and July. 

Distribution. Congo. — Shanghai ; throughout India, 
Ceylon, and Burma ; Borneo ; Java (Hampson) ; 
Eastern and Central China ; Kiijshiu ; Japan. 

1632. Scirpophaga excerptalis. 

Chilo excerptalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 142 

(1863). 
Scirpophaga excerptalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 
iv, p. 46 (1896). 
I obtained specimens in Satsuma in May, at Sakata and 
Hakodate in August, and I have received examples from 
Ichang and Chang-yang taken in May, July, and August. 
Distribution. North- West Himalayas; Borneo 
{Hampson) ; Central China; Japan ; Yesso ; Kiushiu. 

Genus Schcenobius. 

Dup. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 47 
(1896). 

1633. Schcenobius dodatellus. 

Chilo dodatellus, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxx, p. 966 (1864). 
Schcenobius dodatellus, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 
iv, p. 48 (1896). 

Distribution. Japan ; Khasis ; Ceylon ; Moulmein ; 
Rangoon (Hampson). 

1634. Schcenobius gigantellus. 

Tinea gigantella, Schiff., Syst. Verz., p. 135 ; Htibn., fig. 35. 
Chilo spurcatellus, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het, xxvii, p. 142 

(1863). 
Schcenobius gigantelhos, Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1895, p. 916. 

Spurcatellus was described from Shanghai. 
Distribution. Europe. — Eastern China. 

1635. Schcenobius lineatus. 

Apurima lineata, Butl., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) iv, 

p. 457 (1879). 



Heterocera from'' China, Japan, and Corea. 403 

One example in Pryer's collection. 
Habitat. Japan. 

1636. Schosnobms bipunctifera. 

Tripansea bipunctifera, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxviii, p. 

523 (1863). 
Schamobius bipunctifera, Moore, Lep. Ceyl., iii, p. 385, pi. 

clxxxiv, fig. 13 (1886) ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., 

Moths, iv, p. 48 (1896). 

Seven specimens from Omei-shan, taken in June and 
July. 

Distribution. China ; Formosa ; throughout India, 
Ceylon, and Burma ; Sumatra ; Java ; Borneo (Hamp- 
son) ; Western China. 

Genus Cirrhochrista. 

Led. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv. p. 49 
(1896). 

1637. Cirrhochrista brizoalis. 

Margaronia brizoalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xix, p. 976 

(1859). 
Cirrhochrista brizoalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 50 (1896). 

I captured three specimens at Nagasaki in June, and 
received one from Chang-yang. 

Distribution. Formosa; North- West Himalayas; 
Bombay ; Nilgiris ; Borneo ; Celebes ; Australia 
{Hampson) ; Japan ; Kiushiu ; Southern and Central 
China. 

Subfamily ANERASTIINM. 

Genus Osakia. 
Ragonot, Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 320 (1901). 

1638. OsaJcia lineolclla. 

Osakia lineolella, Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 32], pi. xliii, fig. 
21 (1901). 

I have one specimen, taken by myself at Oivvake in 
October, that appears to be referable to this species. 
Habitat. Japan. 



404 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Genus Hypsotropha. 

Hypsotropha, Zeller, Isis, 1848, p. 591. 
Hypsotropha, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 54 
(1896). 

1639. Hypsotropha solipunctella. 

Hypsotropha solipunctella, Rag., Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 377, 
pi. xliii, fig. 23 (1901). 

Habitat. Japan. 

1640. Hypsotropha syriacella. 

Hypsotropha syriacella, Rag., Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 377, pi. 
xxxix, fig. 7 (1901). 

Distribution. Syria; Chang-hai (China). 

Genus Enosima. 
Ragonot, Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 389 (1901). 

1641. Enosima neesimella. 

Enosima neesimella, Rag., Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 390, pi. xliii, 
fig. 22 (1901). 

The type, a male, was in Pryer's collection, now in the 
possession of Dr. Holland of Pittsburgh. I obtained one 
specimen at Gensan in July. 

Distribution. Japan; Coeea. 

1642. Enosima flavescentella. 

Enosima flavescentella, Rag., Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 390, 
pi. xl, fig. 18 (1901). 

Two specimens from Ichang taken in August. My col- 
lectors did not meet with this species in other parts of 
China that they visited. 

Habitat. Central China. 

Genus Anerastia. 
Hiibn., Hampson, Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 394 (1901). 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 405 

1643. Anerastia leucotteniella. 

Anerastia leitcotieniella, Rag., Nouv. Gen., p. 48 (1888) ; 
Rom. sur Lep, viii, p. 401, pi. xl, fig. 3 (1901). 

The type, a female, in Coll. Staud. 
Habitat. Japan. 

Genus Emmalocera. 

Ragonot, Nouv. Gen, p. 38 (1888). 

1644. Emmalocera gensanalis, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 30.) 

Primaries oclireous strongly suffused with rosy, except on the 
basal three-fourths of the costa. Secondaries whitish tinged with 
fuscous fringes, preceded by a dark line. Under surface fuscous, 
secondaries paler. 

Expanse 25 millim. 

One male specimen taken by Mr. Leech at Gensan in 
July 1887. 

Habitat. Core a. 

Allied to A. strigosa, Staud., from Syria and Amurland. 

R. S. 
1645. Emmalocera umbricostella. 

Emmalocera umbricostella. Rag, Nouv. Gen, p. 38 (1888) ; 

Mon. Phyc, pi. xxxvi, fig. 10. 
Polyocha umbricostella, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 62 (1896). 

There was a specimen in Pryer's collection which seems 
to be an example of this species ; it has indications of a 
post-medial series of black dots on the primaries. Three 
specimens were obtained at Gensan in July, and one 
example at Ichang in August. 

Distribution. North- West Himalayas; FLOREs(iTam^- 
son); Japan; Corea; Central China. 

Subfamily PHYGITIN^. 

Genus Nyctegretis. 

Zeller, Isis, 1848, p. 650. 

1646. Nyctegretis triangulella. 

Nyctegretis triangulella, Rag, Rom. sur Lep, viii, p. 29, 
pi. xliii, fig. 17 (1901). 

Habitat. Japan. 



406 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Genus Hyphantiditjm. 
Scott; Hampson, Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 72 (1901). 

1647. Hyphantidium funerellum. 

Hyphantidium funerellum. Bag., Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 75, 
pi. xliii, fig. 16 (1901). 

Habitat. Japan. 

Genus Ephestia. 
Guenee, Eur. Microlep. Ind. Meth., p. 81 (1845). 

1648. Ephestia cautella, 

Pempelia* cautella,^ zSk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 73 (1863). 
Ephestia cautella, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 
p. 66 (1896). 

There were two specimens in Pryer's collection, and I 
have received one from Ichang, the latter taken in 
August. 

Distribution. Aden ; Bhutan ; Ceylon ; Sumbawa 
{Sampson) ; Japan ; Central China. 

Genus Homceosoma. 

Curt. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 66 
(1896). 

1649. Homceosoma suberetacella. 

Homceosoma suberetacella, Rag., Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 246, 
pi. xliii, fig. 18 (1901). 

Habitat. Japan. 

1650. Homceosoma osakiella. 

Homceosoma osakiella, Rag., Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 254, 
pi. xliii, fig. 19 (1901). 

I obtained a specimen of this species at Hakodate in 
August. 

Habitat. Japan; Yesso. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 407 

1651. Homazosoma nipponella. 

Homceosoma nipponella, Rag., Rom. sur L^p., viii, p. 252, 
pi. xliii, fig. 20 (1901). 

Habitat. Japan. 

Genus Euzophera. 
Zeller, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond, (3) v, p. 456 (1867). 

1652. Euzophera bigella. 

Ephestia bigella, ZelL, Isis, 1848, p. 596. 

There was one specimen in Pryer's collection. 
Distribution. Europe. — Japan. 

1653. Euzophera diminutella. 

Euzophera diminutella, Rag., Rom. sur Lep., viii, p. 45, 
pi. xliii, fig. 15 (1901). 

Habitat. Japan. 

Genus Nephopteryx. 

Htibn.; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 76 
(1896). 

1654. Nephopteryx bicolorella. 

Nephopteryx bicolorella, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 108, pi. v, 
fig. 5 (1889) ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 
p. 79 (1896). 

The type, a female, was from Tokio. 
Distribution. Dalhousie {Hampson); Japan. 

1655. Nephopteryx hostilis. 

Nephopteryx hostilis, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., iv, p. 307. 

One specimen from Gensan taken in June, and one from 
Ichang taken in July. 

Distribution. Europe. — Corea ; Central China. 

1656. Nephopteryx rubrizonella. 

Nephopteryx rubrizonella, Rag., Rom. sur Lep., vii, p. 277 
(1893), viii, pi. xliii, fig. 12 (1901). 



408 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Nejphopteryx rubrizonella, Matsumura, Armot. Zool. Japan, 
1897, p. 1, pi. i. 

Described from a female specimen from Japan. 
Habitat. Japan. 

1657. Nephopteryx semirubella. 

Phalszna semirubella, Scop., Ent. Carn., p. 245 (1763). 
Tinea camella, Linn., Syst. Nat., i, p. 887 (1767). 
Tinea sanguinella, Htibn., Tin., fig. 65 (1800). 
Nejohopteryx semirubella, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., 

Moths, iv, p. 84 (1896). 
Salebria icterella, Rag., Nouv. Phycit., p. 18 (1888). 
Laodamia semirubella, var. icterella, Rag., Rom. sur Lep., 

vii, p. 416, pi. xvii, %. 4 (1893). 

I obtained this specimen in Satsuma in May, at Naga- 
saki and Fusan in June, and at Gensan in July. My 
collectors took specimens at Ichang in June and August. 

There were specimens of the var. icterella in Pryer's 
collection, and I obtained examples of the same form from 
Fusan and Gensan in June and July. 

Distribution. Europe. — Syria ; Siberia ; Dharmsala 

(Hampson) ; KlUSHIU ; COREA ; CENTRAL CHINA. 

1658. Nepliopteryx ocelliferella. 

Oligochroa ocelliferella, Rag., Nouv. Phycit., p. 21 (1888); 
Rom. sur Lep., vii, p. 393, pi. xiii, fig. 11 (1893). 

The type, a female taken in August, was from Tchefoo. 
Habitat. China. 

Genus Selagia. 
Htibn. ; Rag., Rom. sur Lep., vii, p. 467 (1893). 

1659. Selagia argyrella. 

Selagia argyrella (S.V., p. 135, n. cat.), Fab. Mant., ii, 
p. 242; Rag., Rom. sur Lep., vii., p. 475 (1893). 

Four specimens from Gensan taken in July. 
Distribution. Europe. — Central Asia ; Amurland ; 
Japan. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 409 

1660. Selagia janthindla. 

Nephopteryx janthinelh, Hlibn., fig. 374; Zell., Isis, 1846, 

p. 752. 
Selagia spadicella, Rag., Rom. sur Lep., vii, p. 472 (1893). 

Two specimens in Pryer's collection appear to be refer- 
able to this species. 
Distribution. Europe. — Japan. 



Genus Epicrocis. 
Zell.; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 85 (1896). 

1661. Epicrocis segnusalis. 

Pyralis zegnusalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xix, p. 905 (1859). 
Homceosoma derasella, Swinh., Proc. Zool. Soc. LoncL, 1885, 

p. 877, pi. lvii, fig. 19. 
Epicrocis segnusalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 85 (1896). 

Distribution. Madagascar. — China ; throughout India, 
Ceylon, and Burma ; Sumatra, Australia (Hampson). 

1662. Epicrocis hilar ella. 

Epicrocis hilarella, Rag., Nouv. Phycit., p. 22 (1888); 
Rom. sur Lep., vii, p. 438, pi. xii, fig. 7 (1893) ; 
Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 87 (1896). 

Distribution. China ; Murree ; Simla ; Ceylon 

(Hampson). 

Genus Samaria. 
Ragonot, Rom. sur Lep., vii, p. 58 (1893). 

1663. Samaria ardentella. 

Samaria ardentella, Rag., Rom. sur Lep., vii, p. 59 (1893) ; 
viii, pi. xliii, fig. 5 (1901). 

Habitat. Japan. 

Genus Myelois. 
Hubner, Verz.-bek.-Schmett, p. 371 (? 1818). 



410 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

1664. Myelois cribrella. 

Myelois cribrella, Htibn. ; Rag., Rom. sur Lep., vii, p. 34 

(1893). 

One example obtained by a native collector in Kiushiu. 
Distribution. Europe. — Altai; Kiushiu. 

Genus Phycita. 
Curt. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 90 (1896). 

1665. Phycita abietella. 

Tinea abietella, Schiff., Wien. Verz., p. 138. 
Phycita abietella, Hampson, Fauna Brit. India, Moths, iv. 
p. 91 (1896). 

Distribution. United States. — Europe. — Japan ; 
Simla {Hampson). 

1666. Phycita rubella. 

Dioryctria rubella, Hampson, Bom. sur L^p., viii. p. 533, 
pi. lvi, fig. 15 (1901). 

A specimen from Chusan in the national collection at 
South Kensington. 
Habitat. China. 

1667. Phycita pry eri. 

Dioryctria pryeri, Ragonot, Rom. sur L^p., vii, p. 194 
(1893) ; viii, pi. xliii, fig. 7 (1901). 

One specimen from Kiushiu. 
Habitat. Japan and Kiushiu. 

Genus Phycitopsis. 

Ragonot, North Am. Phyc, p. 4 (1888) ; Rom. sur Lep., 
vii, p. 185 (1893). 

1668. Phycitopsis hemileucella. 

Phycitopsis hemileucella, Hampson, Rom. sur Lep., viii, 
p. 532, pi. lvi. fig. 12 (1901). 

Habitat. JAPAN. 

Genus LAODAMIA. 

Ragonot, Rom. sur. Lep., vii, p. 403 (1893). 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corca. 411 

1669. Laodamia griseosparsella. 

Laodamia griseosparsella, Ragonot, Rom. sur Lep., vii, p. 

407 (1893) ; viii, pi. xliii, fig. 10 (1901). 
Laodamia griseosparsella, var. nigrans, Ragonot, Rom. sur 

Lep., vii, p. 407, pi. xliii, fig. 11. 

Habitat. Japan. 

1670. Laodamia mikadella. 

Laodamia mikadella, Ragonot, Rom. sur Lep., vii, p. 412 
(1893) ; viii, pi. xliii, fig. 9 (1901). 

The type was in Pryer's collection. 
Habitat. Japan. 

1671. Laodamia mundellalis. 

Nephopteryx mundellalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 

67 (1863). 
Laodamia mundellalis, Ragonot, Rom. sur Lep., vii, p. 413 

(1893); viii, pi. xli, fig. 19 (1901). 

The type was from Shanghai. 
Habitat. Eastern China. 

1 672. Laodamia furvicostella. 

Laodamia furvicostella, Ragonot, Rom. sur Lep., vii, p. 
413 (1893); viii, pi. xliii, fig. 8 (1901). 

Type from Yesso. 
Habitat. North Japan. 

Genus Elasmopalpus. 
Blanchard, Gay's Chili, vii, p. 104 (1852). 

1673. Elasmopalpus bipartitellus. 

Elasmopalpus bipartitellus, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 108, pi. v, 
fig. 4 (1889). 

The type was in Pryer's collection. 
Habitat. JAPAN. 

Genus Melitene. 
Ragonot, Rom. sur Lep., vii, p. 6 (1893). 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART IV. (DEC.) 28 



412 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

1674. Melitene bifidella. 

Melitene bifidella, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 108, pi. v, fig. 8 
(1889). 
The type was in Pryer's collection. 
Habitat. Japan. 

Genus Bhodopilea. 

Guen.; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 98 
(1896). 

1675. Rhodophzea encaustella. 

Acrobasis encaustella, Ragonot, Rom. sur Lep., vii, p. 101, 
pi. xi, fig. 12 (1893). 

Distribution. China and Japan. 

1676. Rhodophtea scabrilineella. 

Acrobasis scabrilineella, Ragonot, Rom. sur L^p., vii, p. 95 
(1893); viii, pi. xliii, fig. 6 (1901). 

Habitat. Japan. 

1677. Rhodoph&a tokiella. 

Eurhodope {Rhodophzea) tokiella, Ragonot, Rom. sur Lep., 
vii, p. 76 (1893); viii, pi. xliii, fig. 4 (1901). 

Habitat. Japan. 

1678. Rhodophzea dichromella. 

Etio^hodope (Rhodophtea) dichromella, Ragonot, Rom. sur 
Lep., vii, p. 75 (1893); viii, pi. xliii, fig. 3 (1901). 

Described from a female specimen in Prver's collection. 
Habitat. Japan. 

1679. Rhodophma, bellulella. 

Eurhodope {Rhodophsea) bellulella, Ragonot, Rom. sur Lep., 
vii, p. 71 (1893); viii, pi. xliii, fig. 2 (1901). 

The type, a female, was in Pryer's collection. 
Habitat. Japan. 

1680. Rhodophsea hollandella. 

Eurhodope {Rhodophsea) hollandella, Ragonot, Rom. sur Lep., 
vii, p. 70 (1893); viii, pi. xliii, fig. 1 (1901). 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Cor col. 413 

I have an example from Japan, but the locality from 
which it came is uncertain. 
Habitat. Japan. 

Genus Ceroprepes. 

Zeller, Stett. ent. Zeit., 1867, p. 401. 

1681. Ceroprepes patriciella. 

Ceroprepes pairiciella, Zell., Stett. ent. Zeit., 1867, p. 401, 
pi. ii, figs. 4a, 4b ; Rag., Rom. sur Lep., vii, p. 9, pi. 
iv, fig. 2 (1893). 

One male specimen taken in June or July at Pu-tsu- 
fong. 
Distribution. Sikhim ; Western China. 

1682. Ceroprepes pulvillella. 

Nephopteryx pulvillella, Zell., Stett. ent. Zeit., 1867, p. 394, 

pi. ii, fig. 3. 
Ceroprepes pulvillella, Rag., Rom. sur Lep., vii, p. 11, pi. 

iv, fig. 1 (1893) ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 104 (1896). 

One female example taken at Omei-shan in July or 
August. 

Distribution. Sikhim ; Western China. 

Genus Etiella. 

Zell.; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 108 
(1896). 

1683. Etiella zinckenella. 

Phycis zinckenella, Treit., Schmett., Eur., ix, 1, p. 201 (1832). 
Crambus sabnlinns, Butl., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) iv, 

p. 456 (1879). 
Etiella zinckenella, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 108 (1896). 

There were specimens in Pryer's collection, and I received 
others from Chang-yang and Ichang. 
Distribution. Universal. 

Sub-family EPIPASGHIIN^E. 
Genus Arnatula. 
Staudinger, Iris, vi, p. 78 (1893). 



414 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

1684. Amatula melanophia. 

Noctuides melanophila, Staud., Iris, v, p. 466, pi. iii, fig. 22 

(1892). 
Parorthaga euryptera, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ; 1894, 

p. 476. 
Amatula melanophia, Staud., Iris, vi, p. 78 (1893) ; Hamp- 

son, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 566 (1896). 

I took a specimen at Nagahama in July. 
Distribution. Bhutan ; Ceylon ; Sumbawa {Hampson) ; 
Amukland ; Japan. 

Genus Macalla. 

Walk.; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. ±12 

(1896). 

1685. Macalla inimica. 

Locastra inimica, Butl., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) iv, 

p. 448 (1879). 
Pscudolocastra inimica, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

(6) vii, p. 429 (1891). 

Described from Yokohama. Occurs also in Kiushiu. 
Habitat. Japan; Kiushiu. 

1686. Macalla arnica. 

Locastra arnica, Butl., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) iv, p. 

447 (1879). 

Described from Yokohama. I obtained the species at 
Fushiki and Nagahama in July, and have received specimens 
from Mr. Manley of Yokohama. There were specimens, 
without locality, in Pryer's collection. 

Habitat. Japan. 

1687. Macalla moncusalis. 

Lamida moncusalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. ; xvi, p. 252 

(1858). 
Allata penicillata, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. Ill 

(1863). 
Orthaga obscura, Moore, Lep. Atk., p. 201 (1887). 
Macalla moncusalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 
iv, p. 113 (1896). 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 415 

One specimen, captured by myself in Satsuma in May, 
appears to be referable to the penicillata form of this 
variable species. 

Distribution. Sikhim ; Bhutan; Nagas; Maniptjr 
{Hampson) ; Kiushiu. 

1688. Macalla nigrescens. 

Parasarama (?) nigrescens, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist., (6) vii, p. 428 (1891). 
Macalla nigrescens, Hampson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1896, 

p. 464. 

Described from Yesso. 

Specimens in Pryer's collection. I have one example 
from the island of Kiushiu. 
Habitat. Japan and Kiushiu. 

1689. Macalla margarita. 

Locastra margarita, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 66, pi. 

lvii, fig. 4 (1879). 
Locastra lativitta, Moore, Lep. Atk., p. 199, pi. vii, fig. 1 

(1887). 
Macalla margarita, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 116 (1896). 

Described from Yokohama. 

Distribution. JAPAN ; SlKHlM ; Khasis ; NlLGlRIS ; 
Borneo {Hampson). 

Genus Locastra. 

Walk. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 118 
(1896). 

1690. Locastra muscosalis. 

Taurica muscosalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxxiv, p. 1269 

(1865). 
Locastra cristalis, Hampson, 111. Typ. Lep. Het., ix, p. 157, 

pi. clxxii, fig. 3 (1893). 
Locastra muscosalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 119 (1896). 

Muscosalis was described from North China. I took 
specimens at Nagasaki in June ; others were obtained in 



416 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

the island of Kiushiu by a native collector, and I have 
received examples from Ichang, Chang-yang, and Moupin. 
Occurs in June and July. 

Distribution. North China ; Sikhim ; Nagas ; Ceylon ; 
Eangoon {Hampson) ; Kiushiu ; Central and Western 
China. 

Genus Stericta. 

Led. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 420 
(1896). 

1691. Stericta haraldusalis. 

Zocastra (?) haraldusalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xvi, p. 160 

(1858). 
Craneophora ficki, Christ., Bull. Mosc, lvi (1), p. 2 (1881). 
Scopocera variegata, Moore, Lep. Atk., p. 203, pi. vii, fig. 4 

(1887). 
Blenopholis striata, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., vii, p. 90, pi. 

cxxxiv, fig. 3 (1889). 
Stericta haraldusalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 421 (1896). 

One specimen in Pryer's collection, one from Chang- 
yang, and one from Moupin. June. 

Distribution. Simla ; Dharmsala ; Kulu ; Sikhim ; 
Tenasserim ; Borneo {Hampson) ; Amurland ; Japan ; 
Central and Western China. 

Genus Orthaga. 

Walk. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 124 
(1896). 

1692. Orthaga olivacea. 

Hyperbalanotis olivacea, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(6) vii, p. 433 (1891). 

There were two specimens in Pryer's collection, one of 
which was labelled from Loochoo ; my native collector 
obtained one example in Kiushiu, and I have received one 
from Chang-yang ; the latter was taken in June. One 
specimen from Chia-kou-ho, taken in July, seems to be 
referable to this species, but it is not in very good condition 
for identification. 

Distribution. Japan ; Kiushiu ; Loochoo ; Central 
and Western China. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 417 

1693. Orthaga achatina. 

Glossina achatina, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., ii, p. 56, pi. 
xxxviii, fig. 10 (1878). 

Described from Yokohama. I obtained specimens at 
Nagahama, Tsuruga, and Fushiki in July, and my native 
collector took others in the island of Kiushiu. 

Habitat. Japan and Kiushiu. 

1694. Orthaga onerata. 

Bleptina onerata, Butl., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) iv, 

p. 447 (1879). 
Orthaga onerata, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 

126 (1896). 

Described from Yokohama. 

There were seven specimens in Pryer's collection, two 
of which are from Yokohama ; I obtained one example at 
Nagahama in July. 

Distribution. Japan ; Bhutan ; Java {Hampson), 

1695. Orthaga basalis, sp. n. 

Differs from 0. onerata, Butl., in having the basal patch well 
defined, its outer edge nearly straight, and followed by a blackish line ; 
the postmedial line is blackish, sinuous, indented towards the costa, 
and again above the inner margin ; the central area, between the 
transverse lines, is clearer than in 0. onerata. 

Expanse 20 millim. 

One specimen in Pryer's collection ; I took one example 
at Nagasaki in June, and another at Gensan in July. 

Distribution. Japan ; Kiushiu ; Corea. 

R. S. 

Subfamily ENDOTRICHINM. 

Genus Endotricha. 

Zell. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 132 
(1896). 

1696. Endotricha theonalis. 

Pyralis theonalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xix, p. 900 

(1859). 
Pyralis (?) thermusalis, Walk., I.e., p. 912. 
Zania nnicalis, Walk., 1. c, xxxiv, p. 1257 (1865). 



418 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

The types of all the above were from Shanghai. 
Habitat. Eastern China. 

1697. Endotricha affinialis, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 22.) 

Primaries ochreous, brown tinged with violet ; antemedial line 
limiting a violet basal patch almost straight, bordered outwardly with 
yellow ; submarginal line blackish, edged with yellow, commencing on 
the costa near apex, thence gently curved to inner angle ; some white 
dots on costa towards apex. Secondaries pale violet with a darker- 
edged yellow medial band. Fringes whitish, preceded by a dark line. 
Under surface ochreous, suffused with fuscous, tinged with violet on 
the primaries, except inner marginal area and the outer third of 
secondaries • all the wings have a double transverse line ; primaries 
have a dark discal mark and some white dots on the costa. 

Expanse 17 millim. 

One male specimen taken by Mr. Leech at Tsuruga in 
July 1886. 

This species is distinguished from E. flammcalis, Schiff, 
and its nearest allies, by the curved submarginal line. 

R. S. 

1698. Endotricha portialis. 

Endotricha portialis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xvii, p. 391 

(1863). 
Endotricha acrobasalis, Snell., Tijd, Ent., xxxvi, p. 155, pi. 

x, fig. 1. 
Endotrichopsis rhodopteralis, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist., (6)xvi,p. 467 (1895). 

Habitat. Japan ; Borneo ; Java. 

1699. Endotricha costsemaculalis. 

Endotricha costsemaculalis, Christ., Bull. Mosc, lvi (1), p. 4 
(1881); Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 133 
(1896). 

Endotricha fuscobasalis, Ragonot, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1890, 
p. 526. 

I took one specimen in Satsuma in May ; and I received 
one from Chang-yang, and another from Moupin,both taken 
in June. 

Distribution. Siberia ; Japan ; Dalhousie ; Sikhim 
{Hampson) ; Kiushiu ; Central and Western China. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 419 

1700. Endotricha ardent alis. 

Endotricha ardentalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 
iv, p. 135 (1896). 

A specimen taken by myself at Fusan in June appears 
to be referable to this species, but the antemedial line is 
yellow instead of white. 

Distribution. Bhutan ; Corea. 

1701. Endotricha consocia. 

Doththa consocia, ButL. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) 
iv, p. 452 (1879). 

There was one specimen in Pryer's collection. I obtained 
examples at Fushiki and Tsuruga in July, and I received 
two from Moupin. 

Two of the Japanese specimens have the secondaries 
almost unicolorous, and the primaries are strongly tinged 
with pink. 

Distribution. Japan ; Western China. 

1702. Endotricha icelusalis. 

Pyralis icelusalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xix, p. 900 

(1859). 
Bhodaria flavofascialis, Brem., Ost. Sib., p. 65, pi. vi, fig. 1 

(1864). 
Pyralis rosealis, Walk., 1. c, xxxiv, p. 1236 (1865). 

Both icelusalis and rosealis were described from North 
China. 

I took specimens at Ningpo and Gensan in July, and 
have received others from Chang-yang, taken in June and 
July. The rosealis form is represented by one example 
from Gensan. 

Habitat. Eastern and Central China ; Corea ; 
Amurland. 

Genus Cataprosopus. 

Butler, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1881, p. 589. 

1703. Cataprosopus monstrosus. 

Cataprosopus monstrosus, ButL, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1881, 
p. 590. 

Described from Tokio. 



420 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

I obtained specimens at Gensan in July, and at Hakodate 
in August. One example was received from Chang-yang, 
taken in June. 

Distribution. Central China ; Corea ; Japan ; Yesso. 

Genus Trichophysetis. 

Meyr. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 138 
(1896). 

1704. Trichophysetis cretacea. 

Hydrocampa cretacea, ButL, 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 75, 

pi. lix, fig. 8 (1879). 
Paraponyx obnubilalis, Christ., Bull. Mosc, lvi, p. 32. 

Type from Yokohama. There was one specimen in 
Pryer's collection. 

Distribution. Australia ; Norfolk Island {Hampson) ; 
Amurland; Japan. 

1705. Trichophysetis hampsoni, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 28.) 

Primaries whitish, faintly tinged with ochreous, two sub-basal 
brownish dots, one near the costa, the other near the inner margin ; 
traces of an oblique, fuscous ante medial line, elbowed towards the 
costa ; postmedial line, brown, double, outwardly oblique almost to 
outer margin, then curved inwards to inner margin ; apical area 
suffused with ochreous brown and with some brownish specks on it ; 
marginal line brown, inwardly edged with whitish, commencing in a 
short oblique dash from the apex. Secondaries whitish, tinged with 
ochreous ; antemedial line black, curved, with a black spot on it 
about the middle • postmedial line double, oblique but curving 
inwards towards abdominal margin ; the inner line is black and the 
outer brown. Fringes agree in colour with the wings, but those of 
primaries are glossy. 

Expanse 23 millini. 

One female specimen from Ichang taken in June. There 
are two specimens from Khasis in the national collection. 
Distribution. Central China ; Khasis. 
Allied to T. nigricincta, Hampson. R. S. 

Genus Hendecasis. 
Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 140 (1896). 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 421 

1706. Hendecasis apiciferalis. 

Pyralis (?) apicifcralis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxxiv, p. 
1236 (1865). 

Described from Shanghai. 
Habitat. Eastekn China. 

Genus Cotachena. 

Moore; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 142 
(1896). 

1707. Cotachena histricalis. 

Botys histricalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 655 

(1859). 
Cotachena histricalis, Hampson, 111. Typ. Lep. Het., ix, 

pi. clxxii, fig. 5 (1893); Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 142 (1896). 
Archernis pubescens, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

(6) ix, p. 300 (1892). 

Described from Shanghai. I obtained specimens in 
Satsuma in May, and at Nagasaki and Fujisan in June ; 
my native collector captured examples at Ningpo, and in 
the island of Kiushiu, and others have been received from 
Chang-yang ; these last were also taken in May and June. 

Distribution. Dharmsala ; Sikhim; Nagas ; Nilgiris ; 
Ceylon (Hampson) ; Japan ; Kiushiu ; Eastern and 
Central China. 

Subfamily PYBALIN^. 

Genus Aglossa. 

Latr. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 147 
(1896). 

1708. Aglossa dimidiata. 

Cr ambus dimidiatus, Haw., Lep. Brit., p. 372. 
Pyralis circularis, Motsch., Etud. Ent., vi, p. 36 (1860). 
Aglossa micalialis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xvii, p. 277 

(1859). 
Aglossa achatina, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 72, pi. 

lviii, fig. 6 (1879). 
Aglossa dimidiata, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 147 (1896). 



422 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Type of achatina, Butl., was from Yokohama, and that of 
micalialis, Walk., from Shanghai. I obtained a series of 
eight specimens at Gensan in June. 

Distribution. Nilgiris ; Bernardmyo ; Burma (Ramp- 
son) ; Japan ; Corea ; Eastern China. 

Genus Hypsopygia. 

Hiibn. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 148 
(1896). 

1709. Hypsopygia lucillalis. 

Pyralis lucillalis. Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xvii, p. 268 

(1859). 
Hypsopygia laticilialis, Ragonot, Ann. Soc, Ent. Fr., 1891, 

p. 28. 
Hypsopygia mauritialis, Boisd., Faun. Madag., p. 119, pi. 

xvi, fig. 8 (1833); Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., 

Moths, iv, p. 148 (1896). 

Walker's type was from Shanghai. 
Distribution. China ; North - West Himalayas ; 
Manipur ; Poona ; Burma ; Sumatra ; Java ; Celebes 

(Hampson). 

1710. Hypsopygia regina. 

Pyralis regina, Butl., Ann. and l^lag. Nat. Hist., (5) iv, 

p. 452 (1879). 
Hypsopygia regina, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 149 (1896). 

Two specimens taken at Nikko by a native collector, 
and one example in Pryer's collection. 

Distribution. Japan; Aska ; Ganjam; Rangoon 
(Hampson). 

Genus Pyralis. 

Linn. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 149 
(1896). 

1711, Pyralis farinalis. 

Pyralis farinalis, Linn., Syst. Nat., x, 226. 
Pyralis fratema. Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 70, 
pi. lviii, fig. 4 (1879). 

Type of fratema was from Yokohama. Two specimens 
were taken in Kiushiu by my native collector. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 423 

Distribution. Pal^earctic, ^Ethiopian, Nearctic, 
Neotropical Regions ; Afghanistan ; Australia; New 
Zealand (Sampson) ; Japan ; Kiushiu. 

1712. Pyralis pictalis. 

Pyralis pictalis, Curtis, Brit. Eat., pi. 503 ; Hampson, 
Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 150 (1896). 

Pyralis elachia, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 70, pi. lviii, 
fig. 3 (1879). 

Type of elachia was from Yokohama. Five specimens 
taken at Ichang in June and August, and one from Moupin 
taken in August. 

Distribution. Europe. — West Africa. — Japan; North- 
west Himalayas ; Nagas ; Ceylon ; Burma ; Sumatra ; 
Gilbert Island (Hampson); Central and Western 
China. 

1713. Pyralis monpinalis, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 19.) 

Primaries grey-brown ; ante- and postmedial lines white, slightly 
curved, each commencing in a white spot on the costa and with white 
dots on the costa between them ; the postmedial line is dentate to- 
wards the inner margin. Secondaries tinged with purplish ; ante- 
and postmedial lines* white, the first rather oblique and the second 
wavy. Fringes agree with the wings in colour and are preceded by 
a brown line. Under surface fuscous with a purplish reflection ; 
primaries have a white dot on apical third of costa and a white 
postmedial line on the secondaries. 

Expanse 25 millim. 

Two specimens from Moupin taken in June. 
Habitat, Western China. K. S. 

1714. Pyralis manihotalis. 

Pyralis manihotalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyral., p. 121 (1854). 
Pyralis geronUsalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xix, p. 896 (1859). 

One male specimen from Moupin and another from Ta- 
chien-lu ; a female from Pu-tsu-fong. June and July. 

These Chinese specimens more nearly approach geronte- 
salis than the type. The transverse lines, which are white 
and well defined, are nearer together in the female than 
in the male. 

Distribution. Neotropical, Oriental, and Australian 
Regions (Hampson) ; Western China. 



424 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

1715. Pyralis regalis. 

Pyralis regalis, SchirT., Wien. Verz., p. 124 (1776) ; Hamp- 
son, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 152 (1896). 

Pyralis princess, ButL, 111. Typ. Lep. Het., vii, p. 91, 
pi. cxxxiv, fig. 12 (1889). 

Specimens were taken by myself at Gensan in July, and 
at Hakodate in August. There were three examples in 
Pryer's collection. 

Distribution. South Europe. — Amurland ; Japan ; 
Dharmsala {Hampson) ; Yesso ; Corea. 

Genus Tegulifera. 

Saalm ;. Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 152 
(1896). 

1716. Tegulifera faviusalis. 

Pyralis faviusalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xix, p, 907 

(1859). 
Tegulifera faviusalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. ] 52 (1896). 

One example from Ichang, taken in July. 

Distribution. North- West Himalayas; Sikhim; 
Margharita ; Assam ; Nag as ; Borneo {Hampson) ; 
Central China. 

Genus Paracme. 
Lederer, Wien. Ent. Moil, vii, p. 338 (1863). 

1717. Paracme racilialis. 

Pyralis racilialis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xix, p. 899 (1859). 
Paracme insulsalis, Led., Wien. Ent. Mon., vii, p. 339, 
pi. vi, fig. 11 (1863). 

Walker's type was from North China, and that 
described by Lederer from Ningpo. 

Four specimens from Chang-yang, taken in June. 
Distribution. Northern, Eastern, and Central China. 

Genus Stemmatophora. 

Guen. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 154 

(1896). 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 425 

1718. Stemmatophora albiguttata. 

Pyralis albiguttata, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) 

vii, p. 496 (1891). 
Stemmatophora albiguttata, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., 

Moths, iv, p. 156 (1896). 

Distribution. Japan ; Khasis {Hampson). 

1719. Stemmatophora bilinealis, sp. n. 

Purplish-brown with two ochreous transverse lines on each wing ; 
the lines on the primaries are straight ; the outer one terminating on 
the inner margin just before the angle ; the lines on the secondaries 
are curved. Under surface similar to above, but the lines are very 
faint on secondaries, and almost entirely absent on the primaries. 

Expanse 22 millim. 

One male specimen from Ichang, taken in June. 
Habitat. Central China. 

E. S. 
1720. Stemmatophora bicoloralis. 

Endotricha bicoloralis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 6o, pi. iv, 

%• 17 - . 

Pyralis dnlciculalis, Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1889, 
p. 418 ; Hampson, 111. Typ. Lep. Het., viii, pi. clvi, 
tig. 13 (1891). 

Stemmatophora bicoloralis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., 
Moths, iv, p. 157 (1896). 

Type from Gensan. There were two specimens in 
Pryer's collection, and four examples were obtained in 
June at Ichang and Chang-yang. 

Distribution. Japan ; Mahableshwar ; Nilgiris 
{Hampson) ; Corea ; Central China. 

1721. Stemmatophora valida. 

Pyralis valida, Butl., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) iv, 
p. 451 (1879). 

I have specimens from Shimonoseki, Fushiki, and 
Kiushiu taken in July and August. 
Habitat. Japan and Kiushiu. 

Genus Tamraca. 
Moore, Lep. CeyL, iii, p. 554 (1887). 



426 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

1722. Tamraca torridalis. 

Asopia torridalis, Led., Wien. Ent. Mon., vii, p. 342, pi. vi, 

fig. 15 (1863). 
Tamraca torridalis, Moore, Lep. Ceyl., iii, pi. ccxv, figs. 7, 

8 (1887); Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 159 (1896). 
Varnia (?) incerta, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxxiii, p. 829 

(1865). 

I obtained specimens at Nagahama and Fushiki in July, 
and others were taken by native collector in Nikko and 
Kiushiu. 

Distribution. China; North-West Himalayas; 
Nagas ; Bombay ; Ceylon ; Burma ; Java ; Celebes 
{Hampson) ; Japan ; Kiushiu. 

Genus Herculia. 

Walk. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 159 
(1896). 

1723. Herculia glaucinalis. 

Pyralis glaucinalis, Linn., Syst. Ent., x, 533. 
Pyralis yokohamm, Butl., Ann. and Mag. IN at. Hist., (5) iv, 
p. 452(1879). 

I obtained specimens at Fusan and Gensan, and have 
received others from Kiushiu, Ichang, and Chia-ting-fu. 
There was one example in Pryer's collection. Occurs in 
July. 

Distribution. Europe. — Japan ; Kiushiu ; Corea ; 
Central and Western China. 

1724. Herculia nannodes. 

Pyralis nannodes, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 71, 
pi. lviii, fig. 5 (1879). 

Type from Yokohama. 
Habitat. Japan. 

1725. Hereto Ha p lacens. 

Rhodaria placens, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 72, 
pi. lviii, fig. 10 (1879). 



Heterocera from China , Japan, and Corea. 427 

Type from Yokohama. There were two specimens in 
Pryer's collection, and I received one example from Chang- 
yang. The Chinese specimen is rather paler than those 
from Japan. 

Distribution. Japan; Central China. 

1726. Herculia japonica. 

Hypsopygia japonica, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) 
vii, p. 499 (1891). 

One specimen from Tokio, another from Omei-shan, and 
a third from Moupin. June and July. 
The specimens vary in size. 
Distribution. Japan ; Western China. 

1727. Herculia igniflualis. 

Pyralis igniflualis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xvii, p. 268 

(1859). 
Herculia igniflualis, Hampson, 111. Typ. Lep. Het., ix, 

pi. clxxii, fig. 10 (1893); Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 161 (1876). 

Two specimens from Moupin, one taken in June, the 
other in August. 

Distribution. Nilgiris ; Ceylon ; Borneo (Hamptson) ; 
Western China. 



1728. Herculia pelasgalis. 

Pyralis pelasgalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xvii, p. 269 
(1859). 

Described from " North China." One specimen in Pryer's 
collection. I took one at Gensan in July. My native 
collector obtained the species in Kiushiu and at Nikko, and 
I have received specimens from Chang-yang, Moupin, and 
the province of Kwei-chow. Occurs in June and July. 

Distribution. Japan ; Kiushiu ; Corea ; Central and 
Western China. 

1729. Herculia bilinealis, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 20.) 

Primaries pale brown, dusted with darker scales and slightly tinged 
with pink ; ante- and postmedial lines pale ochreous, as also are the 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART IV. (DEC.) 29 



428 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

fringes. Secondaries pale ochreous dusted with brownish scales ; an 
irregular clear transverse space just beyond the middle of the wing ; 
fringes pale ochreous preceded by a brownish line. Under surface 
similar to above. 
Expanse 30 millim. 



Two specimens from Chang-yang. July. 
Habitat. Central China. 



R. S. 



Genus Lamacha. 
Walk. ; Hampson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 526. 

1730. Lamacha bilineolata. 

Lamacha bilineolata, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 8 
(1863). 
Described from North China. 

Genus Lophopalpia. 
Hampson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 526. 

1731. Lophopalpia pauper alis. 

Cataprosopus pauperalis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 70, pi. iv, 

fig. 11 (1889). 
Lophopalpia pauper ulis, Hampson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 

1896, p. 526. 

Taken in the neighbourhood of Yokohama by Mr. 
Manley. 

Distribution. Pulo Laut ; JAPAN. 

Genus Omphalocera. 

Led. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 167 
(1896). 

1732. Omphalocera hirta, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 11.) 

Head and thorax black-brown, collar reddish-brown, patagia mixed 
with pale brown ; abdomen brown. Primaries reddish brown 
powdered with black scales ; antemedial line of the clear ground- 
colour with a series of tufts of black-brown scales upon it — three on 
the costal area, one below the median nervure, and one on the inner 
margin ; a triangular ochreous apical patch, traversed by an oblique 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 429 

streak near its inner edge, and with a short, ochreous, biangulate 
line from its lower point ; marginal line black, inwardly edged with 
ochreous. Secondaries fuliginous ; marginal line black, double. 
Under surface fuliginous ; primaries ochreous on the apical third of 
costa ; postmedial line ochreous, dentate, outwardly oblique to vein 
3 thence inwardly oblique to vein 1 ; secondaries have traces of a 
pale, curved, postmedial line. 
Expanse 38 millim. 

One specimen from Chow-pin-sa, one from Omei-shan, 
one from Kiukiang, and one from Gensan. June and July. 
Distribution. Centkal and Western China ; Corea. 

R S. 
Genus Toccolosida. 
Walker, Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 14 (1863). 

1733. Toccolosida rubriceps. 

Toccolosida rubriceps, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 14 
(1863) ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 169 
(1896). 

One male specimen taken in June at Moupin. 
Distribution. Sikhim; Bhutan; Khasis ; Nagas; 
Borneo {Hampson) ; Western China. 

Genus Sacada. 
Walk. ; Hampson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 528. 

1734. Sacada approximans. 

Datanoides approximans, Leech, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1888, p. 636, pi. xxxii, fig. 4. 
Sacada inordinata, Hampson (part), Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1896, p. 529. 

Five males and four females in Pryer's collection, one 
female taken by myself at Fushiki in July. 
Distribution. Sikhim {Hampson) ; Japan. 

1735. Sacada fasciata. 

Datanoides fasciata, Butl., Ent. Mo. Mag., xiv, p. 207 
(1878); 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, pi. xliii, fig. 4 (1879). 

Xestula miraculosa, Snell., Rom. sur Lep., ii, p. 195, pi. xi 
(1885). 



430 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Sacada fasciata, Hampson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1896, 
p. 529. 

Three males and four females in Pryer's collection. 
Distribution. Amurland; Japan. 

1736. Sacada contigua, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 20.) 

Primaries brown tinged with ferruginous on basal and outer areas ; 
ante- and postmedial lines pale, the latter inwardly shaded with 
ferruginous ; these lines approximate below vein 2 and thence run 
almost parallel to the inner margin ; the enclosed space is dark 
purplish-brown ; reniform mark bright ferruginous and there is a 
diffuse spot of the same colour below the base of the cell. Second- 
aries pale brown heavily suffused with fuscous on outer two-thirds ; 
postmedial line pale, curved ; discoidal dot blackish. Fringes brown 
preceded by a pale line. Under surface pale brown ; all the wings 
have the postmedial line black agreeing in outline with that on upper 
surface, and the enclosed area is blackish, most intense on the 
primaries. 

Expanse 38 millim. 

One male specimen from Pu-tsu-fong and one from 
Moupin. June or July. 

Habitat. Western China. 

Closely allied to S. discinota (Moore), but distinguished 
from that species by the band-like character of the central 
area of primaries and the darker secondaries with well- 
defined postmedial line. 



R S. 



Genus Trebania. 



Ragonot, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1891, p. 645 ; Hampson, 
Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 174 (1896). 

1737. Trebania flavifrontalis. 

Propachys flavifrontalis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 108, pi. v, 

fig. 6 (1889). 
Trebania flavifrontalis, Ragonot, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1891, 

p. 646. 

I obtained specimens at Tsuruga and Nagahama, and 
have others from Ningpo, Kiushiu, and Chang-yang. There 
was one example in Pryer's collection. Occurs in May 
and July. 

Distribution. Japan; Kiushiu; Eastern and Central 
China. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 431 

1738. Trebania muricolor. 

Trebania muricolor, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 
iv, p. 174 (1896). 

One male specimen taken at Chang-yang in August, and 
a female at the same place in July. Other examples were 
received from Pu-tsu-fong and Chia-ting-fu. 

Distribution. Sikhim ; Nagas ; Central and West- 
ern China. 

Genus Bostra. 

Walk.; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 175 
(1890). 

1739. Bostra marginata. 

Poaphila marginata, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxxiii, p. 991 

(1865). 
Paleca rufescens, Butl., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) iv, 

p. 354 (1879). 
Pyralis assamica, Moore, Lep. Atk., p. 205, pi. vii, fig. 5 

(1888). 
Bostra marginata, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 176 (1896). 

I obtained a series at Nagahama and one example at 
Gensan in July; my native collector took a specimen in 
Kiushiu. 

Distribution. Assam ; Manipur ; Moulmein ; Nilgiris; 
Borneo (Hampson) ; Japan ; Kiushiu ; Corea. 

Genus Propachys. 
Walker, Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 6 (1863). 

1740. Propachys nigrivena. 

Propachys nigrivena, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 7 
(1863) ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 180 
(1896). 
Five specimens from Kiukiang, and one from Chia-kou- 
ho. June and July. 

Distribution. Sikhim ; KhIsis (Hampson); Central 
and Western China. 

Genus Orybina. 

Oryba, Walker, xxvii, p. 10 (1863), preocc. 
Orybina, Snell., Tijd. Ent., 1894, p. 5. 



432 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

1741. Orybina regalis. 
Oryba regalis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 71, pi. iv, fig. 9 (1889). 

The type, a male, was taken by myself at Gensan in 
July, and one example taken in June has been received 
from Kiukiang. 

Distribution. Corea ; Central China. 

Subfamily HYDROG AMPIN JS. 
Genus Nymphula. 

Schrank ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 191 

(1896). 

1742. Nymphula interruptalis. 

Hydrocampa interruptalis, Pryer, Cist. Ent., ii, p. 233, 

pi. iv, fig. 5 (1877). 
Hydrocampa nigrolinealis, Pryer, 1. c, fig. 6. 
Hydroeampa inter ruvtalis, var. separatalis, Leech, Entom., 

xxii, p. 71, pi. iv, figs. 2, 13 (1889). 

The type of N. interruptalis was from Shanghai. I have 
specimens of the typical form from Hakodate, Fushiki, 
Gensan, Ichang, and Omei-shan; and examples of the 
nigrolinealis = separatalis form from Gensan, Omei-shan, 
Ta-chien-lu, Chow-pin-sa, and Chia-kou-ho. The latter 
occurs in May and June, and the former in July and 
August, probably distinct broods. 

Distribution. Japan ; Yesso ; Corea ; Eastern, Cen- 
tral, and Western China. 

1743. Nymphula, fengwhanalis. 

Lepyrodes fengtuhanalis, Pryer, Cist. Ent., ii, p. 235, pi. iv, 
fig. 11 (1877). 

Type from Feng-whan-shan (hills) near Shanghai. I 
obtained one specimen at Tsuruga in July, and I have 
received ten others from Ichang, where they were captured 
in June, July, and August, the bulk of them in the latter 
month. 

In the Tsuruga example the space between the central 
lines on the secondaries is entirely white, whilst in one 
example from Ichang this space is dark with very small 
white spots. 

Distribution. Eastern and Central China; Japan. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 433 

1744. Nymphula floralis. 

Lcparodcs floralis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 71, pi. iv, fig. 1 

(1889). 

One male example from Tsuruga and one from Fushiki, 
both obtained by myself in July. 
HaUtat. Japan. 

1745. Nymphula foedalis. 

Isopteryx foedalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyral., p. 228, pi. iv, 

fig. 7 (1854). 
Nymphula foedalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 192 (1896). 

I took a specimen in Foochau in April, and my collector 
obtained two others at Ningpo in Jane and July. 

Distribution. Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian 
Regions {Hampson) ; Eastern China. 

1746. Nymphula turbata. 

Paraponyx turbata, Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1881, 
p. 586. 

Type was from Yokohama. 

One female specimen was obtained by a native collector 
at Nikko. 

HaUtat. Japan. 

1747. Nymphula sinicalis. 

Nymphula sinicalis, Hampson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1897, 
p. 141. 

Described from Chekiang. 
Habitat. Eastern China. 

1748. Nymphula crisonalis. 

Hydrocampa crisonalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xix, p. 961 

(1859). 
Paraponyx hcbraicalis, Snell., Tijd. Ent., xxiii, p. 240 

(1880); xxvii, pi. iv, fig. 11 (1884). 
Nymphula crisonalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 192 (1896). 

Distribution. Chekiang, China ; Ceylon ; Java ; Ce- 
lebes; Australia {Hampson). 



434 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

1749. Nymphula incurvalis, sp. n. 

Primaries white suffused with pale ochreous brown, a black dot in 
the cell, one below the median nervure and near the base of the wing, 
and a lunule at end of the cell ; postmedial line pale brown, diffuse, 
interrupted, deeply bent under end of the cell ; submarginal line pale 
brown, diffuse, indented between veins 1 and 2 and expanding towards 
the costa. Secondaries white suffused with pale ochreous brown on 
outer half ; a black dot at end of the cell and one beyond, a black dot 
the submedian interspace, and two short black lines on middle of 
abdominal margin ; the abdomen is also marked with black at this 
point. Fringes white, dotted with black, and preceded by two blackish 
lines, the inner crenulate, and on the secondaries receding from the 
outer margin as it approaches its termination on the abdominal 
margin. Under surface white suffused with pale ochreous, black spots 
of upper surface faintly reproduced. 

Expanse £ 16 millim. $ 20 millim. 

Six specimens from Ichang. August. 
Allied to N. diminutalis, Snell. 

R. S. 

1750. Nymphula responsalis. 

Nymphula responsalis, Walk. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., 
Moths, iv, p. 192 (1896). 
Distribution. Japan; throughout India, Ceylon, and 
Burma ; Australia (Hampson). 

1751. Nymphula vittalis. 

Oligostigma vittalis, Brem., Lep. Ost.-Sib., p. 66, pi. vi, 

fig. 3 (1864). 
Oligostigma regnlaris, Pryer, Cist. Ent., ii, p. 234, pi. iv, 

fig. 8 (1877). 

Type of regularis from Shanghai. I have one specimen 
taken by myself at Gensan iu July, and one from Chang- 
yang, taken in May. 

Distribution. Amurland ; Eastern and Central 
China; Corea. 

Genus Cataclysta. 

Htibn. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 196 

(1896). 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 435 

1752. Cataclysta blandialis. 

Gataclysta blandialis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xvii, p. 448 
(1859) ; Moore, Lep. CeyL, iii, pi. clxxix, fig. 15 (1887) ; 
Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 197 (1896). 

There was a specimen in Pryer's collection, and my 
native collector obtained one in the island of Kiushiu. 

Distribution. Dharmsala; Calcutta; Bombay; Nil- 
giris ; Ceylon ; Borneo ; Amboina (Hampson) ; Japan ; 
Kiushiu. 

1753. Cataclysta midas. 

Cataclysta midas, Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1881, p. 585. 

Type from Tokio. 

One specimen in Pryer's collection ; I obtained one 
example at Gensan in June, and my native collector took 
others in the island of Kiushiu. Three specimens were 
received from Chang-yang. 

Distribution. Japan; Kiushiu; Corea; Central China. 



Genus Musotima. 

Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 288 ; Hampson, 
Moths, iv, p. 199 (1896). 

1754. Musotima nubilalis, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 27.) 

Primaries light ocbreous brown, basal and snbbasal dots black, a 
short white streak on the median nervure from the base to a black 
dot placed below the subbasal dot ; antemedial line black, deeply 
elbowed below the discal mark, externally edged with whitish, the 
area beyond the postmedial line clouded with blackish ; a white 
apical mark and a black marginal line marked with white. 
Secondaries ochreous brown, basal area white, a black dot at the 
base, and a dusky, oblique, subbasal line ; ante- and postmedial lines 
black, the latter outwardly marked with white and sharply elbowed 
above the middle ; a black discoidal mark ; submarginal band white, 
macular, followed by a black line and an orange band. Fringes black 
tipped with white. 

Expanse 19 millim. 

One specimen taken in August at Chang-yang. 
Habitat. Central China. 

R. S. 



436 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Genus Oligostigma. 
Guenee, Delt. and Pyral., p. 260 (1854). 

1755. Oligostigma corculina. 

Oligostigma corculina, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 75, 
pi. lix, ftg. 7 (1879). 

Type from Yokohama. 
Habitat. Japan. 

1756. Oligostigma insectale. 

Oligostigma insectalis, Pryer, Cist. Ent., ii, p. 234, pi. iv, 
fig. 7 (1877). 

Type from Shanghai. 
Habitat. Eastekn China. 

1757. Oligostigma bifurcate. 

Gataclysta bifurcalis, Pryer, Cist. Ent., ii, p. 232, pi. iv, fig. 4 

(1877). 
Oligostigma bifurcate, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Inch, Moths, 

iv, p. 212 (1896). 

Type from the Snowy Valley, near Ningpo. 
Distribution. Chekiang, China ; Khasis ; Shan States 
(Hampson). 

Genus Aulacodes. 

Guen. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 212 

(1896). 

1758. Aulacodes peribocalis. 

Cataclysta peribocalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xvii, p. 446 

(1859). 
Cataclysta halialis, Walk., 1. c., p. 447. 
Cataclysta sabrina, Pryer, Cist. Ent., ii, p. 232, pi. iv, fig. 3 

(1877). 
Aulacodes peribocalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 215 (1896). 

The type of halialis, Walk., was from China, and that 
of sabrina, Pryer, from the Snowy Valley, near Ningpo. I 
have one example from the latter locality, two specimens 
from Kiukiang, and one from Chang-yang. Occurs in May, 
June, and July. 

Distribution. Aden; North-West Himalayas; Nil- 
giris ; Burma (Hampson) ; Central and Eastern China. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 437 

1759. Aidacodes sinensis. 

Aulacodes sinensis, Hampson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1897, 
p. 176. 

Described from Omei-shan. I have specimens from 
the original locality, also from Moupin, Chia-kou-ho, 
Chang-yang, and Ichang. Occurs in July. 

Habitat. Central and Western China. 

1760. Aulacodes laminalis. 
Aulacodes laminalis, Hampson, sp. n. 

Forewing of male without fovea in cell. 

Head white ; palpi black-brown, the base and extremity white ; 
thorax and legs rufous and white ; abdomen rufous with whitish 
bands and ventral stripe. Forewing fulvous-brown ; a brighter 
fulvous stripe below costa interrupted at middle by a black spot on a 
whitish patch ; oblique white basal and subbasal bands from middle 
of cell to inner margin ; an oblique quadrate patch in and below end 
of cell with a spot on inner margin below it and traces of a line 
beyond its outer edge ; a conical patch beyond the cell from below 
costa to vein 3 where its apex is turned inwards, and with traces of a 
line beyond it towards costa ; an orange terminal band with fine 
black line on its inner edge and white line before it, dentate inwards 
and ending above inner margin ; a terminal series of small black 
lunules ; cilia fuscous with a fine black line at base. Hindwing with 
the base white ; a brown-edged fulvous antemedial band followed by 
a white band narrowing to inner margin ; a brown-edged fulvous 
postmedial band expanding into an apical patch with curved silvery 
lnnule on it ; an orange terminal band from the apical patch with a fine 
black line on its inner edge and white line before it ; some white 
points on termen towards apex, two black points just above middle 
with white points on their outer side, then a fine black line ; cilia 
fuscous with a fine black line at base. 

Expanse 30-34 millim. Types in Coll. Eothschild and B. M. 

A fine series from Chang-yang, taken in May ; one ex- 
ample from Kiukiang and one from Ichang, both taken in 
July. 

Habitat. Central and Western China. 

G. F. H. 

Genus Parthenodes. 

Guen.; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 216 
(1896). 



438 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

1761. Parthenodes jprodigalis. 

Cataclysta prodigalis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 70, pi. iv, fig. 
16 (1889). 

I obtained this species at Tsuruga and Gensan in July ; 
and I have received specimens from Ichang, Chang-yang, 
Moupin, and the province of Kwei-chow. Occurs in June, 
July, and August. 

Distribution. Japan; Corea; Western and Central 
China. 

1762. Parthenodes distinctalis. 

Diasemia distinctalis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 67, pi. iv, fig. 
5 (1889). 

The type was obtained in the Snowy Valley, near 
Ningpo, in July by a native collector. I have received 
specimens from Chang-yang, Ichang, and the province of 
Kwei-chow, some of which were taken in May and others 
in July and August. Some examples have the discal 
markings of primaries obscured by the ground colour. 
The Central and Western specimens are generally larger 
than the type. 

Habitat. Central, Eastern, and Western China. 

1763. Parthenodes sutschana. 

Parthenodes sutschana, Hampson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1900, p. 384. 

Two specimens from Ichang and one from Gensan. 
August. 
Distribution. Corea ; Central China. 

1764. Parthenodes triangulalis, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 26.) 
Pale brownish-grey with white markings outlined in dark brown. 
Primaries have a white triangular mark, its base on the middle of 
inner margin and the apex surmounted by a white dot ; a spot beyond 
the cell outwardly bordered by a white line ; submarginal line white, 
interrupted. Secondaries have the central third white, enclosing a 
brown spot, tapering to a point on the inner margin ; submarginal 
line white, interrupted. Fringes whitish, marked with darker at the 
tips and preceded by a blackish line. Under surface as above but 
rather paler. 

Expanse 22 millim. 

One male specimen from Moupin, taken in June. 
Habitat. Western China. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 439 

1765. Parthenodes stellata. 

Paracymoriza stellata, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

(6) xvii, p. 203 (1896). 
Parthenodes stellata, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 217 (1896). 

One example taken in June at Ichang. 
Distribution. Khasis; Central China. 

1766. Parthenodes pallidalis, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 29.) 

White clouded and suffused with pale brown. Primaries have a 
blackish dot at the outer extremity of cell ; antemedial line brownish, 
slightly elbowed below the costa, thence nearly straight to the inner 
margin ; postmedial line brownish, outwardly oblique to vein 3, 
retracted to lower angle of cell, thence sinuous to the inner margin ; 
a browirish submarginal band almost touching the postmedial line at 
vein 3. Secondaries have a brown antemedial line from the discoidal 
dot to vein 2 ; a black patch on the outer margin between veins 2 
and 7 with a connected series of white lunules and some metallic 
dots upon it, the latter on the outer margin. Under surface whitish, 
markings obscure. 

Expanse 19 millim. 

One female specimen from Ichang taken in July. 
Habitat. Central China. 

Genus Bradina. 

Led. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 206 

(1896). 

1767. Bradina atropalis. 

Botys atropalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 664 (1859). 
Botys damasalis, Walk., 1. c, p. 668. 

Both atropalis and damasalis types were from Shanghai. 
I obtained specimens at Nagasaki in June, and at Fus- 
hiki and Nagahama in July ; I have also specimens taken 
at Chang-yang in June and in the Ichang Gorge in 
August. 

Distribution. Eastern and Central China ; Japan ; 

KlUSHIU. 

1768. Bradina megesalis. 

Botys megesalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 663 

(1859). 



440 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Described from North China. 

I received a number of specimens from Ichaog and 
Chang-yang, one example from Kiukiang, and two from 
Moupin. There was one specimen in poor condition in 
Pryer's collection. 

Distribution. Japan ; North, Central, and Western 
China. 

1769. Bradina rectilinealis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 1.) 

Primaries brown tinged with fuscous, a black discal spot ; post- 
medial line dusky, straight, terminating on the inner margin one- 
third from the outer angle. Secondaries fuscous, paler on costal area. 
Fringes whitish, fuscous grey at their base. 

Expanse 32 millim. 

Two specimens from Moupin, two from Chang-yang, and 
three from Ichang. 

Habitat. Central and Western China. 

Near B. translinealis, Hampson, but the postmedial line 
is placed further from the outer margin and it is bent out- 
wards above the inner margin. Secondaries are without 
marking, or with only faint traces of a transverse line. 

R S. 

1770. Bradina admixtalis. 

Botys admixtalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 665 

(1859). 
Bradina admixtalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 227 (1896). 

Distribution. Natal. — Japan ; throughout India, Cey- 
lon, and Burma ; Perak {Hampson). 

1771. Bradina nigripunctalis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 25.) 

Palpi, head, thorax and abdomen pale buff marked with black. 
Primaries pale buff merging into pale tawny on the outer marginal 
area ; a black subbasal spot on the median nervure, and one below 
it on the inner margin. Two black spots, separated by the median 
nervure, represent a curved antemedial band ; a black spot in the cell 
and one at end, a black spot on costa, one opposite end of cell, and 
one on the inner margin represent a curved postmedial band. 
Secondaries agree in colour with the primaries, and have a central 
black spot and also one on the inner margin. Fringes grey, becom- 
ing whitish towards the inner angle of primaries and the anal angle 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 441 

of secondaries. Under surface similar to above, but the central spot 
of the secondaries extends to vein 8. 
Expanse 28 millim. 

One $ specimen from Chia-ting-fu taken by a native 
collector in June or July. 
Habitat. Western China. 

R. S. 

Genus Luma. 

Walk.; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 229 
(1896). 

1772. Luma ornatalis. 

Zebronia ornatalis, Leech, En torn., xxii, p. 71, pi. iv, fig. 12 
(1889). 

My native collector obtained three specimens at Ningpo 
in June and I obtained one example at Foochow in April. 
I also received nine specimens from Chang-yang, and one 
from Moupin ; these were taken in June, and are much 
larger than the others. 

Habitat. Eastern, Central, and Western China; 
Assam. 

1773. Luma sericea. 

Deana sericea, Butl., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) iv, p. 

451 (1879). 
Luma sericea, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 

229 (1896). 

I obtained a specimen at Tsuruga in July, and have 
received others from Chang-yang, Ichang, and the isle of 
Kiushiu. 

Distribution. Khasis; Shan States {Hampson)-, Japan; 
Kiushiu; Central China. 

Genus Diathrausta. 
Lederer, Wien. Ent. Mon., 1863, p. 438. 

1774. Diathrausta plumbealis. 

Syntomodora plumbealis, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

(6) xviii, p. 174 (1896). 
Diathrausta plumbealis, Hampson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 

1897, p. 206. 



442 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

One specimen from Pu-tsu-fong, and one from Chow- 
pi n-sa. June. 

Distribution. Assam; Western China. 

1775. Diathrausta picata. 

Danaga picata, ButL, 111. Typ. Lep. Het., vii, p. 94, pi. 

cxxxiv, fig. 17 (1889). 
Diathrausta picata, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 234 (1896). 

I obtained one specimen at Ningpo in April, three in 
Nagasaki in May, and one at Fushiki in July. 

Distribution. Dharmsala ; Eastern China ; Kiushiu ; 
Japan. 

Genus Diathraustodes. 
Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 233 (1896). 

1 7 76. Diathraustodes fulvofnsa. 

Diathraustodes ftdvofusa, Hampson, sp. n. 

<$ . Palpi fuscous, white at base and tips ; frons whitish ; antenna?, 
vertex of head, and thorax fulvous and fuscous ; abdomen fuscous 
tinged with fulvous ; pectus, legs and ventral surface whitish. Fore- 
wing fuscous suffused with fulvous to the postmedial line and apex ; 
a curved antemedial line ; an oblique pure white triangular patch on 
costa extending down to vein 5 on inner side of postmedial line, 
which is bent inwards below vein 3. Hindwing greyish -fuscous ; a 
dark postmedial line excurved between veins 5 and 3, then bent 
inwards ; cilia of both wings black at base, white at tips. Underside 
of inner and terminal areas of forewing and of the whole hindwing 
grey. 

Expanse 18 milliin. Type in Coll. Rothschild. 



G. F. H. 



One specimen taken at Ichang in July. 
Distribution. Khasis; Central China. 



Genus PlLETOCERA. 

Led.; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 236 
(1896). 

1777. Piletocera sodalis. 

Desmia sodalis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 71, pi. iv, fig. 6 
(1889). 



Keterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 443 

Obtained in Satsuma in May, and at Nagasaki in June; 
I have also received examples from Mr. Manley of Yoko- 
hama, and my native collector took the species at Ningpo 
and at Nikko. There were specimens in Pryer's collection. 

Distribution. Japan ; Kiushiu ; Eastern China. 

1778. Piletocera xgimiusalis. 

Desmia segi-miusalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xix, p. 929 

(1859). 
Piletocera segimiusalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 236 (1896). 

Two male specimens taken in Kiushiu by my native 
collector. 

Distribution. Sikhim ; Khasis; Margharita; Assam; 
Andamans ; Borneo ; Mysol (Hampson) ; Kiushiu. 

1779. Piletocera chrysorycta. 

Piletocera chrysorycta, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1884, 
p. 320. 
One specimen from Kiushiu and one from Ta-chien-lu. 
Distribution. Australia ; Kiushiu ; Western China. 

Genus Camptomastyx. 
Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 238 (1896). 

1780. Camptomastyx hisbonalis. 

Botys hisbonalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 707 

(1859). 
Botys pacalis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 69, pi. iv, fig. 15 

(1889). 
Camptomastyx pacalis, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

(6) ix, p. 439 (1892). 
Diplotyla longipalpis, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., vii, p. 95, 

pi. cxxxv, fig. 4 (1889). 
Camptomastyx hisbonalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 239 (1896). 

The type, a female, of " Botys " pacalis was taken in the 
Snowy Valley, near Ningpo, in April, and one specimen, 
taken in May, was received from Kiukiang. 

Distribution. China; Simla; Dharmsala; Khasis; 
Nagas; Borneo (Hampson); Eastern and Central 
China. 

trans, ent. soc. lond. 1901. — part iv. (dec.) 30 



444 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Genus Clupeosoma. 

Clupeosoma, Snell., Tijd. Ent., xxii, p. 203 (1880). 
Hydrorybina, HampsoD, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 
239 (1896). 

1781. Clupeosoma pryeri. 

Anemosa pryeri, Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1881, p. 
588. 

Type from Yokohama. 

I took one specimen at Nagasaki in May. 

Habitat. Japan and Kiushiu. 

Genus Psammous. 
Htibn.; Hampson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1897, p. 219. 

1782. Psammotis lancealis. 

Pyralis lancealis, Schiff., Wien. Verz., p. 121. 
Pyralis glabralis, Hubn., Pyral., fig. 117. 
Perinephila glabralis, Htibn., Verz. Schmett., p. 357. 
Botys lancealis, Guen., Delt. and Pyral., p. 338. 
Psammotis lancealis, Hampson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1897, p. 220. 

One specimen from Yokohama in Pryer's collection, 
one example received from Chia-kou-ho, and one from 
Moupin. 

Distribution. Europe. — Japan; Western China. 

Genus Eurrhypara. 
Hubner, Verz. Schmett., p. 360 (1827). 

1783. Eurrlnypara urticata. 

Phaltena urticata, Linn., Faun. Suec, 1297. 

Pyralis urticalis, Htibn., Pyral., fig. 78. 

Eurrhypara urticalis, Htibn., Verz. Schmett., p. 360 

(1827). 
Botys urticalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyral., p. 342. 

My collectors met with this species commonly at Wa- 
shan in May and June ; they also obtained specimens at 
Ta-chien-lu and Pu-tsu-fong in June and July. These 
examples are generally larger than European specimens. 

Distribution. Europe. — Central and Western China. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 445 

Genus Mabra. 

Mabra, Moore, Lep. Ceyl., iii, p. 280 (1885). 
Neophruda, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) xvii, p. 
463 (1896). 

1784. Mabra charonialis. 

Asojpia charonialis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xvii, p. 372 

(1859). 
Stenia dissipatalis, Christ., Bull. Mosc, 1881, i, p. 28. 

The type of charonialis was from Shanghai. 

There were some specimens in Pryer's collection. I took 
examples at Gensan in June, and have received others from 
Ichang, Chang-yang, Moupin, and Ta-chien-lu. 

Distribution. Amurland; Japan; Corea ; Central, 
Eastern, and Western China. 

Subfamily SCOPABIINJS. 
Genus Scoparia. 
Haworth, Lep. Brit., p. 498 (1811). 

1785. Scoparia ambigualis. 
Eudorea ambigualis, Treit., Schmett., Eur., vii, p. 184. 

One specimen from the island of Kiushiu, taken by a 
native collector. The outer line is less angled than usual 
in this species, and the dark shading following the line is 
not interrupted. 

Distribution. Europe. — North- West Africa; Kiushiu. 

1786. Scoparia truncicolella. 

Endorea truncicolella, Stainton, Man., ii, p. 161. 

Three specimens from Pu-tsu-fong, taken in July, and 
one from Nemoro, obtained in August. 
Distribution. Europe. — Western China; Japan. 

1787. Scoparia murijicalis. 

Scoparia murijicalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xix, p. 826 ; 
Hampson, 111. Typ. Lep. Het., ix, pi. clxxiv, fig. 10. 

One specimen from Pu-tsu-fong, taken in July. 
Distribution. North- West Himalayas; Western 
China. 



446 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

1788. Scoparia congestalis. 

Scoparia congestalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xix, p. 826 ; 
Hampson, 111. Typ. Lep. Het., ix, pi. clxxiv, fig. 2. 

Two specimens from Chang-yang, June and August, and 
one from Ta-chien-lu, May or June. 

Distribution. North- West Himalayas ; Central and 
Western China. 

1789. Scoparia vinotinctalis. 

Scoparia vinotinctalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 
iv, p. 244 (1896). 

One female specimen taken at Mo u pin in June. Four 
examples, including both sexes, were obtained at Chang- 
yang ; two of them have the markings much obscured. 

Distribution. Nilgiri Plateau (Hampson); Central 
and Western China. 

Somewhat similar to S. cembrm, Haw., but distinguished 
by the more oblique antemedial line. 

Subfamily PYBAUSTIN^. 

Genus Entephria. 

Led. ; Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1898, p. 618. 

1790. Entephria jaguaralis. 

Pycnarmon jaguaralis, Guen. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., 
Moths, iv, p. 256 (1896). 

Var. chinensis, nov. (Plate XIV, fig. 2.) 

One female specimen from Wa-shan, taken in June, differs from 
typical examples in having a black line on the primaries, from vein 5 
to inner margin, instead of a round black spot ; the marginal line is 
broader, and the apical spot is merged in it ; the secondaries are 
without orange markings. 

Expanse 20 millim. 

No other example of the species was received from China, 
or from Japan. 

Distribution. Dharmsala; Sikhim; Assam; Malacca; 
Celebes ; Mysore ; Waigiou ; New Guinea ; Solomons 
(Hampson); Western China. 

R S. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 447 

1791. Entephria caberalis. 

Spilomela caberalis, Guen., Delt. and PyraL, p. 284 (1854). 
Zebronia abdicalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xvii, p. 480. 
Conchylodes abdicalis, Led., Wien. Ent. Moil, vii, p. 443, pi. 

xvii., fig. 12 (1863). 
Conchylodes corycialis, Snell., Tijd. Ent., xxii, p. 237 (1880), 

xxvii, p. 44, pi. iv, fig. 6 (1884). 
Pycnarrnon caberalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 258 (1896). 
Entephria cribrata, Fabr. ; Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1898, p. 619. 

I obtained specimens at Foochow in April and at Gensan 
in July. I have also received examples from Ichang, taken 
in June and July. 

Distribution. China ; Fokmosa ; throughout India, 
Ceylon, and Burma ; Pulo Laut ; Borneo ; Java ; 
Celebes; Flores; Sumbawa; Fiji {Hampson)) Corea; 
Central China. 

1792. Entephria lactiferalis. 

Zebronia (?) lactiferalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xvii, p. 480 

(1859). 
Zebronia argyria, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 76, pi. 

lix, fig. 9 (1879). 
Conchylodes paucipunctalis, Snell., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 

1890, p. 633, pi. xix, fig. 2. 
Pycnarrnon lactiferalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

p. 259 (1896). 
Entephria lactiferalis, Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1898, p. 620. 

Type of argyria, Butl, was from Hakodate. I have 
eight specimens from Moupin, taken in August. 

Distribution. Japan; North-West Himalayas; Cey- 
lon ; Burma ; Pulo Laut ; Borneo ; Celebes {Hamp- 
son) ; Western China. 

1793. Entephria serif eralis. 

Conchylodes serif cralis, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 
p. 618. 



448 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Pycnarmon serif eralis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 529 (1896). 
Entephria serif eralis, Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1898, 

p. 620. 

I obtained examples of this species in Satsuma in May, 
at Fusan in June, and at Gensan in July ; there was one 
specimen in Pryer's collection. 

Distribution. Sikhim; Andamans (Hampson); Kiushiu; 

COREA. 

1794. Entephria radiata. 

Aripana radiata, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) 
xviii, p. 169 (1896). 

I have two specimens from Chang-yang, one taken in 
May, and the other in June. 

Distribution. Khasis ; Central China. 

1795. Entephria pantherata. 

Crocidophora pantherata, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., ii, p. 59, 
pi. xxxix, fig. 10 (1878). 

Type from Yokohama. There were specimens in Pryer's 
collection ; I obtained the species in Satsuma in May, at 
Nagasaki in June, and at Shimonoseki and Ningpo in 
July. Some examples, taken in June, were received from 
Chang-yang. 

Distribution. Japan ; Kiushiu ; Eastern and Central 
China. 

1796. Entephria tylostegalis. 

Entephria tylostegalis, Hampson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1900, p. 385, pi. iii, fig. 6. 

Two specimens from Chang-yang. May and June. 
Distribution. Amurland; Western China (Hampson) ; 
Central China. 

Genus Rehimena. 
Walk. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit, Ind., Moths, iv, p. 261 (1896). 

1797. Rehimena phrynealis. 

Botys phrynealis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 630 (1859). 
Rehimena phrynealis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 
iv, p. 261 (1896). 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 449 

One example from Chang-yang, taken in May. 
Distribution. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma; 
Borneo (Hampson) ; Central China. 

1798. Rehimena straminealis, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 21.) 

Primaries pale straw colour, rather darker on the costa, a black dot 
in the cell and a hook-shaped mark below it on the inner margin, a 
black spot at end of the cell ; postmedial band indicated by short 
black streaks on veins 1 — 7. Secondaries have black streaks on 
veins 2 — 7 heavier than those on the primaries, some black specks 
between veins 1 and 2, and a black cloud on outer margin near the 
apex. Fringes pale, preceded by a brownish line. Under surface as 
above, but the streaks on the venation are very faint. 

Expanse 19 millim. 

One male specimen taken at Chang-yang in May. 
Habitat. Central China. 

R. S e 

Genus Zinckenia. 
Zell.; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 262 (1896). 

1799. Zinckenia fascia lis. 

Pyralis fascialis, Cram., Pap. Exot., iv, pi. cccxcviii. fig. 

(1782). 
Phaleena recurvalis, Fabr., Ent. Syst., p. 237 (1793). 
Hymenia diffascialis, Hlibn., Verz. Schmett., p. 361. 
Hydrocampa albifascialis, BoiscL, Faun. Ent. Madag., p. 

119, pi. xvi, fig. 1 (1833). 
Zinckenia fascialis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 262 (1896). 

Cramer's type was from Japan. 

I took specimens at Gensan in July, and have received 
others from the island of Kiushiu and from Ichang. There 
were some examples in Pryer's collection. 

Distribution. Neotropical and Ethiopian Regions; 
Pal^e arctic Asia from Syria to Japan ; the whole 
Oriental and Australian Regions (Hampson). 

Genus Eurrhyparodes. 
Snellen, Tijd. v. Ent., 1880, p. 215. 

1800. Eurrhyparodes bracteolalis. 
Botys bracteolalis, Zell., Lep. Caffr., 1852, p. 30. 



450 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Isqpteryx accessalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xvii, p. 405 (1859). 
Eurrhyparodes accessalis, Moore, Lep. Ceyl., iii, p. 294, pi. 

clxxix, fig. 6 (1885). 
Eurrhyparodes stibialis, Snell., Tijd. Ent., xxiii, p. 216 

(1880), xxvi, p. 134, pi. viii, fig. 3 (1883). 
Eurrhyparodes bracteolalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., 

Moths, iv, p. 264 (1896) ; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1898, 

p. 626. 

There was one specimen in Pryer's collection, and I have 
others from Nagahama, Fushiki, Satsuma, and Kiushiu. 

Distribution. Western and Southern Africa. — Japan ; 
China ; throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Java ; 
Celebes ; Australia ; New Hebrides {Sampson) ; 
Kiushiu. 



1801. Eurrhyparodes leechi, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 15.) 

Dark grey with white markings. Primaries have a white dot 
about the middle of cell and a large patch of the same colour at end of 
the cell, the latter enclosing a round spot of the ground colour. Post- 
medial line white, curved and recurved, interrupted about the middle ; 
this is preceded by an irregular-shaped white blotch extending from 
just below the costa to vein 2 ; some white flecks below the cell and 
vein 2, and others on the outer margin. Secondaries have a blackish 
subbasal spot ; the basal two-thirds white suffused with dark grey at 
the base ; the outer limits of this white area is traversed by a sinuous 
dark grey band, which has an inward projection below the middle, 
and is continued along the abdominal margin ; outer third dark 
grey with some white flecks on the margin. Fringes grey, tipped 
with white, entirely white at the angles, traversed by a dark grey 
line, and preceded by a black one. 

Expanse 36 millim. 

Specimens were received from Moupin, Wa-shan, Ta- 
chien-lu, Chia-kou-ho, Chow-pin-sa, Chia-ting-fu, the pro- 
vince of Kwei-chou, and Chang-yang. June and July. 

Habitat. Central and Western China. 

R. S. 

Genus Heterocnephes. 

Led. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 265 
(1896). 



Heterocera from 'China, Japan, and Corea. 451 

1802. ITeterocnephes luhricosa. 

Charitoprepes luhricosa, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

(6) xvii, p. 136 (1896). 
Heterocnephes luhricosa, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 265 (1896). 

One specimen from Chang-yang, taken in May. 
Distribution. Khasis {Hampson) ; Central China. 

Genus Agrotera. 

Schrank; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 266 
(1896). 

1803. Agrotera nemoralis. 

Phalsena nemoralis, Scop., Ent. Carn., p. 242 (1763). 
Pyralis nemoralis, Hubn., Pyral., fig. 100. 

There were some examples in Pryer's collection. I took 
specimens at Nagasaki and Gensan, in May and June, and 
my native collector obtained others in the island of 
Kiushiu. 

Distribution. Europe. — Japan; Kiushiu; Corea. 

1804. Agrotera leucostola. 

Agrotera leucostola, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 
p. 268 (1896). 

One specimen from Chang-yang, taken in May ; one 
example from Ichang, obtained in July. 

Distribution. Sikhim ; Nagas [Hampson) ; Central 
China. 

Genus Pagyda. 

Walker, Cat. Lep. Het., xvii, p. 487 (1859). 

1805 and 1806. Pagyda salvalis. 

Pagyda salvalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xvii, p. 487 (1859). 
Botys arbiter, ButL, 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 77, pi. lix, 
fig. 13 (1879). 



452 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Pagyda salvalis, Moore, Lep. Ceyl., iii, p. 314, pi. clxxxii, 
fig. 6 (1886) ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 
p. 270 (1896). 

Butler's type was from Yokohama. 

One specimen from Ichang, taken in June. 

Distribution. Japan'; Sikhim ; Western and Southern 
India ; Ceylon ; Burma ; Pulo Laut ; Borneo (Hamp- 
son) ; Central China. 

1807. Pagyda amphisalis. 
Botys amphisalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 661 (1859). 

Described from China. There were specimens in 
Pryer's collection. I obtained examples at Nagasaki in 
May, and at Hakodate in August ; my native collector 
took the species in the island of Kiushiu, and I have 
received specimens from Ichang and Moupin, the latter 
taken in June and July. 

Distribution. Japan ; Kiushiu ; Yesso ; Central and 
Western China. 

1808. Pagyda quadrilineata. 

Pagyda quadrilineata, Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1881, 
p. 586. 

Type from Yokohama. There were specimens in Pryer's 
collection, others were taken by native collector in Kiushiu 
and at Gensan in July ; I obtained the species at Naga- 
saki in May. 

Distribution. Japan; Kiushiu; Corea. 

Genus Cnaphalocrocis. 
Lederer, Wien. Ent. Mon., vii, p. 384 (1863). 

1809. Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. 

Salbia medinalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyral., p. 201 (1854). 
Botys rutilalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 665 (1859). 
Botys iolealis, Walk., 1. c, p. 666. 
Cnaphalocrocis iolealis (jolinalis), Led., Wien. Ent. Mon., 

vii, p. 385 (Godara), pi. xii, fig. 7. 
Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., 

Moths, iv, p. 275 (1896). 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Gorea. 453 

I obtained this species in Satsuma in May and at Gensan 
in July; my native collector took it in the island of 
Kiushiu ; there were specimens in Pryer's collection, and I 
have others from Ichang. 

Distribution. Japan ; throughout the Oriental and 
Australian Regions (Hampson) ; Kiushiu ; Corea ; 
Central China. 

Genus Marasmia. 
Led.; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths,iv, p. 275 (1896). 

1810. Marasmia exigua. 

Samea exigua, Butl., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) iv, 
p. 453 (1879). 

I took a specimen at Fushiki in July. 
Habitat. Japan. 

Genus Samea. 
Guenee, Delt. and Pyral., p. 193 (1854). 

1811. Samea (?) fumidalis. 

Samea fumidalis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 70, pi. iv, fig. 8 
(1889). 

Obtained at Nagasaki in May. 
Habitat. Kiushiu. 

Genus Syngamia. 

Guen. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 279 
(1896). 

1812. Syngamia falcidicalis. 

Asopia falcidicalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xvii, p. 370 

(1859). 
Syngamia falcidicalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 280 (1896). 

One specimen was received from Ta-chien-lu. This 
species is superficially very like Sylepta tricolor, Butl., for 
which it may very easily be mistaken. 



454 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Distribution. North-West Himalayas ; Khasis ; Nil- 
giris ; Ceylon {Hampson) ; Western China. 

Genus Bocchoris. 

Moore; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 281 
(1896). 

1813. Bocchoris onychinalis. 

Asopia onychinalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyral., p. 205 (1854). 
Zebronia (?) branrealis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xix, p. 971 

(1859). 
Bocchoris onychinalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 283 (1896). 

Five specimens taken in Satsuma in May and one at 
Gensan in July. 

Distribution. West Africa. — Aden ; throughout India, 
Ceylon, and Burma ; Borneo ; Australia {Hampson) ; 
Kiushiu; Corea. 

1814. Bocchoris adipalis. 

Botys adipalis, Led., Wien. Ent. Mon., 1863, p. 475, 

pi. xi, fig. 16. 
Bocchoris adipalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 286 (1896). 
Samea cuprinalis, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 615. 
Mimorista marginalis, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

(6) xviii, p. 114. 

I obtained one specimen in Satsuma in May. 
Distribution. Sikhim ; Khasis ; Ceylon ; Mergui ; 
Andamans ; Malacca ; Amboina {Hampson) ; Kiushiu. 

1815. Bocchoris aptalis. 

Botys aptalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxxiv, p. 1425 (1865). 
Samea usitata, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 74, pi. lix, 

fig. 3 (1879). 
Bocchoris aptalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 286. 

The type of usitata was from Yokohama. 
Distribution. Japan ; Khasis ; Mysol {Hampson). 

1816. Bocchoris inspersalis. 
Botys inspersalis, Zell., Lep. Caffr., 1852, p. 33, 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Oorea. 455 

Desmia afflidalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyral., p. 190, pi. v, 

fig. 4 (1854). 
Bocchoris inspersalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 284 (1896). 
Desmia stellaris, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 73, 

pi. lviii, fig. 15 (1879). 

I obtained this species in Satsuma in May, at Fushiki 
in July, and at Hakone in August. A native collector 
took specimens at Ningpo in June, also at Nikko, and I 
have received one example from Chang-yang, taken in 
June. There was one specimen in Pryer's collection. 

Distribution. Throughout Africa. — Aden ; Japan ; 
China; BhutXn; Nilgiris; Ceylon; Burma; Java 
(Hampson) ; Japan ; Kiushiu ; Eastern and Central 
China. 

Genus Nosophora. 

Led. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 288 
(1896). 

1817. Nosophora semitritalis. 

Analtes semitritalis, Led., Wien. Ent. Mon., vii, p. 407, 

pi. xiv, fig. 14 (1863). 
Nosophora semitritalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 291 (1896). 

Five specimens from Ichang and one from Kiushiu. 
June and July. 

Distribution. Sikhim; Pulo Laut; Amboina (Hamp- 
son)', Central China; Kiushiu. 

Genus Tyspanodes. 
Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) vii, p. 425 (1891). 

1818. Tyspanodes hypsalis. 

Tyspanodes hypsalis, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) 
vii, p. 426 (1891). 

Described from North China. 

One example taken by myself at Gensan in July, one 
received from Wa-shan, and one from Omei-shan, June 
and July. 

Distribution. Northern and Western China : Corea. 



456 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

1819. Tyspanodes striata. 

Astura striata, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 76, pi. lix, 
fig. 10 (1879). 

Type from Yokohama. There was one example in Pryer's 
collection, and two specimens were taken at Hakodate 
by native collector. I obtained the species at Nagasaki 
and in Satsuma in May, and at Gensan in July ; my native 
collector took specimens at Ningpo in June, and I have 
others from Ichang, Moupin, and Omei-shan. 

The Hakodate specimens are pale with very faint 
markings. 

Distribution. Japan; Kiushiu; Yesso; Cokea; East- 
ern, Central, and Western China. 

Genus Dichocrocis. 

Led.; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 305 
(1896). 

1820. Dichocrocis surusalis. 

Botys surusalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 695 (1859). 
Botys semifascialis, SnelL, Tijd. Ent., xxiii, p. 214 (1880); 

xxvi, p. 131, pi. vii, fig. 12 (1883). 
Dichocrocis surusalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 311 (1896). 

One example from Ichang Gorge taken in August. 
Distribution. Japan ; Ceylon ; Borneo {Hampson) ; 
Central China. 

1821. Dichocrocis punctiferalis. 

Astura punctiferalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyral., p. 320 (1854). 
Astura guttalalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxxiv, p. 1381 

(1865). 
Dichocrocis punctiferalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., 

Moths, iv, p. 307 (1896). 

I took specimens at Shimonoseki, Na.gahama, Fushiki, 
Tsuruga, and Gensan in July, and I have received one 
example from Chia-ting-fu taken in June or July. 

Distribution. China; throughout India, Ceylon, and 
Burma; the Malayan Sub-region and Australian 
Region {Hampson)) Japan; Corea; Western China. 



Heterocerct from China, Japan, and Corea. 457 

1822. Dichocrocis nelusalis. 

Botys nelusalis, Walk., Cat, Lep. Het., xviii, p. 685 (1859). 
Botys chlorophanta, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., ii, p. 58, 

pi. xxxix, fig. 8 (1878). 
Hedylepta straminea, Moore, Lep. Ceyl., iii, p. 278, pi. clxxx, 

fig. 5 (1885). 
Dichocrocis nelusalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 310 (1896). 
Dichocrocis renidata, Fabr. ; Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1898, p. 692. 

The type of u Botys" chlorophanta, Butl., was from 
Yokohama. I obtained examples in Satsuma in May, at 
Fushiki, and one at Gensan in July. Specimens were 
received from Ningpo, Ichang, Chang-yang, Kiukiang, and 
Chia-ting-fu. The species was represented in Pryer's 
collection. 

Distribution. Sikhim ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon ; Andamans ; 
Pulo Laut ; Borneo {Hampson) ; Kiushiu ; Japan ; 
Corea; Central, Eastern, and Western China. 

1823. Dichocrocis definita. 

Haritala definita, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., vii, p. 97, 

pi. exxxv, fig. 9 (1889). 
Dichocrocis definita, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 308 (1896). 

Two specimens from Chang-yang, May and June; one 
from Ichang and one from Chia-kou-ho, taken in July. 

Distribution. Dharmsala; Sikhim ; Khasis {Hamp- 
son) ; Central and Western China. 

Genus Charema. 
Moore, Lep. Atk, p. 218 (1888). 

1824. Charema noctescens. 

Charema noctescens, Moore, Lep. Atk., p. 218 (1888). 
Phryganodes noctescens, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 
p. 303 (1896). 

Specimens from Nikko, Shimonoseki, Satsuma, Gensan, 
Moupin, and Chia-ting-fu. Occurs in May, July, and 
August. 



458 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Distribution. Sikhim ; Khasis {Hampson) ; Japan ; 
Kiushiu; Corea; Western China. 

Genus Nacoleia. 

Walk. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 312 
(1896). 

1825. Nacoleia poeonalis. 

Botys pozonalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 639 (1859). 
Asopia misera, ButL, 111. Typ. Lep, Het., iii, p. 74, pi. lix, 

fig. 5 (1879). 
Acharana similis, Moore, Lep. Ceyl., iii, p. 286, pi. clxxx, 

fig. 12 (1885). 
Nacoleia poeonalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 313 (1896). 

Butler's type of misera was from Yokohama. 

Specimens were captured by myself in Satsuma in May, 
at Nagasaki and Fusan in June, and my collectors ob- 
tained others at Chang-yang. There were some examples 
in Pryer's collection. 

Distribution. Sierra Leone. — Japan; Sikhim ; Khasis; 
Nagas ; Ceylon ; East Pegu ; Shan States ; Borneo ; 
Java; Flores (Hampson); Kiushiu; Corea; Central 
China. 

1826. Nacoleia tristrialis. 

Botys tristrialis, Brem., Lep. Ost.-Sib., p. 68, pi. vi, fig. 7 

(1864). 
Hedyl&pta confusalis, Warr., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

(6) xvii, p. 98. 
Nacoleia tristrialis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 313 (1896). 

There was one example in Pryer's collection. I ob- 
tained specimens at Nagasaki in May, at Gensan in July, 
and my native collector took the species at Ningpo in 
July. Specimens were received from Ichang, Chang-yang, 
Moupin, Pu-tsu-fong, Wa-shan, Chia-ting-fu, Omei-shan, 
and Ta-chien-lu. The Chinese specimens are generally 
suffused with fuscous and are referable to var. confusalis, 
Warren. 

Distribution. Amurland ; Kiushiu ; Central, East- 
ern, and Western China. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 459 

1827. Nacoleia pallidinotalis. 
Nacoleia pallidinotalis, Hampson. 

Described from West China. 

I obtained a specimen in Satsuma in May, one at 
Gensan in July, and a third at Hakodate in August. One 
example was received from Ichang. 

Distribution. Kiushiu; Yesso ; Corea; Central and 
Western China. 

1828. Nacoleia mdgalis. 

Asopia mdgalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyral., p. 202, pi. vi, 

fig. 8 (1854). 
Nacoleia vulgalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 315 (1896). 

Two specimens from Chang-yang and one from Ichang. 
July and August 

Distribution. Neotropical, Ethiopian, and Oriental 
Kegions {Hampson) ; Central China. 

1829. Nacoleia diemenalis. 

Asopia diemenalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyral., p. 203 (1854). 
Botys ustalis, Led., Wien. Ent. Mon., 1863, pp. 375, 471, 

pi. x, fig. 14. 
Nacoleia diemenalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 316 (1896). 

One specimen from Omei-shan, taken in June or July. 

Distribution. South Africa. — Formosa ; Ceylon ; 
Burma ; Andamans ; Sumatra ; Java ; Celebes ; Fiji 
(Hampson)\ Western China. 

1830. Nacoleia fusalis. 

Thysanodesma fusalis, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

(6) xvii, p. 142 (1896). 
Nacoleia fusalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv., 

p. 318 (1896). 

Three specimens from Chang-yang and one from Ichang. 
June and July. 

Distribution. Assam; Central China. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART IV. (DEC.) 31 



460 Mr. J. H. Leech on 



1831. Nacoleia tampiusalis. 

Botys tampiusalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 704 

(1859). 
Botys ilusalis, Walk., 1. c, p. 705. 
Aplomastyx mimula, Hampson, 111. Typ. Lep. Het., viii, 

p. 138, pi. civ, fig. 23 (1891). 
Nacoleia tampiusalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 318 (1896). 

I obtained two specimens at Fushiki in July. 
Distribution. North- West Himalayas ; Sikhim ; Nil- 
giris ; Bokneo {Hampson) ; Japan. 



1832. Nacoleia immitndalis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 4.) 

Primaries fuscous-brown ; antemedial line black, slightly curved ; 
postmedial line black, oblique, bent inwards below the middle ; 
an oval ring in the cell and one at the end of the cell, the latter 
upright and the former oblique, an ochreous spot between the rings. 
Secondaries fuscous-brown, suffused with fuscous, and tinged with 
blackish on the outer area ; a blackish discoidal dot and line below 
it to the inner margin ; there are traces of a dusky postmedial line, 
space between the lines ochreous suffused with fuscous. Fringes 
ochreous, suffused with blackish about the middle, preceded by a 
black line. Under surface ochreous suffused with fuscous on the 
outer marginal areas, markings as above but less distinct. 

Expanse 18 millim. 

Six specimens from Chang-yang and one from Ichang. 
June and July. 
Habitat. Central China. 

RS. 

1833. Nacoleia ochrimaculalis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 28.) 

Primaries fuliginous-brown with the following pale ochreous 
markings — a spot on basal area placed below the median nervure, 
its outer edge extended to inner margin ; a spot in the cell between 
two blackish ones, a large spot beyond the cell, and a rounder one 
below it ; there are traces of an ochreous dot between large spot and 
end of cell. Secondaries pale ochreous on basal two-thirds and 
fuliginous-brown on outer third ; a black discoidal dot and a fuliginous- 
brown central transverse line ; the latter is sharply angled before 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 461 

the middle, and diffuse towards the inner margin. Under surface 
similar to above. 
Expanse 24 millim. 

One female specimen from Ichang, taken in July. 
Habitat. Centkal China. 

RS. 

1834. Nacoleia marionalis. 

Desmia (?) marionalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xix, p. 930 

(1859). 
Danaga biformis, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., vii, p. 94, pi. 

cxxxv, figs. 2, 3 (1889). 
Nacoleia marionalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 321 (1896). 

Two specimens from Chang-yang, taken in June, and 
one from Ichang, taken in July. 

Distribution. Dharmsala; Sikhim ; Burma ; Borneo 
{Hampson)-, Central China. 

1835. Nacoleia satsumalis, sp. n. 

Primaries ochreous suffused with blackish ; antemedial line black- 
ish, diffuse ; medial line black, diffuse from below the cell to the inner 
margin ; postmedial line black, outwardly edged with ochreous, com- 
mencing on the costa one-fifth from apex, and terminating at inner 
angle ; slightly bent inwards about the middle ; a black diffuse 
annulus in the cell and a black lunule at end of cell ; a square 
ochreous spot between the annulus and medial line ; some black 
marks on the costa, that nearest the postmedial ring-shaped ; sub- 
marginal line black with some dots of the same colour upon it. 
Secondaries ochreous, suffused with blackish ; postmedial line black, 
straight from costa to vein 6, outwardly oblique to vein 2 along 
which it turns inwards to just under the black discoidal dot, thence 
almost direct to abdominal margin ; submarginal line blackish. 
Fringes whitish-grey, blackish at their base. Under surface ochreous 
with traces of markings as above. 

Expanse 18 millim. 

One example taken in Satsuma by Mr. Leech in May 
1886; and one male specimen in Pryer's collection. There is 
a specimen under N. cyanealis, Walk., in the national 
collection at South Kensington. 

Habitat. Kiushiu, South Japan. 

R. S. 



462 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

1836. Nacoleia commixta. 

Samea commixta, Butl., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) iv, 

p. 453 (1879). 
Nacoleia commixta, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind.. Moths, iv, 

p. 322 (1896). 

One specimen from Hakodate, taken by myself in 
August ; there were some examples in Pryer's collection, 
and my native collector obtained the species in the island 
of Kiushiu. Two specimens were received from Ichang. 
This species seems to be a close ally of N. sibirialis, 
Mill. (Natural., 1879, p. 39), of which I have only seen 
the figure (Ann. Soc. Nat. Cannes, 1880, pi. viii, fig. 4). 

Distribution. Dharmsala; Nagas; Nilgiris; Ceylon 
{Hampson) ; Japan ; Kiushiu ; Yesso ; Central China. 

1837. Nacoleia maculalis, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 7.) 

Primaries fuliginous and marked with whitish ; the antemedial 
line blackish, oblique ; the postmedial line black with a large sinus 
below the middle. Secondaries whitish, the outer marginal area 
clouded with fuliginous, a central curved blackish line. 

Expanse 21 millim. 

Six specimens from Chang-yang, one from Omei-shan, 
and one from Moupin. June. Both sexes are represented. 

Habitat. Central and Western China. 

Closely allied to N. commixta, from which it chiefly 
differs in the form of the transverse lines of the primaries 
and the central line of the secondaries. 

R. S. 

1838. Nacoleia subargentalis. 

Botys subargentalis, Snellen, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 

1890, p. 579. 
Nacoleia subargentalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 312 (1896). 

Specimens from Pu-tsu-fong, Ni-ton, and Omei-shan. 
June and July. 
Distribution. Sikhim; Western China. 

Genus Goniorhynchus. 
Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 322 (1896). 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 463 

1839. Goniorhynchus butyrosa. 

Samea butyrosa, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 73, pi. lix, 
fig. 1 (1879). 

Type from Yokohama. 

I obtained specimens at Nagasaki in May, and have 
received others from Ichang and Chang-yang. There were 
also specimens in Pryer's collection. 

Distribution. Japan ; Kiushiu ; Central China. 

1840. Goniorhynchus exemplaris. 

Goniorhynchus exemplaris, Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1898, p. 705. 

Described from Japan. 

Genus Botyodes. 
Guenee, Deli and Pyral., p. 321 (1854). 

1841. Botyodes principalis. 

Botyodes principalis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 69, pi. iii, fig. 9 

(1889). 
Botyodes maculalis, Swinhoe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) 

xiv, p. 198 (1894). 

Taken by myself in Satsuma in May; my collectors 
obtained specimens at Ichang in August, and at Omei-shan 
and in the province of Kwei-chow in July. 

Distribution. Kiushiu ; Central and Western China ; 
Khasis. 

1842. Botyodes aurealis. 

Botyodes aurealis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 69, pi. iii, fig. 7 
(1889). 

One example of each sex taken by myself at Nagasaki 
in May. 
Habitat. Kiushiu. 

1843. Botyodes caldusalis. 

Botys caldusalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 651 (1859). 
Botyodes caldusalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 
iv, p. 327 (1896). 



464 Mr. J. H. Leech 



on 



Four specimens from Omei-shan taken in June or July. 
Distribution. Sikhim; Assam; Burma; Java (Samp- 
son); Western China. 

Genus Sylepta. 

Hiibn. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. IncL, Moths, iv, p. 328 
(1896). 

1844. Sylepta luctuosalis. 

Hyalitis luctuosalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyral., p. 290 (1854). 
Ebulea zelleri, Brem., Lep. Ost.-Sib., p. 70, pi. vi, fig. 12 

(1865). 
Hymenia erebina, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., ii, p. 57, pi. 

xxxix, fig. 1 (1878). 
Sylepta luctuosalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 340 (1896). 

I obtained this species at Nagasaki in May, at Fusan in 
June, and at Gensan in July. I have also specimens from 
Chang-yang, Ichang, and Ta-chien-lu. 

Distribution. Siberia ; Japan ; China; North-Western 
and Eastern Himalayas ; Andamans ; Borneo {Hamp- 
son) ; Kiushiu ; Corea ; Central and Western China. 

1845. Sylepta tricolor. 

Eymenia tricolor, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 75, pi. 
lix, fig. 6 (1879). 

Specimens were received from Chang-yang, Gensan, and 
Ningpo. 

Habitat. Japan; Corea; Central and Eastern 
China. 

1846. Sylepta segnalis. 

Coptobasis segnalis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 65, pi. iv, fig. 4 
(1889). 

I obtained this species at Nagasaki in June and at Gensan 
in July ; other specimens have been received from Yoko- 
hama, Chang-yang, and Ichang. 

Distribution. Japan; Kiushiu; Corea; Central 
China. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 465 

1847. Sylepta ningpoalis. 

Botys ninqpoalis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 68, pi. iii, fig. 1 
(1889). 

The type, a male, was taken in the Snowy Valley, near 
Ningpo, by a native collector in the month of July ; one 
specimen, taken in June, was received from Ichang. 

Habitat. Eastern and Central China. 



1848. Sylepta paucistrialis. 

Cyclarcha paucistrialis, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

(6) xvii, p. 139 (1896). 
Sylepta paucistrialis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 337 (1896). 

Three specimens, taken in June and Jul) 7 , at Ichang. 
Distribution. Bhutan ; Khasis {Hampson) ; Central 
China. 

1849. Sylepta maculalis. 

Botys maculalis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 67, pi. iii, fig. 11 
(1889). 

The type, a male, was taken in July at Tsuruga. Speci- 
mens were received from Chang-yang, Ichang, and Chia- 
ting-fu, taken in June and July. 

Distribution. Japan ; Central and Western China. 

1850. Sylepta aurantiacalis. 

Pyralis aurantiacalis, F. R., p. 213, pi. lxxv, fig. 3. 

Botys crocealis, Dup. Lep. Fr., viii, pt. 2, p. 365, pi. ccxxxv, 

Botys aurea, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 76, pi. lix, 

fig. 12 (1879). 
Hapalia fraterna, Moore, Lep. Ceyl., iii, p. 338, pi. clxxxiii, 

fig. 9. 
Sylepta aurantiacalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 337 (1896). 
Sylepta balteata, Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, 

p. 718. 

The type of " Botys " aurea, Butl., was from Yokohama ; 
I have specimens from Ningpo, Nagasaki, Hakone, Ichang, 



466 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Chang-yang, Moupin, Chia-ting-fu, and Gensan. Most of 
the specimens from Western China are pale in colour, and 
one from Gensan is much larger than any other example 
in the series. 

Distribution. Europe. — Throughout India, Ceylon, 
and Burma (Hampson) ; Japan ; Kiushiu ; Eastern, 
Central, and Western China ; Corea. 

1851. Sylepta pernitescens. 

Charema pernitescens, Swinhoe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

(6) xiv, p. 203 (1894). 
Pleuroptera fitscalis, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) 

xviii, p. 165 (1896). 
Sylepta pernitescens, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 337 (1896). 

Distribution. Japan; Khasis (Hampson). 

1852. Sylepta insignis. 

Botyodes insignis, Brit., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1881, p. 

587. 

Type from Tokio. 

One specimen received from Ichang and one from Chia- 
ting-fu. June and July. 
Distribution. Japan ; Central and Western China. 

1853. Sylepta costalis. 

Botyodes costalis, Moore, Lep. Atk., p. 221 (1888). 
Sylepta costalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 
p. 221 (1887). 

Specimens were received from Moupin, Omei-shan, Pu- 
tsu-fong, and Chia-ting-fu. Taken in June and July. 

Distribution. Sikhim ; Khasis (Hampson) ; Western 
China. 

1854. Sylepta sabinusalis. 

Botys sabinusalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 708 

(1859). 
Notarcha butyrina, Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1886, 

p. 260. * 
Notarcha dubia, Hampson, 111. Typ. Lep. Het., viii, p. 136, 

pi. civ, fig. 16 (1891). 



Heterocera from (Jkina, Japan, and Corea. 467 

Sylepta sabinusalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 
p. 333 (1896). 

There was a short series of rather pale examples in 
Pryer's collection. 

Specimens were taken by myself in Satsuma in May 
and June, at Tsuruga and Fushiki in July, and I have 
received others from Moupin, Ta-chien-lu, Wa-shan, Omei- 
shan, Ni-ton, Chang-yang, and Ichang. Occurs in China 
in June, July, and August. 

Distribution. North- West and Western Himalayas ; 
Khasis ; Karachi ; Bombay ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon ; 
Borneo ; Java ; Celebes ; Sumbawa ; New Britain ; 
Solomon Isles ; Fiji {Hampson) ; Japan ; Kiushiu ; 
Central and Western China. 



1855. Sylepta luteolalis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 18.) 

Whitish tinged with yellow. Primaries have a dusky lunule at 
end of the cell, and there are indications of a dusky postmedial line 
which appears to be excurved from costa to vein 2, thence direct to 
inner margin. Secondaries have a dusky median shade and post- 
medial line. Fringes greyish-white. Under surface whitish, slightly 
tinged with fuscous, markings as above. 

Expanse 34 millim. 

One example from Chia-kou-ho and one from Wa-shan. 
June and July. 

Habitat. Western China. 

Somewhat similar to S. sabinusalis, Walk., but the post- 
medial line is not so highly bent inwards. 

KS. 

1856. Sylepta invalidalis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 26.) 

Primaries pale ochreous brown, suffused with darker brown, except 
on the costa ; a spot in the cell and one at the end of cell blackish ; 
the space between spots pale ochreous brown ; ante- and postmedial 
lines blackish, the first oblique, the second outwardly edged witt 
the clear ground colour, slightly oblique and bluntly serrate to vein 
2 where it turns inwards to below end of the cell, thence sinuous 
to the inner margin. Secondaries rather more suffused with darker 
brown than the primaries ; discal spot and postmedial line blackish ; 
the latter rather sinuous and turned inwards for a short distance 
along vein 2. Fringes of all wings paler than the ground colour, 



468 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

preceded by a double blackish line ; the fringes of primaries are 
tinged with fuscous towards the apex. Under surface whitish suffused 
with fuscous, the spots and transverse lines of upper surface faintly 
reproduced. 

Expanse 24 millim. 

One female specimen taken in May at Ichang, an. 
example of the same sex from Chang-yang taken in June, 
and a third from Moupin obtained in August. 

Habitat. Central and Western China. 

RS. 

1857. Sylejpta fuscomarginalis 

Botys fuscomarginalis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 68, pi. iii, 
fig. 4 (1889). 

The type is from Hakone, where I obtained it in the 
month of August. I have also one specimen of the species 
from Moupin, taken in August. 

Distribution. Japan; Western China. 

1858. Sylepta ultimalis. 

Botys ultimalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 659 (1859). 
Sylepta ultimalis, Hampson, 111. Typ. Lep. Het., ix, 

pi. clxxii, fig. 8 (1893); Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 333 (1896). 

One specimen in Pryer's collection. 

Distribution. Ceylon ; Rangoon {Hampson) ; Japan. 

1859. Sylepta multilinealis. 

Botys multilinealis, Guen., Delt. and Pyral., p. 337, pi. viii, 

fig. 11 (1854). 
Zebronia salomealis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xvii, p. 476 

(1859). 
Botys basijpunctalis, Brem., Lep. Ost.-Sib., p. 68, pi. vi, 

fig. 8 (1864). 
Sylepta multilinealis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 334 (1896). 
Sylepta derogata, Hampson (part), Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1898, p. 722. 

I obtained this species in Satsuma in May, and at 
Fushiki and Gensan in July. Specimens were received 
from Chang-yang, Ichang, Moupin, Omei-shan, and the 
province of Kwei-chow. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 469 

Distribution. West Africa. — /Throughout India, 
Ceylon, and Burma; the Malayan Sub-regions and 
Australian Region (Hampson) ; Japan ; Kiushiu ; 
Corea ; Central and Western China. 

1860. Sylepta rhyparialis. 

Botys rhyparialis, Oberth., Etud. d'Entom., xviii, p. 45, 
pi. ii, fig. 26 (1893). 

Described from Ta-chien-lu. 

A fine series was received from Omei-shan taken in 
June and July. One example from Omei-shan and one 
from Ichang have the yellow colour replaced by white, 
except towards the base of primaries ; this form might 
be known as var. alba. 

Habitat. Central and Western China. 

1861. Sylepta iopasalis. 

Botys iopasalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 652 (1859). 
Sylepta iopasalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 
p. 334 (1896). 

Four specimens from Moupin, June ; one from Ichang, 
July. 

Basal and central areas clouded with purplish-brown. 

Distribution. Formosa ; Sikhim ; Assam ; Karachi ; 
Nilgiris; Ceylon; Burma; Andamans; Borneo; 
Amboina ; Sumbawa ; Timor Laut ; Australia {Hamp- 
son) ; Central and Western China. 

1862. Sylepta magna. 

Samea magna, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 74, pi. lix, 
fig. 2 (1879). 

Type from Hakodate. 

I obtained specimens at Gensan and Fushiki in July. 
My native collector took an example at Hakodate in June 
or July, and I have received others from Chang-yang 
which were captured in August. 

Distribution. Japan ; Yesso ; Corea ; Central China. 

1863. Sylepta defidens. 

Coptobasis deficiens, Moore, Lep. Ceyl., iii, p. 556, pi. ccxv, 
fig. 12 (1887). 



470 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Sylepta deficiens, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 
p. 387 (1896). 

I obtained specimens at Ningpo in April, in Satsuma in 
May, and have received others from Moupin and Omei-shan 
that were taken in June. 

Distribution. Dharmsala ; Sikhim ; Ceylon {Hamp- 
son) ; Kiushiu ; Eastern and Western China. 

1864. Sylepta inferior. 

Botys quadrimaculalis, Motsch., Etud. Ent., p. 37 (1860), 

preocc. 
Sylepta inferior, Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1898, 

p. 724. 

There were specimens in Pryer's collection ; I obtained 
examples in Satsuma in May, at Nagasaki in June, and at 
Gensan in July, and I received others from Ichang and 
Chang-yang. 

Distribution. Japan ; Kiushiu ; Corea ; Central 
China. 

1865. Sylepta quadrimaculalis. 

Scopula quadrimaculalis, Koll., Hug. Kasch., iv, p. 492. 
Goptobasis quadrimaculalis, Led., Wien. Ent. Mon., vii, 

p. 430, pi. xvi, fig. 12 (1863). 
Sylepta quadrimaculalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

p. 336 (1896). 

Specimens were received from Chang-yang, Ichang, 
Chia-ting-fu, Wa-shan, and Ta-chien-lu. Occurs in June, 
July, and August. 

Distribution. Japan ; North-West Himalayas ; Sik- 
him; Khasis; Borneo {Hampson)) Central and 
Western China. 

Genus Lygropia. 

Led.; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 341 
(1896). 

1866. Lygropia quaternalis. 

Botys quaternalis, Zell., K. Yet.-Ak. Handl., 1852, p. 44. 
Lygropia quaternalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 
iv, p. 342 (1896). 

Seven specimens from Moupin, taken in June, and one 
from Chang-yang, taken in May. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 471 

Distribution. West and South Africa. — Throughout 
India, Ceylon, and Burma; Australia (Hampson) \ 
Central and Western China. 



1867. Lygropia euryclealis. 

Botys euryclealis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 651 

(1859). 
Lygropia euryclealis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 343 (1896). 

One specimen from Ichang, taken in June. 
Distribution. Sikhim ; Nilgiris ; Ceylon (Hampson) ; 

KlUSHIU. 

1868. Lygropia poltisalis. 

Botys poltisalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 714 (1859). 
Hapalia oblita, Moore, Lep. Atk., p. 222 (1888). 
Lygropia poltisalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 
p. 344(1896). 

I captured two specimens at Gensan in July ; these are 
referable to oblita, Moore. 

Distribution. Murree ; Dalhousie ; Dharmsala ; Sik- 
him ; Khasis ; Borneo (Hampson) ; Corea. 

Genus Glyphodes. 

Guen. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 345 
(1896). 

1869. Glyphodes indica. 

Eudioptes indica, Saunders, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1851, 

p. 163, pi. xii, figs. 5, 6, 7. 
Phakellura indica, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 514 

(1859). 
Glyphodes indica, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 360 (1896). 

I obtained this species at Nagahama and Gensan in 
July, and I have received specimens from the island of 
Kiushiu and from Ichang. 

Distribution. Throughout the Ethiopian, Oriental, 
and Australian Regions (Hampson). 



472 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

1870. Glyphodes perspectalis. 

Phahellura perspectalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 515 

(1859). 
Phacellura advenalis, Led., Wien. Ent. Mon., vii, p. 401, 

pi. xiii, fig. 17 (1863). 
Glyphodes perspectalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 353 (1896). 

Walker's type was from North China. The species 
was obtained by a native at Hakodate in June, and I took 
it at Gensan in July. My collectors in China captured 
specimens at Ichang in June and August, and they also 
bred a series in May from larva found at Chung-king. 

Distribution. Japan; Dharmsala (Hampson)) Yesso; 
Corea; Central and Western China. 

1871. Glyphodes albifuscalis. 

Glyphodes albifuscalis, Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1898, p. 739, pi. 1, fig. 12. 

Described from Ichang. My collectors obtained speci- 
mens at Chang-yang in May, and at Moupin in June. One 
example was also bred in May with G. perspectalis, from 
larva found at Chung-king. 

I am of opinion that albifuscalis is not specifically distinct 
from perspectalis, the only difference that I can see is the 
absence of fuscous on the inner margin of the primaries of 
albifuscalis. 

Habitat. Central and Western China. 

1872. Glyphodes nigropunctalis. 

Mar gar odes nigropunctalis, Brem., Lep. Ost.-Sib., p. 67, 

pi. vi, fig. 5 (1864). 
Margaronia neomera, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., ii, p. 57 

pi. xxxix, fig. 5 (1878). 
Glyphodes nigropunctalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., 

Moths, iv, p. 352 (1896). 

The type of neomera, Butl., was from Yokohama. I took 
specimens in Satsuma in May, and at Hakodate in August, 
and one example at Fujisan in June ; others were obtained 
by a native collector in the island of Kiushiu. 

Distribution. Amurland; throughout India and Ceylon 
(Hampson) ; Yesso ; Japan ; Kiushiu. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 473 

1873. Glyphodes celsalis. 

Botys celsalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 654 (1859). 
Botys partialis, Led., WieD. Ent. Mon., vii, pp. 371, 465, 

pi. ix, fig. 8 (1863). 
Margaronia inusitata, Butl., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

(5) iv, p. 454 (1879). 
Glyphodes celsalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 352 (1896). 
Glyphodes annitlata, Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1898, p. 740. 

There were specimens in Pryer's collection. I obtained 
examples at Nagasaki and in Satsuma, and have received 
others from Ichang and Chang-yang. Occurs in May and 
June. 

Distribution. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Btjkma; 
Borneo {Hampson) ; Japan ; Kitjshitj ; Central China. 

1874, Glyphodes pomonalis. 

Margarodes pomonalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyral., p. 309 

(1854). 
Pachyarches pomonalis, Led., Wien. Ent. Mon., vii, p. 398 

(1863) ; Moore, Lep. CeyL, p. 327, pi. clxxxii, fig. 7 

(1886). 
Glyphodes pomonalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 350 (1896). 

GueneVs type was from China. 

Distribution. China; Sikhim; Bombay Presidency; 
Ceylon ; Stjmbawa (Hampson). 

1875. Glyphodes quadrimaculalis. 

Botys quadrimaculalis, Brem., Beitr. Faun. Chin., p. 22; 

Lep. Ost.-Sib., pi. vi, fig. 10 (1864). 
Glyphodes consocialis, Led., Wien. Ent. Mon., vii, p. 402, 

pi. xiv, fig. 2 (1863). 

Specimens were obtained at Gensan in July, at Hakodate 
in August ; others, taken in July, were received from Ta- 
chien-lu and Pu-tsu-fong. The Chinese specimens were 
found at elevations ranging from 7500 to 10,000 feet. 

Distribution. Amurland ; Yesso ; Corea ; Western 
China. 



474 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

1876. Glyphodes pryeri. 

Glyphodes pryeri, Butl., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) iv, 
p. 453 (1879). 

I took some specimens at Fushiki in July and at Hako- 
date in August ; there were examples in Pryer's collection, 
and my native collector met with the species in the island 
of Kiushiu. 

Habitat. Japan; Kiushiu; Yesso. 

1877. Glyphodes pyloalis. 

Glyphodes pyloalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xix, p. 973 
(1859) ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 357 
(1896). 

Glyphodes sylpharis, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., ii, p. 57, 
pi. xxxix, fig. 2 (1878). 

The type of sylpharis was from Yokohama. 

I obtained specimens at Ningpo in April and at Nagasaki 
in June. There was one example in Pryer's collection, and 
I have received others from Chang-yang, Moupin, and 
Chow-pin-sa. 

Distribution. Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma 
{Hampson) ; Japan ; Kiushiu ; Western, Central, and 
Eastern China. 

1878. Glyphodes bipunctalis. 

Glyphodes bipunctalis, Leech., Entom., xxii, p. 70, pi. iii, 
fig. 2 (1889). 

Specimens were obtained by myself at Nagasaki, in the 
province of Satsuma in May. My native collector also 
met with the species in the island of Kiushiu, and there 
were some examples in Pryer's collection. 

Habitat. Japan; Kiushiu. 

1879. Glyphodes crithealis. 

Desmia crithealis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xvii, p. 344 

(1859). 
Glyphodes chilha, Moore, Lep. Atk., p. 216, pi. vii, fig. 9 

(1888). 
Glyphodes crithealis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 358 (1896). 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 475 

Walker's type was from North China. 

One example taken by myself at Ningpo in April and 
one received from Kiukiang. 

Distribution. North-Western and Eastern Himalayas 
(Hampson) ; Eastern and Central China. 

Genus Euclasta. 

Led. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 363 
(1896). 

1880. Euclasta splendidalis. 

Euclasta splendidalis, H.-S., Eur. Schmett., iv, p. 32, 
fig. 109. 

Specimens were received from Ichang, Moupin, Wa-shan, 
and Ta-chien-lu. Occurs from May to August. 

Distribution. Eastern Europe ; Syria ; Central and 
Western China. 

Genus Polythlipta. 
Led., Wien. Ent. Mon., vii, p. 389 (1863). 

1881. Polythlipta liquidalis. 

Polythlipta liquidalis, Leech, Entom,, xxii, p. 70, pi. iii, 
fig. 8 (1889). 

The type, a male, was taken at Gensan in July. A nice 
series was obtained at Omei-shan, two specimens at Moupin, 
and one example at Chang-yang. 

Distribution. Central and Western China ; Corea. 

1882. Polythlipta maculalis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 3.) 

Primaries brownish-grey with transparent maculations. Two spots 
in the cell and one at its outer extremity, a spot below the first in cell 
and nearer the base of the wing, a larger spot below the second in cell 
and one below the spot at end of the cell, a dot in the fork of veins 2, 
3, and also of veins 4, 5 ; a spot at apical fourth of costa and one 
below it between veins 3 and 5. Secondaries transparent white on the 
basal half, enclosing a black discal mark, and brownish-grey on the 
outer half, enclosing two irregular-shaped transparent white spots. 
Fringes slaty grey, whitish at anal angle of the secondaries. Under 
surface similar to the upper surface, but the lower spot on outer half 
of secondaries is continued to the abdominal margin where it expands. 

Expanse 32 millim. 

TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART IV. (DEC.) 32 



476 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

One male specimen from Ichang, taken in June. 
Habitat Central China. 

R. S. 

Genus Lepyrodes. 

Guen. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 367 
(1896). 

1883. Lepyrodes geometralis. 

Lepyrodes geometralis, Guen., Delt. and PyraL, p. 278, 
pi. viii, fig. 6 (1854) ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., 
Moths, iv, p. 368 (1896). 

Distribution. West Africa. — China; Formosa; 
throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma ; Java ; 
Australia {Hampson). 

Genus Leucinodes. 
Guenee, Delt. and PyraL, p. 221 (1854). 

1884. Leucinodes orbonalis. 

Leucinodes orbonalis, Guen., Delt. and PyraL, p. 223 

(1854) ; Moore, Lep. CeyL, 289, iii, pi. clxxix, fig. 9 

(1885) ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 370 

(1896). 

Eight specimens received from Ichang. Taken in June 

and August. 

Distribution. South Africa. — Throughout India, 
Ceylon, and Burma ; Andamans ; Java ; Duke of 
York Island (Hampson); Central China. 

Genus Hellula. 
Guenee, Delt. and PyraL, p. 415 (1854). 

1885. Hellula undalis. 

Phalsena undalis, Fabr., Ent. Syst., iii, p. 226 (1794). 
Nymphula undalis, Dup., Lep. Fr., viii, p. 160, pi. ccxxi, 

%. i. 

Hellula undalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 
p. 373 (1896). 

Two specimens in Pryer's collection. 

Distribution. Mediterranean Sub-regions, and 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 477 

throughout the tropical and sub-tropical zones, except 
the Neotropical and Australian Regions (Hampson) ; 
Japan. 

Genus Sameodes. 

Snell. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 374 
(1896). 

1886. Sameodes bistigmalis. 

Lepyrodes bistigmalis, Pryer, Cist. Ent., ii, p. 234, pi. iv, 
fig. 10 (1877). 

Type from the Feng-whan-shan (hills), near Shanghai. 

My native collector obtained specimens at Ningpo in 
June and July, and one example was received from 
Kiukiang. 

Habitat. Central and Eastern China. 

Genus Thliptoceras. 
Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1890, p. 274. 

1887. Thliptoceras cascale. 

Hapalia cascalis, Swinhoe, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1890, 

p. 271, pi. viii, fig. 18. 
Thliptoceras variabilis, Swinhoe, 1. c, p. 274. 
Circobotys (X) phycidalis, Snell., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 

1890, p. 599. 
Thliptoceras cascale, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 377 (1896). 

Distribution. Japan ; Dharmsala ; Sikhim ; Bombay ; 
Nilgiris ; Ceylon ; Rangoon {Hampson). 

Genus Archernis. 

Meyr. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 378 
(1899). 

1888. Archernis humilis. 

Protonoceras humilis, Swinhoe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

(6) xiv, p. 146 (1894). 
Archernis humilis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 380 (1896). 

I met with one example of this species at Foochow in 
April. 

Distribution. Khasis ; Nagas (Hampson) ; Foochow. 



478 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Genus Omphisa. 
Moore, Lep. Ceyl., iii, p. 317 (1886). 

1889. Omphisa anastomosalis. 

Pionea (?) anastomosalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyral., p. 373 

(1854). 
Botys illisalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 653 (1859) ; 

Led., Wien. Ent. Mon., vii, p. 371, pi. ix, fig. 12 

(1863). 
Omphisa illisalis, Moore, Lep. Ceyl., iii, p. 318, pi. clxxxiii, 

fig. 4 (1886). 
Omphisa. anastomosalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 382 (1896). 

Distribution. China; Sikhim; Khasis; Nilgiris; 
Ceylon ; Burma ; Andamans ; Java ; Duke of York 
Island {Hampson). 

Genus Evergestis. 
Hiibn. ; Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1899, p. 185. 

1890. Evergestis junctalis. 

Mesographe junctalis, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(6) ix, p. 434 (1892). 

The type was from Japan. 

One example was received from each of the following 
localities — Ta-chien-lu, Pu-tsu-fong, and Wa-shan. Occurs 
in June. 

In two of the specimens the central spot of primaries 
extends to the inner margin. 

Distribution. Japan ; Western China. 

1891. Evergestis extimalis. 

Pyralis extimalis, Scop., Ent. Carn., p. 614 (1763). 
Pyralis margaritalis, Schiff., Wien. Verz., p. 123. 
Pyralis erucalis, Hiibn., Pyral, fig. 55. 
Evergestis consimilis, Warren., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

(6) ix, p. 433 (1892). 
Evergestis extimalis, Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1899, p. 186. 
Specimens were obtained by myself at Fusan in June, 



Meterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 479 

and at Gensan in July. My collectors met with the 
species in most of the Western Chinese localities that 
they visited. 
Distribution. Europe. — Corea; Western China. 



Genus Ischnurges. 

Led. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 383 
(1896). 

1892. Ischnurges gratiosalis. 

Samea gratiosalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xvii, p. 357 

(1859). 
Asopia (?) roridalis, Walk., 1. c, 371. 
Ischnurges gratiosalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 383 (1896). 

Distribution. North China ; Sikhim ; Nilgiris ; 
Travancore ; Ceylon ; Pulo Laut ; Borneo (Hamp- 
son). 

Genus Crocidophora. 

Led. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 387 
(1896). 

1893. Crocidophora evenoralis. 

Pionea evenoralis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xix, p. 1012 

(1859). 
Scopula evenoralis, Walk., 1. c, p. 1015. 
Botys mandarinalis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 68, pi. iii, 

fig. 14 (1889). 
Crocidophora evenoralis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 291 (1896). 

Walker's types were from North China. 

This species was obtained by myself at Nagahama and 
Tsuruga, and by native collectors at Ningpo in July. I 
have also received specimens from Ichang and Moupin. 

Distribution. East Pegu {Hampson) ; Japan ; Eastern, 
Central, and W t estern China. 

1894. Crocidophora heterogenalis. 

Omiodes heterogenalis, Brem., Lep. Ost.-Sib., p. 70, pi. vi, 
fig. 11 (1864). 



480 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Six specimens in Pryer's collection, one from Gensan 
(July), and one from Chang-yang (June). 

Distribution. Amurland ; Central China ; Corea ; 
Japan. 

1895. Crocidophora nyderina. 

Circobotys nyderina, ButL, 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 77, 
pi. lix, fig. 14 (1879). 

Type from Yokohama. 

One specimen from Moupin taken in June. 

Distribution. Japan ; Western China. 

1896. Crocidophora aurimargo. 

Circobotys aurimargo, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(6) xviii, p. 109 (1896). 

The type was from the Khasia Hills. My native 
collector took one specimen at Ningpo in July. 
Distribution. Assam; Eastern China. 

1897. Crocidophora butleri, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 12.) 

Primaries purplish-grey, the costa narrowly edged and outer 
margin broadly bordered with golden-yellow ; there is a yellow, 
somewhat triangular spot just beyond the middle of costa, and a 
yellow dash on costa beyond, two dusky marks in the cell, and a 
dusky, twice-angled, postmedial line ; the latter limits the outer edge 
of the costal spot. Secondaries purplish-grey, outer margin narrowly 
golden-yellow. Fringes of all the wings yellow, preceded by a reddish 
line. Under surface pale stramineous, suffused with fuscous on 
primaries and of outer marginal area of secondaries ; primaries have 
the spot of upper surface, but it is pale in colour and rather quadrate 
in form. 

Expanse 28 millim. 

A female specimen taken by a native collector at Ningpo 
in July. 

Habitat. Eastern China. 
Allied to C. aurimargo, Butl. 

R.S, 

1898. Crocidophora pallida. 

Chobera pallida, Moore, Lep. Atk., p. 219 (1888). 
Crocidophora pallida, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Inch, Moths, 
iv, p. 388 (1896). 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 481 

One specimen from Ichang, taken in June. 
Distribution. Khasis ; Calcutta {Hampson) ; Central 
China. 

1899. Crocidophora gladialis, 

Botys gladialis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 67, pi. iii, figs., 5 $ , 
15 ¥(1889). 

I obtained one example of each sex at Foochow in April ; 
one specimen was taken at Chang-yang in June. 

Distribution. South-Eastern and Central China. 



1900. Crocidophora limbolalis. 

Asopia limbolalis, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, p. 

615. 
Crocidophora limbolalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 390 (1896). 

I took two specimens at Foochow in April. 
Distribution. Bhutan ; Momeit ; Burma ; Tenasserim ; 
Andamans {Hampson) ; Foochow. 

1901. Crocidophora obscuralis, sp. n. 

Primaries dingy brown with a blackish dot in the cell and lunule 
at end of the cell ; postmedial line blackish, crenulate and slightly 
curved from the costa to vein 1. Secondaries fuscous witli traces of 
a postmedial line. Under surface fuscous, glossy, markings of upper 
surface faintly indicated. 

Expanse 24 millim. 

One male specimen from Moupin taken in June. 
Habitat. Western China. 

K. S. 

1902. Crocidophora (?) gensanalis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 9.) 

Primaries ochreous slightly suffused with fuscous on outer area ; 
antemedial line blackish, almost straight ; postmedial line blackish, 
finely dentate, turned inwards from vein 3 to vein 2, thence slightly 
oblique to inner margin • a blackish dot in the cell and a blackish 
line at end of the cell. Secondaries ochreous, suffused with fuscous ; 
postmedial line blackish, outwardly edged with ochreous, indented, 
not well defined towards costa and inner margin. Fringes pale 
ochreous tinged with fuscous at their base and preceded by a blackish 



482 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

line. Under surface fuscous with a purplish tinge, postmedial lines 
as above. 

Expanse 28 millim. 

Six specimens taken at Gensan by Mr. Leech in June, 
1887. 

R. S. 
Genus Maruca. 

Walk. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 393 

(1896). 

1903. Maruca testulalis. 

Grociphora testulalis (Hiibn.), Geyer, Zutr. Sam ml. exot. 

Schmett., iv, p. 12, figs. 629, 630 (1832). 
Stenia testulalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyral., pp. 230, 247 

(1854). 
Hydrocam'pa aquatilis, Boisd., Gu^r.-Men., Icon. Regne 

Anim., pi. xc, fig. 9 (1844). 
Martica testulalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 

393 (1896). 

Specimens were taken by myself in Satsuma in May, at 
Shimonoseki, Nagahama, and Gensan in July, at Hakodate 
and Hakone in August, and at Oiwake in October. Ex- 
amples were received from Ichang (June) and Moupin 
(August). 

Distribution. Neotropical and Ethiopian Regions ; 
throughout the Oriental and Australian Regions 
{Hampson) ; Japan ; Kiushiu ; Yesso ; Corea ; Central 
and Western China. 

Genus Parbattia. 
Moore, Lep. Atk.,p. 225 (1887). 

1904. Parbattia latifascialis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 17.) 

Primaries brown with a darker broad fascia, the latter limited by 
whitish-edged black lines, lines and edges both diffuse, two blackish 
cell-spots separated by a whitish one ; fringes greyish-brown pre- 
ceded by black dots placed on a pale brown diffuse line. Secondaries 
whitish, fringes tinged with ochreous at their base and preceded by 
a diffuse and interrupted black line. Under surface whitish tinged 
with fuscous, especially on costal and outer marginal areas ; primaries 
have two blackish cellular marks and a blackish postmedial line 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 483 

which is continued on the secondaries ; fringes of all the wings 
preceded by black dots. 
Expanse 38 millim. 

Three specimens from Pu-tsu-fong, and one from Omei- 
shan, June and July. 

Habitat. Western China. 

R. S. 

Genus NOMOPHILA. 
Hubner, Verz. Schmett., p. 368 (? 1818). 

1905. Nomophila noctuella. 

Tinea noctuella, Schiff., Wien. Verz., p. 136 (1776). 
Pyralis hybridalis, Hiibn., Pyral., fig. 114 (1797). 
Nephopteryx indistinctalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 

59 (1863). 
Nomophila noctuella, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 401 (1896). 

I obtained this species at Foochow in April, at Nagasaki 
in June, and at Hakodate in August ; my native collector 
took specimens at Gensan and Ningpo in June, and I have 
received an example from Ichang taken in August. 

Distribution. Universal. 

Genus Pachyzancla. 

Meyr. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 401 
(1896). 

1906. Pachyzancla licarsisalis. 

Botys licarsisalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 686 

(1859). 
Pachyzancla licarsisalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 

iv, p. 402 (1896). 
Botys serotinalis, Joarmis, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., (6) viii, p. 

272, pi. vi, fig. 2. 

Three specimens from Chang-yang and three from 
Ichang. June and August. 

Distribution. Japan ; China ; India ; Ceylon ; 
Malacca ; Borneo; Java; Australia; Fiji ; Marshall 
Islands (Hampson) ; Central China. 



484 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

1907. Pachyzancla segrotalis. 

Botys segrotalis, Zell., Lep. Micr. Caffr., p. 39 (1852) ; Snell., 
Tijd. Ent, xv, p. 90, pi. vii, fig. 8 (1872). 

Acharana rudis, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) ix, 
p. 435 (1892). 

Acharana fuscescens, Warren, 1. c., p. 437. 

Pachyzancla segrotalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 
iv, p. 405 (1896). 

There were some specimens in Pryer's collection. I 
obtained examples in Satsuma in May, and at Sendai in 
September ; al] these are referable to rudis and fuscescens, 
Warren. 

Distribution. Western and Southern Africa ; Nil- 
giris ; Ceylon ; Java {Hampson) ; Japan ; Kiushiu. 

1908. Pachyzancla marginalis. 

Pachyzancla marginalis, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(6) xviii, p. 115 (1896). 

Occurs at Chang-yang, Chow-pin-sa, Chia-ting-fu, Omei- 
shan, and Moupin in June and July; a specimen was 
obtained in Satsuma in May. 

Distribution. Khasis ; Sikhim (Hampson) ; Central 
and Western China ; Kiushiu. 

1909. Pachyzancla indistincta. 

Acharana indistincta, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) 
ix, p. 436 (1892). 

Habitat. Japan. 

1910. Pachyzancla stidtalis. 

Botys stultalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 669 (1859). 
Pachyzancla stultalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 
p. 405 (1896). 

Distribution. China ; throughout India, Ceylon, and 
Burma ; Andamans; Sumatra; Java; Borneo; Celebes ; 
Australia {Hampson). 

Genus Phlyct^nodes. 

Guen. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 407 
(1896). 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 485 

1911. Phlycttenodes palealis. 

Pyralis palealis, Schiff., Wien. Verz., p. 123. 
Botys anaxisalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xvii, p. 658 (1859). 
Phlyctsenodes palealis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 
iv, p. 409 (1896). 

The type of anaxisalis, Walk., was from Shanghai. 

I took specimens at Gensan and have received others 
from Chang-yang and Ichang. June, July, and August. 

Five of the seven specimens from Central China have 
blackish venation, and I have similar examples from Syria ; 
the other two are typical. 

Distribution. Europe. — Syria ; North- West Hima- 
layas {Hampson) ; Japan ; Corea ; Central China. 



1912. Phlycttenodes verticalis. 

Pyralis verticalis, Linn., Syst. Nat., x, 533. 
Botys cinctalis, Treit., Schmett., Eur., vii, p. 97. 
Phlyctsenodes verticalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 
iv, p. 409 (1896). 

I obtained specimens in June, at Gensan, and received 
others from Hakodate, Moupin, Ta-chien-lu, and Chang- 
yang. 

Distribution. Europe. — Afghanistan ; North-West 
Himalayas; Khasis {Hampson); Japan ; Yesso; Corea; 
Central and Western China. 



1913. Phlyctmnodes inornatalis. 

Botys inornatalis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 68, pi. iii, fig. 13 
(1889). 

I took a male specimen in Satsuma in May, and a 
female at Sakata in August. 
Habitat. Japan and Kiushiu. 



1914. Phlyctsenodes sticticalis. 
Pyralis sticticalis, Linn., Faun. Suec, 1354. 
One example taken at Gensan in July. 



486 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Distribution. United States, America. — Europe. — 
Beloochistan (Hampson) ; Corea ; Amurland. 

1915. Phlyctsenodes confusalis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 2.) 

Primaries yellowish with brownish transverse lines ; antemedial 
slightly oblique from costa to vein 1, thence incurved to inner 
margin ; postmedial wavy, commencing on the costa, in the position 
of a submarginal line, at vein 3 it turns inwards to lower angle of the 
cell, thence descends direct to inner margin, where it terminates at 
one-third from the inner angle ; a brownish dot in the cell and a 
lunule at end of the cell. Secondaries have a brownish spot at the 
lower angle of the cell, and the postmedial line is wavy, except 
towards the costa, and deeply indented below veins 1 and 2. Under 
surface pale ochreous brown ; all the wings have a blackish post- 
medial line, becoming indistinct towards the inner margins, and the 
primaries have a black lunule at end of the cell. 

Expanse 35 millim. 

One specimen from Chia-ting-fu, one from Chia-kou-ho, 
and a third from Ta-chien-lu. July. 
Habitat. Western China. 

R S. 

1916. Phlyctzenodes turbidalis. 
Botys turbidalis, Treit., vii, p. 119. 

I took a specimen at Gensan in July that seems referable 
to this species. 
Distribution. Europe. — Asia Minor; Corea. 

1917. Phlyctmnodes umbrosalis. 

Aplographe umbrosalis, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 
Hist, (6) ix, p. 301 (1892). 

Described from North China. 

One example obtained by a native collector at Gensan 
in July, others taken by myself at Foochow and Ningpo in 
April and in Satsuma in May. Specimens were received 
from Chang-yang and Ichang, taken in June. 

Distribution. Central and Eastern China; Corea; 
Kiushiu. 






Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 487 

Genus Diasemia. 

Guen. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 410 
(1896). 

1918. Diasemia litter ata. 

Phalxna litter ata, Scop., Ent. Cam., p. 229. 
Pyralis lateralis, Hiibn., Pyral., fig. 86. 
Diasemia lateralis, Guen., Delt. and Pyral., p. 233. 
Diasemia litterata, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 
p. 410 (1896). 

I obtained this species at Ningpo in April, at Naga- 
saki in May, and at Nagahama and Gensan in July. 
Specimens were received from Chang-yang. 

Distribution. Europe. — Sikhim; Ceylon (Hampson)-, 
Japan ; Kiushiu ; Corea ; Central China. 

1919. Diasemia accalis. 

Scopula (?) accalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xix, p. 1015 

(1859). 
Diasemia accalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 

411 (1896). 

Described from Shanghai. 

I took some specimens at Ningpo and Foochow in April, 
at Nagahama and in Satsuma in May, and have received 
others from Nikko and Ichang. There were some 
examples in Pryer's collection. 

Distribution. Dharmsala ; Burma (Hampson) ; Eastern 
and Central China ; Japan ; Kiushiu. 

Genus Antigastra. 
Lederer, Wien. Ent. Mon., 1863, p. 419. 

1920. Antigastra catalaunalis. 

Botys catalaunalis, Dup., Lep. Fr., viii, p. 330, pi. ccxxxii, 

fig. 8 (1831). 
Antigastra catalaunalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., 

Moths, iv, p. 412 (1896). 

There was a specimen in Pryer's collection, and I re- 
ceived one example from Ichang ; the latter was taken in 
August. 



488 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Distribution. Europe. — Syria ; Aden. — East and West 
Africa. — Throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma (Hamp- 
son) ; Central China ; Japan. 

Genus Hemiscopis. 
Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) vi,p. 475 (1890). 

1921. Hemiscopis cinerea. 

Hemiscopis cinerea, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) 
ix, p. 396 (1892). 

I obtained two specimens in Satsuma in May, three at 
Tsuruga in July. A native collector obtained one example 
at Nikko. 

Habitat. Japan and Kiushiu. 

Genus Mecyna. 
Guenee, Delt. and Pyral., p. 406 (1854). 

1922. Mecyna prunipennis. 

Mecyna prunipennis, Butl., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, (5) iv, 
p. 454 (1879). 
Habitat. Japan. 

Genus Calamochrous. 

Led. ; Hampson. Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 419 
(1896). 

1923. Calamochrous acutellus. 

Crambus acutellus, Ev., Bull. Mosc, 1842, p. 563. 
Crambus tincticostellus, Walk., Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 167 

(1863). 
Crambus sinensellus, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xxvii, p. 167 

(1863). 

Tincticostellus and sinensellus, Walk., were both described 
from Shanghai. 

I obtained two specimens at Gensan in June, four at 
Sakata in August, and others at Fushiki and in Kiushiu. 
One specimen was received from Kiukiang. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 489 

Distribution. South-East Europe.— Japan ; Kiushiu ; 
Eastern and Central China; Corea. 



Genus Metasia. 
Guenee, Delt. and Pyral, p. 251 (1854). 

1924. Metasia hodiusalis. 

Botys hodiusalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 706 

(1859). 
Metasia hodiusalis, Hampson, Proc. Zoo]. Soc. Lond., 1899, 

p. 237. 

Distribution. Amurland ; China ; Borneo ; Sumbawa 

{Hampson). 

1925. Metasia paganalis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 6.) 

Primaries pale brown slightly suffused with fuscous, a fuscous 
streak on basal half of costa and a dot beyond, a blackish annulus 
in the cell and one at end of the cell ; antemedial line blackish, 
slightly excurved from costa to middle, thence almost straight to 
inner margin ; postmedial line blackish, almost straight from costa to 
vein 2, where it turns inwards and upwards to lower angle of the cell, 
then it turns downwards again to the inner margin. Secondaries pale 
brown suffused with fuscous on the outer margin ; ante- and post- 
medial lines blackish, the former from discal mark to inner margin, 
the latter not continued in the direction of the inner margin beyond 
vein 2. Fringes whitish traversed by a fuscous line and preceded by 
a blackish one. Under surface similar to above but paler. 

Expanse 21 millim. 

Two specimens from Ta-chien-lu taken in May or June, 
and one from Pu-tsu-fong taken in June or July. 
Habitat. Western China. 

R.S. 

1926. Metasia mcanalis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 8.) 

Whitish faintly suffused with fuscous. Primaries have an almost 
straight blackish antemedial line on the outer edge of which, to- 
wards the costa, is a blackish annulus ; central line blackish, extend- 
ing from a blackish outlined reniform mark at end of the cell to the 
inner margin, bent inwards just before vein 1 ; postmedial line black, 
straight from the costa almost to the inner angle, a white dot on the 
costa on either side of the line. Secondaries have ante- and postmedial 



490 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

black lines, the former rather diffuse and the latter terminating at 
vein 1 near the outer margin. Fringes pale with a black line at 
their base. 

Expanse 16 millim. 

One male specimen from Moupin, June ; and one from 
Ichang, July. 

Habitat. Central and Western China. 

K. S. 

1927. Metasia morbidalis, sp. n. 

Greyish-brown with a faint violet tinge. Primaries have a black 
antemedial line, outwardly angled at median nervure ; a black post- 
medial line, slightly indented at vein 5, turned inwards, and upwards 
at vein 1 to vein 2, thence inwardly oblique to inner margin ; a black 
annulus in cell, touching the antemedial line, and one at the end 
of the cell. Secondaries have a curved antemedial line and a 
sinuous postmedial line, both black. Fringes of the ground colour 
marked with darker, and preceded by two black lines with whitish 
between them. 

Expanse 20 millim. 

One male specimen from Ta-cliien-lu, taken in July or 
August. 

Habitat. Western China. 

Genus Pionea. 

Guen. ; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 422 
(1896). 

1928. Pionea albopedalis. 

Nomis albopedalis, Motsch., Etud. Ent, 1860, p. 38. 

A series in Pryer's collection; one example taken at 
Chang-yang in June. 

Distribution. Japan ; Central China. 

1929. Pionea pallidalis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 22.) 

Pale stramineous. Primaries have traces of a dusky antemedial 
line towards the inner margin and a dusky postmedial line ; the latter 
is curved from its point of origin on the sub-costal nervure to the 
base of vein 2, thence downwards to middle of the inner margin, 
inwardly angled on vein 1. Secondaries have a finely dentate post- 
medial line, which is deeply indented inwards on vein 3 ; sub-mar- 
ginal line dusky, dentate. Under surface suffused with fuscous ; post- 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 491 

medial line on all the wings as above, and there are traces of a sub- 
marginal line on the primaries. 
Expanse 35 millim. 

Two specimens from Omei-shan, and one from Pu-tsu- 
fong. June and July. 

Habitat. Western China. 
Allied to P. albopedalis, Motsch. 

R.S. 
1930. Pionea pandalis. 

Hapalia pandalis, Hiibn., Verz. Schmett., p. 355. 

Botys Jessica, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., ii, p. 58, pi. xxxix, 

fig. 6 (1878). 
Botys protensa, Butl., 1. c, fig. 7. 

Types of Jessica and protensa, Butl., were from Yokohama. 

I obtained the Jessica form at Nagasaki, Shimonoseki, and 
Gensan ; my native collector took examples at Hakodate, 
and there were a few in Pryer's collection. Occurs in May, 
June, and July. Of the protensa form I have examples 
from Foochow (April), Satsuma (May), Nagasaki (June), 
Cbang-yang and Kiukiang (May and June), Moupin (June), 
Ningpo. 

Distribution. Europe. — Japan ; Yesso ; Kiushiu ; 
Corea; Eastern, Western, and Central China. 

1931. Pionea inornata. 

Botys inornata, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 76, pi. lix, 
fig. 11 (1879). 

Type from Yokohama. 

There was a specimen in Pryer's collection. I took the 
species at Shimonoseki, Tsuruga, and Gensan in July, and 
have received examples from Kiushiu. 

Distribution. Japan ; Kiushiu j Corea. 

1932. Pionea ferrugalis. 

Pyralis ferrugalis, Hiibn., Pyral., figs. 54, 150. 

Scopula martialis, Guen., Delt. and Pyral., p. 398 (1854). 

Scopula testacea, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 77, pi. 

lix, fig. 15 (1879). 
Pionea ferrugalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 422 (1896). 

Type of testacea, Butl., was from Yokohama. I captured 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART IV. (DEC.) 33 



492 Mr. J. H. Leech 



on 



some specimens at Ningpo in April, and in Satsuma in 
May. One example, taken in July or August, was received 
from Ta-chien-lu. 

Distribution. Eueope. — Madeira; Western and 
Southern Africa. — Syria ; Afghanistan ; Japan ; 
Nilgiris ; Ceylon ; Shan States (Hampson) ; Kiushiu ; 
Eastern and Western China. 



1933. Pionea planalis, sp. n. 

Primaries pale ochreous tinged with fuscous ; there are faint traces 
of dusky ante- and postmedial lines and two dusky annular marks in 
the cell. Secondaries whitish tinged with fuscous, a dusky discoidal 
dot and traces of a curved postmedial line. Under surface of 
primaries fuscous and of secondaries whitish suffused with fuscous on 
costal area, a black dot at each angle of cell and a dusky curved 
postmedial line. 

Expanse 24 millim. 

Two specimens from Pu-tsu-fong, taken in July. 
Habitat Western China. 
Allied to P. prionalis from Europe. 

K. S. 

1934. Pionea pseudocrocealis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 14.) 

Primaries ochreous tinged with brown ; faint traces of a dusky, 
slightly oblique, antemedial line ; postmedial line dusky, curved to 
a point under end of cell, between veins 2 and 3, thence straight to inner 
margin. Secondaries paler, with a dusky discoidal dot and a curved 
postmedial line ; the latter is not traceable towards the abdominal 
margin. Fringes whitish, brownish at their base, preceded by a 
rather darker brown line. Under surface fuscous, all the wings have 
a darker postmedial line ; the area beyond the line is ochreous on the 
primaries and tinged with ochreous on the secondaries. 

Expanse 23 millim. 

One female specimen taken by Mr. Leech at Fushiki, in 
July 1887. 

Habitat. JAPAN. 

Resembles P. crocealis, Hubn., but it is a more robust 
insect, darker in colour, and the transverse lines are rather 
differently formed. 

RS. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 493 

1935. Pionea verbascalis. 

Pyralis verbascalis, Schiff., Wien. Verz., p. 121. 

Pyralis arcualis, Hiibn., Pyral., fig. 80. 

Botys egentalis, Christ., Ball. Mosc, 1881, i, p. 19. 

Botys plumbocilialis, Snell., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1890, 

p. 576. 
Pionea verbascalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 

423 (1896). 

Specimens were received from Ichang, Chang-yang, 
Moupin, Chovv-pin-sa, and Wa-shan. Occurs in June. 

I obtained the species at Nagasaki in May, and at Fusan 
and Gensan in June. 

Two pale specimens in Pryer's collection are referable to 
var. egentalis, Christ., as also is one example taken by a 
native collector at Ningpo in June. 

Distribution. Eukope. — Dharmsala; Sikhim; Nilgiris 
{Hampson) ; Central, Eastern, and Western China ; 
Corea ; Kiushiu; Japan. 

1936. Pionea genialis. 

Botys genialis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 69, pi. iii, fig. 10 
(1889). 

I obtained specimens at Nagasaki and in Satsuma, and 
a native collector took the species at Ningpo. May and 
June. 

Distribution. Kiushiu ; Eastern China. 

1937. Pionea jour alis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 16.) 
Stramineous. Primaries have a dot in the cell, lunule at the end 
of cell, and two transverse lines, ochreous brown ; the antemedial is 
outwardly oblique, and the postmedial is indented below the costa, 
excurved beyond the cell, projected inwards at vein 2, thence waved 
to inner margin. Secondaries have an ochreous-brown, curved, post- 
medial line, bent inwards and upwards between veins 2 and 1, not 
clearly denned towards the costa or the inner margin. Under surface 
pale ochreous suffused with fuscous ; primaries have a dusky central 
spot, and traces of a dusky postmedial line ; the inner margin is 
whitish. 

Expanse 27 millim. 

Four specimens from Ichang, taken in August. 

Habitat. Central China. 

Allied to P. aureolalis, Led. R. S. 



494 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

1938. Pionea albifimbrialis. 
Botys albifimbrialis, Walk., Gat. Lep. Het., xxxiv, p. 1446. 

Two specimens from Satsuma, taken in May. 

These examples, as well as two others from Chekiang 
in the national collection at South Kensington, have the 
postmedial line of primaries outwardly oblique to vein 5, 
and the secondaries are brown suffused with fuscous. 

Distribution. Formosa; Sumatra; Java (Rampson); 
Eastern China ; Kiushiu. 

1939. Pionea punctiferalis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 23.) 

Primaries pale olive-brown, clouded and suffuse with darker ; reni- 
form and orbicular marks brown, outlined in blackish mingled with 
white scales ; antemedial line whitish towards inner margin, but not 
clearly defined ; postmedial line black, slightly curved and dentate, 
the dentations marked with white, two white spots before it opposite 
end of the cell ; a marginal line black with black dots upon it, 
marked with white towards the angle ; apical third of costa marked 
with darker ; fringes chequered with white, traversed by one dark 
line and preceded by another. Secondaries whitish suffused with 
fuscous, especially on outer marginal area, a black dot at upper 
and lower angles of cell, traces of a dusky postmedial line ; a marginal 
series of black dots, partly connected by a black line ; fringes whitish, 
traversed by a dark line. Under surface whitish ; primaries much 
suffused with fuscous, stigmata and postmedial line blackish ; 
secondaries have markings similar to above, but the postmedial is 
more clearly defined and indented towards the costa. 

Expanse 24 millim. 

One male specimen taken at Ta-chien-lu in May or 
June. 

Habitat. Central China. 

R. S. 

1940. Pionea mendicalis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 10.) 

Primaries ochreous brown, a dot in cell and annulus at end of cell, 
both blackish; postmedial line blackish, slightly dentate, curved 
round end of the cell, and terminating about the middle of inner 
margin ; fringes fuscous brown preceded by a brown line. Secondaries 
whitish tinged with ochreous on outer area ; postmedial line blackish, 
interrupted towards vein 2 and not continued to abdominal margin ; 
fringes agree in colour with the wings and are preceded by an 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 495 

ochreous brown line. Under surface glossy, whitish tinged with pale 
brown, markings as above. 
Expanse 28 millim. 

Two specimens from Pu-tsu-fong, taken in June or July. 
Habitat. Western China. 

RS. 

1941. Pionea minnehaha. 

Pyrausta minnehaha, Pryer, Cist. Ent., ii, p. 284, pi. iv, fig. 
9 (1877). 

Type from the Snowy Valley, near Ningpo. 

I obtained this species at Nagasaki in May and at 
Fusan in June. There was one example in Pryer's 
collection. 

Distribution. Japan ; Kiushiu ; Corea ; Eastern 
China. 

1942. Pionea lugubralis. 

Botys lugubralis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 67, pi. iii, fig. 6 
(1889). 

I obtained examples of this species at Hakodate, 
Nemoro, Gensan, and at Shikotan in the Kurile Islands. 
Three specimens from Chang-yang and Ichang. Occurs 
in July and August. 

Distribution. JAPAN; YESSO; Corea; Kurile ISLES ; 
Central China. 

1943. Pionea orbicentralis. 

Botys orbicentralis, Christ., Bull. Mosc, lvi. (1), p. 22 (1881). 

I obtained specimens at Gensan in June, at Hakodate 
in August, and at Oiwake in October. I have also 
received one example from Wa-shan and one from Pu- 
tsu-fong ; the latter are more variegated than the others 
in the series. 

Distribution. AmurlanD; Corea ; JAPAN; Yesso; 
Western China. 

1944. Pionea aurorina. 

Ebulea aurorina, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., ii, p. 58, pi. 
xxxix, fig. 9 (1878). 

Type from Yokohama. 



496 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

I obtained one example at Ningpo in April, and one at 
Fushiki in July. 
Distribution. Japan; Eastern China. 

1945. Pionea fentoni. 

Pseudebidea fentoni, Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1881, 

p. 587. 
Pionea fentoni, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 425 (1896). 

Type from Tokio. 

I obtained a specimen at Tsuruga, my native collector 
captured three examples at Hakodate, and four others were 
received from Chang-yang. 

Distribution. Japan ; Sikhim ; Simla ; Nilgiris ; 
Tenasserim (Hampson) ; Yesso ; Central China. 

1946. Pionea auratalis. 

Zeucocrasjpeda auratalis, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 
Hist, (6) xvi, p. 472 (1895). 

There were specimens in Pryer's collection. I obtained 
one example at Hakodate in August, and my native 
collector took others in the island of Kiushiu. 

Habitat. Japan ; Yesso and Kiushiu. 

1 9 47. Pionea forficalis. 

Pyrlalis forficalis, Linn., Syst. Nat., x, p. 533. 

Pionea sodalis, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het., ii, p. 59, pi. xxxix, 

fig. 4 (1878). 
Pionea forficalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 425 (1896). 

Type of sodalis, Butl., was from Yokohama. 

There was one specimen in Pryer's collection. I took two 
at Nagasaki in May, and one at Sendai in September. 

Distribution. Europe. — North -West Himalayas; 
Sikhim (Hampson) ; Japan ; Kiushiu. 

1948. Pionea rubiginalis. 

Pyralis rubiginalis, Hubn., Pyral., fig. 79. 
Botys rubiginalis, Dup., Lep. Fr., viii, p. 130, pi. ccxviii, 
fig. 2. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 497 

Ebulea rubiginalis, Guen., Delt. and Pyral., p. 363. 
Pionea rubiginalis, Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1899, 
p. 248. 

Distribution. Europe. — Western Asia ; Japan 
(Hampson). 

1949. Pionea (?) tritalis. 

Botys tritalis, Christ., Bull. Mosc, lvi (1), p. 20 (1881). 

Nine specimens from Gensan taken in June. 
Distribution. Amurland ; North China; Corea. 

1950. Pionea thyalis. 
Botys thyalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 667 (1859). 
Described from China. 

1951. Pionea (?) tessellatis. 
Nomis tessellatis, Motsck, Etud. Ent., 1860, p. 38. 
Habitat. Japan. 

Genus Paratalanta. 
Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1890, p. 440. 

1952. Paratalanta ussurialis. 

Botyodes ussurialis, Brem., Lep. Ost.-Sib., p. 68, pi. vi, fig. 6 

(1864). 
Botys cultralis, Staud., Stett. Ent. Zeit., 1867, p. 108 ; Mill. 

Icon., ii, pi. lxxxv, fig. 17 (1864-68). 
Botys labutonalis, Led., Hor. Ent., Ross, 1871, p. 22, pi. ii, 

fig. 9. 
Botys amurensis, Staud., Rom. sur L^p., iii, p. 32 (1887). 
Paratalanta ussurialis, Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1899, p. 251. 
Specimens from Gensan, Nagasaki, Hakone, Hakodate, 
Moupin, Chang-yang, and from Pryer's collection. Occurs 
in June and July. 

Distribution. Armenia ; Altai ; Amurland ; Japan ; 
Yesso; Kiushiu; Corea; Central and Western 
China. 

Genus Pyrausta. 

Schrank.; Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 429 
(1896). 



498 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

1953. Pyrausta coclesalis. 

Botys coclesalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 701 (1859). 

Botys itemalesalis, Walk., 1. c, xix, p. 996 (1859). 

Botys lacrymalis, Leech, Entorn., xxii, p. 69, pi. iii, fig. 12 

(1889). 
Pyrausta coclesalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 441 (1896); Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1899, p. 254. 

I obtained this species in Satsuma in May, and at 
Nagasaki in June. Walker's type of itemalesalis was from 
Shanghai, and I have specimens from Chang-yang. 

Distribution. China ; Formosa ; throughout India and 
Burma ; Borneo ; Java; Sumbawa {Hampson) ; Kiushiu; 
Eastern and Central China. 

1954. Pyrausta fuscobrunnealis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 7.) 
Primaries pale brown, suffused with fuscous ; antemedial line 
darker, diffuse, slightly excurved ; postmedial line darker, outwardly 
edged with whitish, finely dentate, indented below the costa, ex- 
curved to vein 2 where it is bent inwards, angled on vein 1; a 
dusky dot in the cell, and a lunule at end of the cell ; fringes of the 
ground colour, preceded by a double darker line. Secondaries pale 
fuscous with a darker, curved, postmedial line, which is outwardly 
edged with whitish, and bent inwards between veins 3 and 2 ; fringes 
white, preceded by a double brown line. Under surface fuscous, the 
secondaries paler than primaries ; all the wings have an indistinct 
postmedial line. 
Expanse 20 niiliim. 

Two female specimens from Chang-yang, taken in 
August. 
Habitat. Central China. 
Allied to P.fuscalis, Schiff. 

R.S. 

1955. Pyrausta hampsoni, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 21.) 

Primaries brownish-grey, blackish dots at middle and end of cell, 
with a pale spot between them ; ante- and postmedial lines blackish ; 
the former is inwardly edged with whitish, and indented below costa 
and before inner margin ; the latter is outwardly edged with whitish, 
serrate, excurved beyond the cell; fringes brownish-grey preceded 
by a rather darker line. Secondaries slightly paler with a black 
discal dot ; postmedial line blackish, outwardly edged with whitish, 
indented below the costa, and more sharply at vein 2, hardly trace- 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 499 

able to abdominal margin ; fringes whitish-grey, brownish-grey at 
their base, preceded by a darker line. Under surface of primaries 
fuscous grey, antemedial line absent, other markings as above; 
secondaries whitish, markings as above, but postmedial line is distinct 
to abdominal margin. 
Expanse 32 millim. 

Three specimens from Ta-chien-lu, and one from Pu- 
tsu-fong. June and July. 
Habitat. Western China. 

R. S. 

1956. Pyrausta delicatalis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 27.) 

Whitish clouded and suffused with pale brown. Primaries have 
brown ante- and postmedial lines, the former almost straight and the 
latter crenulate, indented below the costa, excurved to vein 2, thence 
incurved to inner margin ; a brown dot in the cell and a rather darker 
lunule at end of the cell. Secondaries have a brown postmedial line, 
which is bidentate about the middle. Fringes preceded by a brown 
line. Under surface whitish, powdered with pale brown; all the 
wings have a dusky submarginal line. 

Expanse 24 millim. 

Four specimens from Moupin, one from Omei-shan, and 
one from Ta-chien-lu. July and August. 
Habitat. Western China. 

RS. 

1957. Pyrausta diniasalis. 

Botys diniasalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 649 (1859). 
Pyrausta diniasalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 
p. 442 (1896). 

Described from Shanghai. 

I received specimens from Moupin, Omei-shan, Chang- 
yang, and Kiushiu, and I have met with one example at 
Gensan. Occurs in June, July, and August. 

Distribution. Dharmsala (Hampson) ; Eastern, Cen- 
tral, and Western China ; Corea. 

1958. Pyrausta luctualis. 

Pyralis luctualis, Hubn., Pyral., fig. 88. 
Ennychia diversa, Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1881, 
p. 585. 

Type of diversa, But]., was from Hakodate. 



500 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

I took a specimen at Gensan in June, and my native 
collector met with several specimens at Hakodate, and in 
the island of Kiushiu. There was one example in Pryer's 
collection. 

Distribution. Eueope. — Amurland; Japan; Yesso; 
Kiushiu; Corea. 

1959. Pyrausta suffusalis. 

Prionopaltis suffusalis, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(6) ix, p. 438 (1892). 

Habitat. Japan. 

1960. Pyrausta ocellalis. 

Opsibotys ocellalis, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) 
ix, p. 295 (1892). 

Habitat. Japan. 

1961. Pyrausta varialis. 

Botys varialis, Brem., Lep. Ost.-Sib., p. 69, pi. vi, fig. 9 

(1864). 
Opsibotys latipennis, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) 

ix, p. 295 (1892). 

I have specimens from Satsuma (May) and Shimonoseki 
(July). 
Distribution. Amurland ; Japan ; Kiushiu. 

1962. Pyrausta moderatalis. 
Botys moderatalis, Christ., Bull. Mosc, lvi. (1), p. 25 (1881). 

Specimens were received from Chang-yang, Wa-shan, 
and Ta-chien-lu. Occurs May — August. 

Distribution. Amurland ; Japan ; Central and West- 
ern China. 

1963. Pyrausta gracilis. 

Samea gracilis, Butl., HI. Typ. Lep. Het., iii, p. 74, pi. lix, 

fig. 4 (1879). 
Botys explicatalis, Christ., Bull. Mosc, lvi. (1), p. 16 (1881). 

Type from Yokohama. 

I obtained specimens at Ningpo, Nagasaki, and Gensan 
n June and July. 

Distribution. Japan; Kiushiu; Corea ; Eastern 
China ; Amurland. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 501 

1964. Pyrausta leechi, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 29.) 

Primaries golden-yellow suffused with purplish-grey at base and 
on costal area ; a purplish-grey antemedial fascia, spot at end of the 
cell, and outer marginal border; antemedial and postmedial lines 
fuscous, the former sinuous with a dot below median nervure, the 
latter slightly dentate and deflected inwards at vein 2; fringes 
fuscous grey, silky. Secondaries whitish tinged with fuscous and 
suffused with yellowish on the outer area ; postmedial line fuscous, 
curved and indented. Under surface similar to above, but the 
colour is paler. 

Expanse 28 millim. 

Two specimens from Wa-shan, taken in June and July. 
Habitat. Westekn China. 

RS. 

1965. Pyrausta genialis, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 16.) 

Primaries orange-yellow, costa and margin bordered with blackish, 
powdered with orange-yellow scales; the base is clouded with 
blackish, and there are two transverse markings of the same colour, 
each powdered with orange-yellow ; antemedial line commencing in 
a spot below the costa, crossed by a black dash below the median 
nervure ; postmedial line sinuous, the costal half band-like ; fringes 
blackish. Secondaries black with an orange-yellow line from the 
base terminating in a spot of the same colour in the centre of the 
wing ; postmedial band orange-yellow, as also are the fringes, except 
below the middle, where they are marked with black. Under surface 
orange-yellow ; all the wings have the costa and outer margin 
bordered with blackish, a discal spot and transverse line of the 
same colour. 

Expanse 20 millim. 

Five specimens from Chia-kou-ho, one from Pu-tsu- 
fong, and one from Wa-shan. Occurs in June and July. 
Habitat. Westekn China. 

E. S. 

1966. Pyra%ista griseocilialis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 5.) 

Primaries ochreous, a small blackish dot in the cell, and a spot at 
the end of the cell ; antemedial line blackish, sinuous, not extended 
to costa ; postmedial line blackish, bluntly serrate, excurved to vein 
2, along which it runs inwards for a short distance, thence almost 
direct to the inner margin. Secondaries ochreous suffused with 
fuscous, traces of a dusky medial line or band. Fringes dark 



502 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

grey. Under surface whitish ; primaries tinged with ochreous, and 
suffused with blackish on costal area and on the apical portion of 
the outer area, a black discal spot and postmedial line ; secondaries 
whitish, faintly tinged with ochreous, traces of a dusky medial line. 
Expanse 28 millim. 

Four specimens from Ta-chien-lu, and the same number 
from Chia-ting-fu, two examples from Pu-tsu-fong, and one 
from Chow-pin-sa. Occurs in June and July. 

Habitat. Western China. 

R. S. 

1967. Pyrausta vicinalis, sp. n. (Plate XV, fig. 30.) 

Primaries pale brownish ; antemedial line darker, angled at vein 
1 ; postmedial line darker, outwardly edged with whitish, serrate, 
excurved beyond the cell, turned inwards at vein 3, then zigzag to 
inner margin. Secondaries rather paler ; postmedial line darker, 
outwardly edged with whitish, dentate between veins 5 and 2, and 
bent inwards between veins 2 and 1. Fringes preceded by a dark 
line. Under surface whitish suffused with fuscous on the primaries ; 
all the wings have a dusky postmedial line. 

Expanse 27 millim. 

Mr. Leech obtained two specimens at Nagasaki in May, 
and one was received from Chang-yang; the latter was 
taken in June. 

Distribution. Kiushiu ; Central China. 

R. S. 
1968. Pyrausta flavalis. 

Pyralis flavalis, Schiff., Wien. Verz., p. 121. 
Hapalia flavalis, Hubn., Verz. Schmett., p. 255. 
Botys flavalis, Guen., Delt. and PyraL, p. 334. 
Pyrausta flavalis, Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1899, 
p. 257. 

There were six specimens in Pryer's collection, and I 
obtained two at Gensan in July. 

The inward bend of the postmedial line of primaries is 
rather deeper than in European examples. 

Distribution. Europe. — Amtjrland ; Japan ; Core a. 

1969. Pyrausta sanguinealis. 

Micractis sanguinealis, Warren, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
(6) ix, p. 294 (1892). 

Habitat. Japan. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 503 

1970. Pyrausta damoalis. 

Botys damoalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xviii, p. 656 (1859). 
Pyrausta damoalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 
p. 436 (1896). 

Two specimens were obtained at Gensan in June and 
July, and others at Ichang, Moupin, and Chia-ting-fu. 

Distribution. Dharmsala ; Sikhim ; Rangoon {Hamp- 
son) ; Central and Western China ; Corea ; Japan. 

1971. Pyrausta nubilalis. 

Pyralis nubilalis, Hiibn., Pyrales, fig. 94. 
Botys lupulinalis, Guen., Delt. and PyraL, p. 331 (1854). 
Botys zealis, Guen., 1. c, p. 332. 

Pyrausta nubilalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 
p. 435 (1896). 

A variable series of twenty-two specimens, comprising 
specimens from Ningpo (April), Nagasaki (May), Gensan 
and Fusan (June), Hakodate, Ichang, Chang-yang, Pu-tsu- 
fong (June and July). The species was represented in 
Pryer's collection. 

Distribution. Europe. — North-West Himalayas ; 
Sikhim ; Khasis ; Manipur {Hampson) ; Asia Minor ; 
Amurland; Japan; Yesso; Kiushiu; Corea ; Central 
and Western China. 

1972. Pyrausta indistans. 

Hapalia indistans, Moore, Lep. Atk., p. 223 (1887). 
Botys callidoralis, Oberthur, Etud. d'Entom., xv, p. 25, pi. 

iii, fig. 30 (1891). 
Pyrausta indistans, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 438 (1896). 

One specimen from Chang-yang, two from Moupin, three 
from Pu-tsu-fong, and one from Ta-chien-lu. Occurs in 
June and July. 

Distribution. DharmsXla ; Sikhim {Hampson) ; Cen- 
tral and Western China. 

1973. Pyrausta signatalis. 

Botys signatalis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het. Suppl., iv, p. 1444 
(1865). 



504 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

Pryausta signatalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 
p. 438 (1896). 

Two specimens from Hakodate and one from Chang- 
yang taken in August. A rather small specimen that I 
obtained in Satsuma in May seems also to be referable to 
P. signatalis. 

Distribution. North- West Himalayas ; Nilgiris ; 
Ceylon; Java (Hampson) ; Yesso; Kiushiu; Central 
China. 

1974. Pyrausta curvalis. 

Botys curvalis, Leech, Entom., xxii, p. 68, pi. iii, fig. 3 

(1889). 

The type, a male, was obtained by native collector at 
Ningpo in July. 
Habitat. Eastern China. 

1975. Pyrausta moupinalis, sp. n. 

Primaries dingy brown tinged with blackish, a black dot in the 
cell, and a larger one at end of the cell ; antemedial line black, diffuse 
and slightly excurved ; postmedial line black, bent outwards beyond 
the cell, almost direct from vein 2 to the inner margin. Secondaries 
colour of the primaries with an indistinct darker central line. 
Fringes pale brown, blackish at their base, preceded by an ochreous 
line. Under surface dark fuscous. 

Expanse 18 millim. 

One male specimen from Moupin taken in June. 

Habitat. Western China. R. S. 

1976. Pyrausta obstipalis, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 10.) 

Primaries brownish-grey, a black dot in the cell and a dusky, 
oblique, postmedial line, the latter inwardly bordered with grey 
towards the costa j there are traces of a dusky antemedial line, most 
distinct towards the inner margin. Secondaries grey, suffused with 
fuscous. Fringes grey, those of the primaries rather darker, pre- 
ceded by a dark line on all the wings. Under surface of primaries 
fuscous ; secondaries whitish tinged with fuscous, especially on the 
costal area ; fringes paler. 

Expanse 24 millim. 

Six specimens from Ta-chien-lu. June and July. 
Habitat. Western China. 

R. S. 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 505 

1977. Pyrausta memnialis. 

Ebulea (?) memnialis, Walk., Cat. Lep. Het., xix, p. 1010 
(1859). 

Described from Shanghai. I took an example at Sakata 
in August. 

Distribution. Eastern China ; Japan. 



1978. Pyrausta pygmszalis, sp. n. 

Pale ochreous irrorated with darker. Primaries have a blackish 
speck in the cell and two dots at outer extremity ; antemedial and 
postmedial lines brownish, the first outwardly angled about middle, 
and the second curved to a point under the cell, thence falling straight 
to the inner margin. Secondaries have a patch of dusky scales under 
the lower angle of cell, and a brownish postmedial line, the latter 
curved and recurved about the middle. There are traces of a dusky 
submarginal line on all the wings, and the fringes are blackish-grey 
tipped with pale grey. Under surface pale ochreous, suffused with 
fuscous, obscure traces of a postmedial line on each wing. 

Expanse 16 millim. 

One specimen from Ichang taken in June, and another 
from the same locality taken in August. 
Habitat. Central China. 
Allied to P. machszralis, Walk. 

R. S. 

1979. Pyrausta cespitalis. 

Pyralis cespitalis, Schiff., Wien. Verz., p. 123 (1775). 
Botys tendinosalis, Brem., Lep. Ost.-Sib., p. 99, pi. viii, fig. 

10 (1864). 
Pyrausta cespitalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 430 (1896). 

One specimen from Chang-yang and one from Ni-tou 
appear to be referable to P. cespitalis. The former is of 
the tendinosalis form, whilst the latter is of large size and 
has well-defined markings. I also have a dark female 
specimen from Gensan. 

Distribution. Europe. — Syria ; Siberia ; Afghan- 
istan ; Punjab ; Dharmsala ; Bernardmyo ; Burma 
{Hampson) ; Central and Western China ; Corea. 



506 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

1980. Pyrausta syfanialis. 

Herhula syfanialis, Oberth., Etud. d'Entom., xviii, p. 45, pi. 
iv,fig. 61 (1893). 

A specimen from Ta-chien-lu, taken in May or June, 
appears to be referable to this species. 
Habitat. Western China. 

1981. Pyrausta sanguinalis. 

Pyralis sanguinalis, Linn., Syst. Nat., xii, p. 882. 
Pyralis h&matalis, Htibn., Pyrales, fig. 178. 
Pyratista sanguinalis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 
iv, p. 432 (1896). 

One example taken at Nagasaki in May. 
Distribution. Europe. — Syria ; Simla ; Kulu ; Si- 
beria {Hampson) ; KlUSHiu. 

1982. Pyrausta contigualis, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 23.) 

Primaries yellow, rosy at the base and along the costa and with two 
rosy transverse bands ; the first line is broadest towards the costa, the 
second has its outer edge rather diffuse, and its inner edge slightly 
curved towards the costa and inwardly oblique towards the inner 
margin ; there is a darker dot in the cell, and a lunule at end of the 
cell placed in the outer edge of the first band. Secondaries pale 
ochreous with a rosy tinged, fuscous, submarginal band. Fringes 
yellow, preceded by a faint rosy line. Under surface pale ochreous 
tinged with fuscous on the secondaries and on the basal area of 
primaries, the latter have a blackish lunule at the end of the cell, 
and a blackish submarginal band ; on the secondaries there are traces 
of a dusky discal dot and marginal border. 

Expanse 23 millim. 

Three specimens from Moupin, taken in June. 

Closely allied to P. sanguinalis, Linn., but larger ; the 
bands on the primaries are broader, and the edges irregular 
in contour; the outer band is placed farther from the 
margin. 

Habitat. Western China. 

K. S. 

1983. Pyrausta tithonialis. 

Pyrausta tithonialis, Zell, Verh. z. b. Ver. Wien., 1872, p. 
^ 504, pi. iii, fig. 15 ; Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1899, p. 266. 



Hctcroccra from China, Japan, and Corea. 507 

I captured a specimen at Gensan in July, and have 
received one from Moupin, taken in June. 

Distribution. Amurland ; Corea ; Western China. 

1984. Pyrausta phoenicealis. 

Pyralis phoenicealis, Hiibn., Zutr., i, p. 22, figs. 115, 116. 
Pyrausta phoenicealis, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, 
iv, p. 431 (1896). 

One specimen from Nikko taken by a native collector 
who also obtained an example in the island of Kiushiu. I 
met with the species at Tsuruga in July. 

Distribution. North and South America ; West 
Indies ; Africa ; China ; Sikhim ; Bombay ; Nilgiris ; 
Australia {Hampson) ; Japan ; Kiushiu. 

1985. Pyrausta discimaculalis. 

Pyrausta discimaculalis, Hampson, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
1900, p. 397. 

Distribution. Amurland; Japan. 

1986. Pyrausta rufalis, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 12.) 

Primaries rufous-brown with an obscure yellowish dot in the cell ; 
ante- and postmedial lines blackish, the first indented below the 
middle, and the second elbowed below a yellow, elongate, costal 
spot, the inner edge of which it defines ; fringes dark grey with a 
black line at their base, marginal line pale grey. Secondaries blackish 
with a black discal dot and a yellow postmedial band ; the latter 
commences below the costa, and is tapered and curved towards the 
abdominal margin, where it terminates at about one-third from the 
anal angle ; fringes pale ochreous marked with black at anal angle 
and at end of vein 2. Under surface similar to above, but the inner 
margin of all the wings is suffused with yellow, and the costal spot 
of primaries is continued as a band almost to inner margin. 

Expanse 25 millim. 

Three specimens from Ta-chien-lu. May and June. 
Habitat: Western China. 

R. S. 

1987. Pyrausta quadrimaadalis, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 13.) 

Primaries brown, slightly suffused with greyish, a yellow spot on 
the costa towards apex ; postmedial line blackish but not clearly 
TRANS. ENT. SOC. LOND. 1901. — PART IV. (DEC.) 34 



508 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

defined, outwardly bordering the costal spot, thence inwardly oblique 
to the inner margin. Secondaries brown, inclining to blackish, a 
black discal dot ; a yellow postmedial lunular fascia, not extending 
to the costa or inner margin. Fringes of primaries of the ground 
colour, those of the secondaries pale ochreous. Under surface similar 
to above, but the primaries have a yellow discal dot, and the costal 
spot is continued as a band almost to the inner margin ; inner margin 
yellow between the band and the inner margin of the wing. 
Expanse 23 millim. 

One male specimen from Chia-kou-ho, taken in July. 
Habitat. Western China. 
Possibly a form of P. rnfalis. 

R. S. 

1988. Pyrausta thibetalis. 

Pyrausta thibetalis, Oberth., Etud. d'Entom., xi, p. 35, 
pi. ii, fig. 6. 

Described from Ta-tsien-lou.. 

A fine series from Ta-chien-lu and one example from 
Moupin. June and July. 

Habitat. Western China. 

1989. Pyrausta oberthuri, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 11.) 

Primaries purplish-brown, secondaries black ; a yellow postmedial 
line on each wing, that on the secondaries rather expanded towards 
the costa ; fringes of primaries brown, of secondaries whitish. Under 
surface pale ochreous ; primaries have a black discoidal spot and sub- 
marginal band, the area beyond the band golden-brownish ; second- 
aries have the basal area suffused with blackish and the outer 
marginal area golden-brown, traversed by a darker band-like shade. 

Expanse 18 millim. 

Seven specimens, taken at Ta-chien-lu in May or June. 
Habitat. Western China. 

Differs from P. thibetalis, Oberth., in having paler and 
narrower transverse lines. 

RS. 

1990. Pyrausta sikkima. 

Porphyrias sikkima, Moore, Lep. Atk., p. 207 (1888). 
Pyrausta maculata, Butl., 111. Typ. Lep. Het, vii, p. 93, 

pi. cxxxiv, fig. 16 (1889). 
Pyrausta sikkima, Hampson, Fauna Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, 

p. 430 (1896). 



Heterocera from China, Japan, and Corea. 509 

Specimens were received from Ichang, Wa-ssu-kow, and 
Ta-chien-lu, and I obtained one example at Tsuruga in 
June ; the latter has rather smaller orange markings than 
the Chinese specimens, and the subbasal mark is almost 
obsolete. 

Distribution. D harms ALA ; Sikhim ; Nagas ; Anda- 
mans (Hampson) ; Central and Western China ; 
Japan. 

1991. Pyrausta mandarinalis, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 18.) 

Primaries dark grey-brown powdered with black scales, some 
orange scales on the costa, and an orange spot on basal area below the 
median nervure ; postmedial line orange, grey on the costa, barely 
traceable towards inner margin, edged externally with black and 
united with a black-rayed orange spot at end of the cell ; fringes 
blackish, extreme tips grey. Secondaries black with an orange 
medial band, contracted below the middle and not extending to 
either costa or inner margin ; an orange dot on the submarginal area 
near vein 2 ; fringes pale ochreous, black between veins 2-4. Under 
surface similar to that of P. sikkima, Moore, but with an orange spot 
at inner angle of primaries, and an orange suffusion near the anal 
angle of secondaries. 

Expanse 18 millim. 

Ten specimens from Ta-chien-lu, taken in May and 
June. 

Habitat. Western China. 

Very near P. sikkima, but the abdomen is not ringed 
with orange, and the postmedial markings are differently 
formed. 

K. S. 

1992. Pyrausta tortualis, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 17.) 

Primaries brownish -black, an orange yellow spot on the inner 
margin near the base of the wing, one in the cell, one near the centre 
of the wing, a large one at end of the cell, and one on inner margin 
near the angle ; from the latter there are some orange-yellow specks 
indicating a submarginal line ; the costa is orange-yellow marked 
with the ground colour, and the fringes are yellowish towards apex 
and blackish towards the inner angle. Secondaries have an orange- 
yellow spot about the same size as that at end of the cell on primaries, 
and a biangulate line beyond, the abdominal margin streaked with 
orange-yellow towards the base ; fringes yellowish. Under surface 



510 Mr. J. H. Leech on 

similar to above, but the base of the secondaries is orange-yellow, and 
there is a dash of the same colour at the base of the costa. 
Expanse 20 millim. 

One example from Chow-pin-sa and one from Ta- 
chien-lu. 
Habitat. Western China. 

R. S. 

1993. Pyrausta ptcnctilinealis, sp. n. (Plate XIV, fig. 14.) 

Primaries brown dusted and clouded with blackish ; a pale ochreous 
spot in the cell, a larger one below it extending to inner margin, a 
quadrate ochreous spot at end of the cell, and a somewhat similar one 
on the costa towards the apex ; from the lower end of the subapical 
spot there is a sinuous ochreous line terminating on the inner margin ; 
a golden-brown marginal line with black dots upon it ; fringes 
blackish with paler tips. Secon